Livestock Water Productivity: Lessons relevant to the BFPs


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Presented at the Pre-Forum BFP meeting, 7-8 November, 2008 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Livestock Water Productivity: Lessons relevant to the BFPs

  1. 1. Livestock Water Productivity: Lessons relevant to the BFPs CPWF International Forum on Water & Food Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-14 November 2008 1 (A CPWF PN37 output)
  2. 2. Livestock are important water users in drier CPWF basins Livestock production covers more area than crop production. More water depleted through livestock systems. Livestock consume more food than people. Livestock largely ignored in water management. Livestock and crop water productivity low – Especially in rainfed areas. Major livestock water productivity increases possible. Gains: Food, livelihoods, poverty reduction, ecosystem services. 2
  3. 3. What is livestock water productivity (An entry point for INRM, IWRM & IRBM) LWP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) ∑(Depleted water) Benefits: Meat, milk, hides, traction power, manure, eggs, whole animal sales, drought security, wealth savings, etc. Depleted water: Transpiration, evaporation, discharge & contamination. Units: US$/m3 – Better alternatives? 3
  4. 4. Basic water accounting framework River basin Surface Transpiration in-flow Watershed Depletion In - flow Community Household & farm Non- Herd productive Rain losses Animal Agriculture Ground + ecosystem water Infiltration Benefits**
  5. 5. Four LWP improving strategies: Watering sites Transpiration 1. Select Grain Residues 2. Enhance low water By-products animal Surface cost feed Fodder production in-flow Pasture In - flow Imported feed 3. Conserve Other losses water Discharge Evaporation Rain 4. Strategic Contamination Livestock watering Meat, milk, Ground hides, traction, water Infiltration manure, etc.
  6. 6. Example LWP estimate Mixed crop-livestock farms Blue Nile highlands: (Curtis 2007) Net-back analysis Economic price for water Activity’s economic revenue and cost Does activity benefit exceed water cost? Addresses water-use tradeoffs Is activity economically viable? 6
  7. 7. Example LWP estimate Mixed crop-livestock farms Blue Nile highlands: (Curtis 2007) Net Back Value of Water Mean (USD/m3) Irrigated 0.33 Livestock Rainfed 0.19 Total 0.27 Irrigated 0.09 Crop Rainfed 0.08 Total 0.09 7
  8. 8. Other examples in LWP session next Wednesday 8
  9. 9. CPWF experience: LWP – Useful communication tool. – Helps systematic thinking about livestock & water. – Useful within systems to compare management practices and intervention options. – Suggests limits to system improvement. – Huge increases possible But: – Cross system comparisons questionable. – Need to disaggregate animal species. – Trends more important than numbers. – LWP: Only a partial WP. 9
  10. 10. What next? R&D challenges Move from LWP to MUWP. Start at system scale – not livestock scale. Standardize definitions & methods within scales. • Manure, crop residues, roots – To partition or not? • Spatial & temporal boundaries • Denominator – price? volume? or? • Numerator – monetary units? Kg? DW? or? • Gender disaggregation. • Production vs productivity? Split ET into E and T Coherent methods across scales. Institutional and policy research. 10
  11. 11. Evidence suggests: 100 to 1000% LWP increases possible. Simultaneous adoption of LWP strategies. Potential contribution high: – Rainfed & irrigated systems – Multiple uses of water – Benefit sharing – Adapting to and mitigating climate change. LWP related to poverty, land tenure, markets & land degradation, use, and potential. 11
  12. 12. Thank you! 12