Spatial Patterns of Poverty in Vietnam and Laos


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Presented at the Basin Focal Project Poverty Mapping Workshop, November 2007, Chiang Mai, Thailand

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Spatial Patterns of Poverty in Vietnam and Laos

  1. 1. CCR “North-South” petence in Research - NC Welfare distributions in space R Spatial Patterns of Poverty Swiss National Cen of Comp in Vietnam and Laos nter Michael Epprecht N Chiang Mai; October 31 - November 2 2007 2,
  2. 2. ‘Measuring’ Poverty Expenditure approach total household per capita consumption, including the value of home production Poverty Rate (share of population below a specific ‘poverty line’) poverty line )
  3. 3. Spatial aspects of human welfare Poverty map of Vietnam: Vi t » Based on 1998 VLSS Poverty rate (% of population » Sample of 6000 below the poverty line) t li ) households Representative at regional level only
  4. 4. Small Area Estimation Combine information from two data sources to generate expenditure data for the whole population: Sample survey data, and Census data » Use household survey data to predict household per capita expenditure using household characteristics » Apply coefficients to same household characteristics in census sample survey data set census data set » Aggregate from household to -“small area” such as district v1 v’1 - β1 β1 or -commune2 v2 β - v’2 β2 ... y ... ^ y βn βn - vn - v’n
  5. 5. Model applied to Vietnam Household size and Housing composition p » House type » Household size » Living area » Proportion of elderly » Type of roof » Proportion of children » Type of floor f fl » Proportion of females » Type of water source Education » Type of toilet » Education of head of household » Electricity » Education of spouse Characteristics of head of Ownership of assets household h h ld » Radio » Ethnicity » Television » Occupation Location » Urban/Rural » Elevation and coordinates
  6. 6. Poverty in Vietnam and L d Laos
  7. 7. Where are the poor? ABSOLUTEdensity of Population number PERCENTAGE of people below poverty p pp population below y p line poverty line (“poverty density”) (poverty incidence)
  8. 8. Poverty rates & poverty density Althoughg upland areas have higher poverty rate rate, most of the poor live in deltas and along coast d l t Poverty assistance ss s ce should not be limited to poorest areas
  9. 9. Poverty in Laos
  10. 10. The geography of poverty and inequality Poverty rates highest in “remote rural highlands” g
  11. 11. Poverty rates ethnic majorities minorities
  12. 12. Poverty rates Spatial variation in l ti hi i relationships: Influence of annual rainfall on district-level poverty incidence.
  13. 13. Conclusions - Methodology Poverty mapping method y pp g » Statistical method produces spatially highly disaggregated estimates of p y g y gg g poverty that are generally considered to be more g y reliable and consistent than those from the administrative reporting system
  14. 14. Conclusions - Methodology Poverty mapping method (cont.) y pp g ( ) » But, the method: does not produce reliable information below p the commune/ village level combination with local participatory approaches p p y pp is very data intensive, i.e. cannot easily be updated frequently limitations of the method in the face of mass migration (maps qu c y ou d ed?) g o ( ps quickly outdated?)
  15. 15. Acknowledgements Vietnam: Minot, N.; Baulch, B. and Epprecht, M. (2006) Poverty and inequality in Vietnam — Spatial Patterns and geographic determinants. IFPRI research report #148 International Food Policy #148, Research Institute, Washington DC. p fp g p Laos: DRAFT RESULTS of a project on ‘Poverty mapping in Lao PDR’ please do not quote or reproduce