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Linkages between Fisheries, Poverty and Growth: Bangladesh Case Study

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A Report Prepared for the Programme …

A Report Prepared for the Programme
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  • 1. APPENDIX E Bangladesh Case Study
  • 2. LINKAGE BETWEEN FISHERIES, POVERTY AND GROWTH: BANGLADESH CASE STUDY Source: Internet A Report Prepared for the Programme of Advisory and Support Services and DFID PASS Award of Contract: AG0213H APRIL 2005 Final Version
  • 3. STUDY TEAM Dr. Md Ferdous Alam 11- D Green Austral Apt. 2 Outer Circular Road Maghbazar, Dhaka – 1217 Bangladesh E-1
  • 4. SUMMARY The document This is a Bangladesh case study investigating into the linkage between fisheries, poverty and growth. It is prepared for IDDRA and is expected to serve as background material for DFID’s initiative to increase the contribution of fisheries to reducing poverty. It has examined current status and trend of the fishery system to assist in developing an understanding of the key role fisheries has played in the past, continues to play today and is likely to play in the future. The method This study has made use of the different published as well as unpublished literatures namely: research reports, survey and consultancy reports; journal articles, government documents and policy papers, economic surveys made by govt. departments, reports on fisheries of the research institutes and consulting firms, conference papers, documents of the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and the IMF. Two sector reviews namely, 1991 Fisheries Sector Review of the World Bank, and 2002 Fisheries Sector Review and Future Development Study jointly conducted by DFID, DANIDA, FAO and USAID had been of tremendous use. Information and data published by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and various Ministries such as Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Planning were extensively used. Resources and catch statistics of the Department of Fisheries were the basis of trend and growth analysis. In addition, personal experience of the author and peer consultations helped add many dimensions to the case study. Background Bangladesh appeared on the world map as an independent and sovereign state on 16 December 1971. The total area of the country is 147,570 square kilometer (56,977 sq. miles). Agriculture is the main occupation of the people employing 68.5% of the labour force. It contributes around 23% to the GDP. The estimated population of 2004 is about 135.2 million. The population density is 916 per square kilometer in 2004. The literacy rate in 2002 was estimated to be 62.66%. According to the latest census, about 77% of the total population lives in the rural areas and 23% lives in major cities. The current GDP per capita and GNI per capita are US$ 421 and US$ 444 respectively. Service sector dominates the GDP of Bangladesh centering on 49% during the last 6- 7 years. The contributions of agricultural and industrial sectors to GDP were 22.83% and 27.24% in 2002-03. The current shares of crop, fisheries, forestry and livestock sectors to agricultural GDP are 56.95%, 22.69%, 8.54% and 11.82% in 2003-04. The overall unemployment rate was estimated at 3.7% in LFS 1999. Unemployment rate in the urban areas is higher as compared to that of the rural areas. The trade balance has always been deficit during the last decade or so. Bangladesh is ranked 138th in the Human Development Report 2004, with a recent most HDI value of 0.509. E-2
  • 5. Poverty Situation Poverty is measured in Bangladesh using two approaches; of which the first method is based on Direct Caloric Intake (DCI). A household with a per capita caloric intake of less than 1805 k.cal per day is considered “hard core poor”, while a household with less than 2,122 k.cal per day per capita is considered as “absolute poor”. The second method is the cost-of- basic needs (CBN) method. According to the latest HIES 2000 report, 44.3 percent of the total population (55.9 million) was in absolute poverty level on a DCI basis including 20.0% hard core poor. Based on the CBN method, percentages of population under absolute and hardcore poverty in 2000 were 33.7% and 49.8% respectively. Interpreting in terms of CBN method, one out of every two citizens is absolutely poor; and two out of three of the poor are hardcore poor. The incidence of absolute poverty at national level has decreased to 33.7% in 2000 from that of 42.7% in 1991-92, according to the lower line of poverty. The same trend also holds for the upper poverty line, which decreased to 49.8% in 2000 from 58.8 in 1991-92. The incidence of poverty is the highest for households with agriculture, forestry and fisheries as the main occupation. Income gap between the poorest of the poor (bottom 5%) and richest of the rich (top 5%) is widening. During the last two decades, the National Gini Coefficient shows increasing trend (from o.36 to 0.42). The inequality is even more in the urban area. Major factors behind poverty in Bangladesh were identified to be the gender of the household head, the literacy level of the household head, skill level of the household head, the religion of the household, the size and location of the household (i.e. rural or urban), whether the household has electricity connection, whether the household is the recipient of female stipend, land ownership and income from assets owned were the asset and income variables. The vision of Bangladesh’s poverty reduction strategy is to substantially reduce poverty within next generation. For this, poverty reduction has been made the overarching development goal and Bangladesh’s commitment is to achieve the MDGs. Through adopting a comprehensive approach, the strategy visualizes that, by the year 2015, Bangladesh would achieve: (i) reduce the number of people living below the poverty line by 50%; (ii) attain universal primary education for all girls and boys of primary school age; (iii) eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education; (iv) reduce infant and under five mortality rates by 65%, and eliminate gender disparity in child mortality; (v) reduce proportion of malnourished children under five by 50% and eliminate gender disparity in child malnutrition; (vi) reduce maternal mortality rate by 75%; and (vii) ensure availability of reproductive health services to all women. Economic growth During the last 32 years (1972/73-2003/04) in the history of economic growth in Bangladesh, three successive time phases of policy changes can be clearly identified. Phase one starts from 1972/73 and goes up to 1977/78. These six years of post independence period can be identified as the phase of intensive intervention. Phase two goes from 1978/79 to 1989/90. Three development plans, namely the Two Year E-3
  • 6. Plan (1978/79-1979/80), the Second Five Year Plan (1980/81-1984/85) and the Third Five Year Plan (1985/86-1989/90) were implemented during this period. These 12 years can be identified as the initial phase of liberalization. Phase three starts from 1990/91 and goes up to 2003/04. During this phase the Fourth Five Year Plan (1990/91-1994/95) and the Fifth Five Year Plan (1997/98-2001/02) were implemented. These 15 years can be identified as a period of parliamentary democracy and a period of economic reform. The fisheries sector accounts for 5.15% of Bangladesh’s GDP in 2003-04. The GDP growth rates fluctuated in the eighties and first half of the nineties. It was the second half of the nineties and first 4 years of millennium which mark an average of more than 5 percent per annum. The overall growth rate of agriculture sector in the beginning of millennium year was very good, but it slowed down thereafter. Crops and vegetables showed declining trend while livestock continued to increase. Forestry sub-sector does not show any improvement keeping within roughly 4% per annum. Growth of fisheries sub sector was very impressive in the 1998-99 and 1999- 00 ranging between 9 and 10 percent. The sub-sector thereafter had a negative growth in 2000-01, mainly due to the September tragedy in 2001. Fisheries sector started recovering again thereafter and showing increasing trend of growth. Country’s fisheries export comprises frozen shrimp, frozen fish, dry fish, salted and dehydrated fish, turtle/tortoise, shark fin, fish maws and frog leg (exported till 1991- 92). Frozen shrimp and frozen fish are the main fisheries exportable items accounting for 79% and 19% respectively of the total quantity exported. Other items represent only 2% of the total fisheries quantities. This is 2nd important foreign exchange earner after ready made garments. During last two decades aquaculture contributed significantly to the fisheries sector. BFRI has played a very big role in this direction by developing 24 different fish culture technologies. The most important technology accepted widely for fish culture is carp polyculture, Pangas monoculture, shrimp and giant freshwater prawn culture and Genetically Improved Farmed Tiapia (GIFT) culture. Most of these are practiced in ponds. Over the last two decades productivity of ponds, baors and shrimp farms increased by 309%, 443% and 246% respectively. Development and growth of aquaculture is attributed to a variety of factors. Use of supplementary feed, wider supply of fingerlings and aquaculture extension effort of the DoF, BFRI, BAU, NGOs, projects of WorldFish. Center and MAEP of DANIDA were notable. Number of hatcheries and their capacities of producing hatchlings increased markedly during the last decades. Fisheries Development and Management Fishery resources in Bangladesh are mainly owned and managed by the public sector. Formal responsibilities for the sector are vested in the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MoFL) and are executed through the Department of Fisheries (DoF). National fisheries management, development, extension, training, conservation, quality control, law enforcement, policy advice, and information collection are the responsibilities of the DoF. Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (BFDC) is another related autonomous organization responsible for national development of marine fisheries, management of Kaptai Lake, and marketing and processing of fish. E-4
  • 7. Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) is a vital organization in fisheries having responsibility of national fisheries research on riverine fisheries, marine fisheries and aquaculture. Bangladesh fisheries are broadly classified into two categories, namely, (i) inland freshwater fisheries and (ii) Marine fisheries. Inland freshwater fisheries comprise Openwater capture fisheries and closed water culture fisheries. The country has a total fish production of 2.102 million tons during the 2003-04 comprising 34.83% from inland open waters (capture), 43.52% from inland closed waters (culture), and 21.66% from marine waters. The value of fish produced in 2003-04 is to the tune of TK. 126,122 million to TK. 147,143 million. There are about a total of 795 species of fish and shrimp available in Bangladesh waters comprising 284 freshwater fish species (including freshwater prawn) and 511 marine species. Full time equivalent of 5.2 million people or 9% of the labour force were involved in fisheries. Total value additions was estimated at Tk. 93,688 million comprising Tk 26,937 million (29%) from inland capture fisheries, Tk. 28,577 million (30%) from marine fisheries sub-sector, and Tk. 38,174 (41%) from inland and coastal aquaculture. The post harvest activities also generate a value added of Tk.38,356 million. Export quantity has increased from 23,048 metric ton in 1985-86 to 54,141 metric tons in 2003-04 while its value has increased from Taka 356.25 million to Taka 2363.47 million. Shrimp accounts for 79% of fish and fisheries product export in 2003-04. To increase fish production important strategies and intervention were: i) stock enhancement using carp fingerlings in lakes and floodplains, ii) alternative measures to restore and conserve natural fish populations, and iii) community-based approaches to management of inland fisheries. Fisheries is governed by four sets of laws and regulations. There is adequate number of regulations, laws and rules to protect and conserve the fisheries in Bangladesh. It is believed that no new laws or regulations are needed until the existing laws are effectively enforced. Fisheries statistics produced by the DoF has a number of problems. Production data appears to be upwards biased. Area statistics are very old and productivities so calculated are not free from flaws. Source to source variations exist which leads to problem for the users. Consumption statistics vary widely across sources. Information must pass through the executives. A lot of things are considered before releasing information. Moreover, capacity limitation of the departments constrain the generation of good data. All these limitations raise question about the reliability of generated data. Policy Making Fisheries were not looked upon as an important source of revenue by the indigenous rulers and it was ranked fourth after agricultural land, forestry and mineral resources. It was customary to allow open access to all the floodplains as long as no boundaries or other means of establishing ownership. The closed fisheries were under nominal control of the zamindars. These pre-colonial zamindars were primarily collectors of revenue and did not have proprietary rights on all lands under their jurisdiction. The Permanent Settlement Regulations was promulgated in 1793 which finally accepted E-5
  • 8. the principle of revenue collection through appointed agents. The British rulers got dismayed at the fixed system of rent when the need for revenue generation had increased manifold. The government of Bengal appointed a Land Revenue Commission in 1938 under the chairmanship of Sir Francis Floud to examine all relevant issues and make suitable recommendations. The Commission submitted its report in 1940 and majority of the members recommended the abolition of the zamindary system and assumption of all rent-receiving interests by the state. The government of East Pakistan accepted the Floud Commission Report and through the passage of Ease Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act (EBSATA) 1950 abolished the zamindary system in Bangladesh. Under the provisions of the Act, ownership and management of all Jalmahals were vested in the Government. The MoL, through a high powered Board of revenue, was put in charge of management of these newly acquired assets. In the 1950s, the government did not have many sources of revenue to lay its hand on. The clear mandate to the MoL, like the immediate past British rulers, was to maximize revenue from this source. With the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the access problem to fisheries started to assume new dimensions. With rising population and pervasive incidence of poverty in the early years of independent Bangladesh, large number of rural people flocked into inland fisheries for their livelihood. In 1974, govt. decided to restrict the auction of Jalmahals to the registered fishermen’s cooperatives only during the first round. To wards the end of 1970s, the undesirable effects of the dichotomy between ownership of resource by one entity and responsibility of preservation and biological management by another had become so obvious in the inland fisheries sub sectors that the govt. had to take some remedial action. In 1980, the concern for conservation of fish resources had convinced the highest political level to order a wholesale transfer of all Jalmahals from the MoL to the MoFL to facilitate the process of biological management of the fish resources. Within three years in 1983, government again reversed its earlier order and transferred the Jalmahals back to the MoL. A New Fisheries Management Policy (NFMP) was adopted in 1985. The policy aimed at achieving the twin objectives of stopping exploitation of the fishers by ijarders through new management practices and of ensuring proper conservation of the fish resources. Since the NFMP was developed by people connected with fisheries and not MoL, it contained huge improvements in certain areas compared to the previous policies. In 1991, there was a further change in the leasing procedure for the Jalmahals retained by the MoL under its control. Public auctioning was replaced by a system of sealed tenders restricted to fishermen’s cooperatives. In 1995, Government made an abrupt decision to abolish the leasing of the open Jalmahals. The Prime Minister, while inaugurating Fisheries Fortnight in 1995, made this sudden announcement, thus technically rendering the NFMP licensing system defunct. E-6
  • 9. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADB Asian Development Bank ADP Annual Development Plan AL Awami League (political party currently in opposition) BBS Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics BCAS Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies BELA Bangladesh Environment Lawyers Association BIAM Bangladesh Institute of Administration and Management BFDC Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation BFRI Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute BIDS Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies BKB Bangladesh Krishi Bank BNP Bangladesh Nationalist Party (political party currently in government) BRAC Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee BWDB Bangladesh Water Development Board CBN Cost of Basic Needs CBFM Community Based Fisheries Management CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CMR Child Mortality Rate CNRS Center for Natural Resources Studies CPI Consumer Price Index CRED Center for Rural Environment Development DANIDA Danish International Development Assistance DCI Direct Calorie Intake DFID Department for International Development DFO District Fisheries Officer DoF Department of Fisheries DoMF Department of Marine Fisheries EBSATA East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone ESBN Estuarine Set Bag Net FEI Food Energy Intake FFP Fourth Fisheries Project FAO Food and Agriculture Organizations FCD Flood Control and Drainage FCDI Flood Control Drainage and Irrigation FSRFDS Fisheries Sector Review and Future Development Study FY Financial Year FRG Federal Republic of Germany GDP Gross Domestic Product GNI Gross national Income GHARONI Grassroots Health and Rural Organisation for Nutrition Initiative GEF Global Environment Faciity GoB Government of Bangladesh GPRB Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh HDI Human Development Index HES Household Expenditure Survey HIES Household Income Expenditure Survey E-7
  • 10. HP Horse Power ICLARM International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management IDA International Development Agency IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development I-PRSP Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper IMF International Monetary Fund IMR Infant Mortality Rate IUCN International Union of for Conservation of Nature JMS Jatiyo Matshajibee Samitee LFS Labour Force Survey LGED Local Government Engineering Department MAEP Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project MDG Millennium Development Goals MoA Ministry of Agriculture MoF Ministry of Finance MoP Ministry of Planning MoL Ministry of Land MoY Ministry of Youth MACH Management of Aquatic Resources through Community Husbandry MoFE Ministry of Forest and Environment MSY Maximum Sustainable Yield MoFL Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock NFP National Fisheries Policy NFMP New Fisheries Management Policy NGO Non-government Organization NSAPR National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction OLP Ox-bow Lakes Project PAPR Partnership Agreements on Poverty Reduction PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper SADP Second Aquaculture Development Project SDC Society Development Committee SHISUK Shikkah Sastho Unnayan Kendra SUFO Senior Upazilla Fisheries Officer TFP Third Fisheries Project TFR Total Fertility Rate UNDP United Nations Development Programme USAID United States Agency for International Development UNDP United Nations Development Programme UFO Upazilla Fisheries Officer U5MR Under 5 Mortaity Rate E-8
  • 11. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Zilla Sub-regional administrative unit (District) Jatiya Sangsad National Assembly Aman A paddy crop grown in monsoon Aus A paddy crop grown in monsoon Boro A paddy crop grown in dry season Baor Ox-bow lake; a closed body of water isolated from river by a change in its course Beel Small lake, low lying depression, a permanent body of water in a floodplain or a body of water created by rains or floods that may or may not dry up in the dry season Floodplain The adjacent wetland around the natural depression i.e, beel, haor etc. which are largely being inundated by flood water during monsoon Fry Very young stage of fish formed from egg Haor A shallow lake or large low-lying depression in a floodplain that may be reduced to a series of beels during the dry season Jalmahal Fishery (waterbody) leased out by the government for revenue Jatka Juvenile hilsha Zaminder A landlord with whom land have been settled in perpetuity by the sovereign authority in lieu of fixed rent Diwani Right to collect revenue Jotdar A landed gentry Ijardar Leaseholder Mahajan Financier or money lenders Taka Bangladesh currency (US$1=Taka 63approximately in April 2005) Upazilla A level of administrative unit lower than district E-9
  • 12. CONTENTS SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................................................2 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...............................................................................................................7 GLOSSARY OF TERMS .......................................................................................................................................9 I. BACKGROUND........................................................................................................................14 1.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................14 1.2 NATURE OF GOVERNMENT .................................................................................................14 1.3 COUNTRY PROFILE .............................................................................................................14 1.4 NATIONAL POLICY PRIORITIES ...........................................................................................15 1.5 INDICATORS OF NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT STATUS .....................16 1.5.1 Population.....................................................................................................................16 1.5.2 Political.........................................................................................................................17 1.5.3 Social ............................................................................................................................18 1.6 POVERTY SITUATION ..........................................................................................................19 1.7 SECTORAL GDP TREND .....................................................................................................19 1.8 UNEMPLOYMENT ................................................................................................................20 1.9 BALANCE OF PAYMENT ......................................................................................................21 1.10 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX ...........................................................................................21 II. POVERTY SITUATION IN BANGLADESH........................................................................22 2.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................22 2.2 POVERTY DIMENSIONS AND MEASUREMENT .......................................................................22 2.3 EXTENT OF POVERTY AND ITS TREND .................................................................................22 2.4 DIFFERENCES IN POVERTY ESTIMATES ................................................................................24 2.5 REGIONAL INCIDENCE OF POVERTY ....................................................................................24 2.6 INCIDENCE OF POVERTY BY MAIN OCCUPATION OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD ............................25 2.7 INCOME AND ITS INEQUALITIES AMONG THE HOUSEHOLDS .................................................25 2.8 PER CAPITA CALORIE INTAKES ..........................................................................................28 2.9 DETERMINANTS OF POVERTY..............................................................................................28 2.10 BANGLADESH’S POVERTY TARGETS AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT GOALS ..........................29 III. ECONOMIC GROWTH OF BANGLADESH ..................................................................31 3.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................31 3.2 TIME PHASES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH OF BANGLADESH ....................................................31 3.3 AGGREGATE GROWTH STRUCTURE OF THE BANGLADESH ECONOMY ................................32 3.4 DISAGGREGATED GROWTH OF DIFFERENT SECTORS IN BANGLADESH ...............................33 3.5 CONTRIBUTION OF FISHERIES SECTOR IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF BANGLADESH .......35 3.6 POTENTIAL FOR ACHIEVING MDGS IN BANGLADESH ........................................................36 IV. FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN BANGLADESH ................37 4.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................37 4.2 FISHERIES INSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNANCE: ....................................................................37 4.3 FISHERIES RESOURCES AND FISH PRODUCTION ...................................................................37 4.3.1 Inland Openwater Capture Fisheries............................................................................38 4.3.2 Marine Fisheries ...........................................................................................................38 4.3.3 Inland Closed Water Fisheries (Aquaculture) ..............................................................39 4.3.4 Value of Produced Fish ................................................................................................39 4.4 FISH PRODUCTION TREND ..................................................................................................40 4.5 SPECIES ABUNDANCE AND COMPOSITION ..........................................................................41 4.6 CONTRIBUTION OF FISHERIES SECTOR: ...............................................................................42 4.6.1 Share in Gross Domestic Product.................................................................................42 4.6.2 Employment ..................................................................................................................43 4.6.3 Food security ................................................................................................................44 4.6.4 Value added of Fisheries...............................................................................................44 4.6.5 Fisheries Export............................................................................................................44 4.6.6 Women involvement in fisheries....................................................................................45 E-10
  • 13. 4.7 WAGES ...............................................................................................................................46 4.8 FISHERIES INTERVENTIONS FOR FISH PRODUCTION .............................................................46 4.8.1 The stocking programme...............................................................................................47 4.8.2 The Second Aquaculture Development Project.............................................................48 4.8.3 Third Fisheries Project (TFP) ......................................................................................48 4.8.4 Aquaculture Development Project (ADP).....................................................................48 4.8.5 Community Based Fisheries Management Project (CBFM).........................................48 4.8.6 Fourth Fisheries Project (FFP) ....................................................................................49 4.9 FISHERIES LAWS AND REGULATIONS..................................................................................50 4.10 STUDIES ON RESOURCES RENT: ..........................................................................................50 4.11 RELIABILITY OF FISHERIES STATISTICS ..............................................................................51 V. POLICY MAKING ...................................................................................................................52 5.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................52 5.2 FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND POLICY PROCESSES ...........................................................52 5.2.1 Before partition of Bengal.............................................................................................52 5.2.2 Partition to Independence.............................................................................................53 5.2.3 Access issue after independence of Bangladesh ...........................................................54 5.2.4 Leasing policy in the early years ..................................................................................54 5.2.5 Policy Shifts between 1980 and 1984............................................................................54 5.2.6 Transfer of Jalmahals from MoL to MoFL ...................................................................55 5.2.7 New Fisheries Management Policy...............................................................................55 5.2.8 Further Changes in Leasing System .............................................................................55 5.2.9 Open Access of Open Waterbodies ...............................................................................56 5.3 MARINE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT EFFORT .......................................................................56 5.4 CONFLICT BETWEEN FISHERIES POLICY AND SUPPORT SERVICES ......................................56 5.5 THE BANGLADESH POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY ........................................................59 5.5.1 Concept of Pro-poor Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction......................................60 5.5.2 Outlining the poverty reduction strategy ......................................................................60 5.5.3 The National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction (NSAPR) for fisheries........61 5.6 THE DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS AND THEIR ROLES IN FISHERIES......................................62 REFERENCES .....................................................................................................................................................65 APPENDIX-A ......................................................................................................................................................70 APPENDIX-B.......................................................................................................................................................74 APPENDIX-C.......................................................................................................................................................76 E-11
  • 14. LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1.1 PER CAPITA GDP AND GNP OVER TIME ............................................................................................18 TABLE 2.1 INCIDENCE OF POVERTY (HEAD COUNT RATIO) BY DCI METHOD ...................................................23 TABLE 2.2 INCIDENCE OF POVERTY (HEAD COUNT RATIO) BY CBN METHOD ..................................................23 TABLE 2.3 POVERTY GAP AND SQUIRED POVERTY GAP OF CBN METHOD ........................................................24 TABLE 2.4 COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING HEAD COUNT INDEX BY DIFFERENT METHODS ........................24 TABLE 2.5 INCIDENCE OF POVERTY (HEAD COUNT RATIO) BY REGIONS ...........................................................25 TABLE 2.6 INCIDENCE OF POVERTY ACCORDING TO MAIN OCCUPATION OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD ........................25 TABLE 2.7 HOUSEHOLD INCOME, INCOME PER MEMBER AND EARNER ...............................................................26 TABLE 2.8 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF INCOME OF HOUSEHOLDS BY DECILE GROUP .............................................26 TABLE 2.9 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF INCOME OF HOUSEHOLD BY SOURCES OF INCOME ......................................27 TABLE 2.10 PER CAPITA DAILY CALORIE INTAKE BY FOOD ITEMS ......................................................................28 TABLE 3.1 STRUCTURAL CHANGE AND TREND OF GROWTH OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF LARGE .......................32 SECTORS TO GDP OF BANGLADESH (CONSTANT PRICE, BASE YEAR: 1995/96) TABLE 4.1 AREA, CATCH AND PRODUCTIVITY BY SECTORS OF FISHERIES, 2003-04 ...........................................38 TABLE 4.2 VALUE OF FISH PRODUCED IN 2003-04 UNDER TWO PRICE SCENARIOS ..............................................40 TABLE 4.3 EXPONENTIAL GROWTH RATES OF FISH PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT FISHERIES............................41 TABLE 4.4 PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF INLAND AND MARINE FISHERIES ....................42 TABLE 4.5 EMPLOYMENT STATUS IN INLAND AND MARINE FISHERIES .................................................................43 TABLE 4.6 VALUE ADDED OF FISHERIES RESOURCES AT CURRENT PRICES ...........................................................44 TABLE 4.7 TREND OF EXPORT OF FISH AND FISH RELATED PRODUCT, BANGLADESH ............................................45 TABLE 4.8 WAGE RATE INDICES BY SECTORS (BASE 1969-70 = 100)..................................................................46 TABLE 5.1 RESOURCE ASSESSMENT ENDEAVOUR IN THE BAY OF BENGAL .........................................................57 TABLE 5.2 TARGETS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION AND FISHERIES BUDGET ........................58 TABLE 5.3 POLICY MATRIX FOR THE FISHERIES SECTOR AS OUTLINED IN THE PRSP..........................................64 E-12
  • 15. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Growth Rates of Population over Decades in Bangladesh……………………....…15 Figure 1.2 Map of Bangladesh……………………...………………………………………..16 Figure 1.3 Inequalities in Income over Years in Bangladesh……………..…...………….….17 Figure 1.4. Trend of Crop, Forestry, Livestock and Fishery Share to Agricultural GDP.......19 Figure 1.5 Trend in Unemployment Rate in Bangladesh……………………..…….………19 Figure 2.1 Inequality of Income over years in Bangladesh…………………………..……...26 Figure 3.1 Growth trends of different sub-sectors of Bangladeshi economy……….…..…...34 Figure 4.1 Trend of Fish Production in Bangladesh………………………..….………….....40 E-13
  • 16. 1 BACKGROUND 1.1 Introduction The territory constituting Bangladesh was under the Muslim rule for over five and a half centuries, from 1201 to 1757 A.D. Subsequently, it was under the subjugation of the British after the defeat of the last sovereign ruler, Nawab Sirajuddowla, at the Battle Plassey on the fateful day of June 23, 1757. The British ruled over the entire Indian sub-continent including this territory for nearly 190 years; from 1757 to 1947. During that period Bangladesh was a part of the British Indian provinces of Bengal and Assam. With the termination of the British rule in August, 1947 the sub- continent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. Bangladesh was then a part of Pakistan and was known as East Pakistan. It remained so about 24 years from August 14, 1947 to March 25, 1971. It appeared on the world map as an independent and sovereign state on December 16, 1971 (BBS, 2004). 1.2 Nature of Government A four-party alliance comprising of Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Jamat-E- Islam, the Jatiya Party and Islami Oikkojot; have formed the government of Bangladesh since June 2001. The major opposition party is the Awami League (AL). Bangladesh is governed by a Parliamentary form of government. The Prime-Minister is the chief executive of the country. S/he is selected by the president from the majority party leader. S/he has a council of ministers who assist him/her in the discharge of his/her duties. For the convenience of administration the country is divided into six administrative divisions, each placed under a Divisional Commissioner. Each division is further sub-divided into zillas (districts). After the administrative re-organization carried out in 1984, the country has been divided into 64 zillas. The administration of each zilla is headed by a Deputy Commissioner, who is assisted by other officials. The highest judiciary in the country is the Supreme Court headed by the Chief Justice. The constitution provides for a unicameral legislature, which is called Jatiya Sangsad (National Assembly). It consists of 300 members directly elected by adult franchise. The members of Jatiya Sangsad elect another 30 female members. Thus, the total number of members of the Jatiya Sangsad is 330 (BBS, 2001a). 1.3 Country Profile Bangladesh is a developing country located in the north eastern part of South Asia between 200 34 and 260 38 north latitude and between 880 01 and 920 41 east latitude. It is bounded by India in the north and west; by the Bay of Bengal in the south, and finally by part of India and Myanmar in the eastern side. The total area of the country is 147,570 square kilometer (56,977 sq. miles). The limits of territorial waters of Bangladesh are12 nautical miles and the area of the high sea extending to 200 nautical miles measured from the base lines constitute the economic zone of the country. E-14
  • 17. A wide portion of the land is covered by large rivers such as the Padma, the Jamuna, the Teesta, the Meghna, the Brahmaputra, and the Surma. There are also thousands of tributaries with a total length of about 24,140 km. Those rivers are connected to the Bay of Bengal. The total forest area is about 13.36% of the land area. The climatic condition is of sub-tropical monsoon climate (BBS, 2001a). Agriculture is the main occupation of the people employing 68.5% of the labour force. It contributes around 23% to the GDP. Except for the hilly regions in the north-east and the south-east, some areas of high lands in the north and north western part; the country consists of low, flat and fertile land. Rice, wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, oilseeds, pulses and potatoes are the principal crops. Cultivated areas per farm and per capita area are 1.50 acres (0.60 ha) and 0.14 acres (0.05 ha) respectively. Gross cropped area is 28,616 thousand acres (11,585 thousand ha), which comprises 36.86% of aman rice, 14.5% of aus rice, 21.45% of boro rice; 4.56% of jute, 1.15% of sugarcane and 5.32% of wheat. Cropping intensity is 174% and about half of the cultivated area is irrigated (BBS, 2005). 1.4 National Policy Priorities Since independence, Bangladesh is guided generally by Five Year Plans (FYPs). Every plan, five yearly or otherwise, of the government has aimed at reducing widespread poverty. Achieving equitable economic growth for poverty alleviation is generally accepted to be the overriding goal of the government’s developmental efforts in Bangladesh (Mahmud, 2002). With the constitutional obligation of developing and sustaining a society in which the basic needs of all people are met and every person can prosper in freedom and cherish the ideals and values of a free society, the vision of Bangladesh’s poverty reduction strategy is to substantially reduce poverty within the next generation. For this, poverty reduction has been made the overarching development goal and Bangladesh’s commitment is to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and targets set in the Partnership Agreements on Poverty Reduction (PAPR) with the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Through adopting a comprehensive approach, the strategy visualizes that Bangladesh would achieve the following targets by the year 2015 (MoF, 2002): (i) Reduce the number of people living below the poverty line by 50%; (ii) Attain universal primary education for all girls and boys of primary school age; (iii) Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education; (iv) Reduce infant and under five mortality rates by 65%, and eliminate gender disparity in child mortality; (v) Reduce proportion of malnourished children under five by 50% and eliminate gender disparity in child malnutrition; (vi) Reduce maternal mortality rate by 75%; and (vii) Ensure availability of reproductive health services to all women E-15
  • 18. 1.5 Indicators of National Characteristics and Development Status 1.5.1 Population The estimated population of 2004 is about 135.2 million and according to the census carried out in 2001, the population was 130.03 million. The growth rate of population in 1981 was 2.31%, which decreased gradually to 2.04% in 1991, 1.41% in 2001; but subsequently increased to 1.5% in 2004 (MoF, 2004). This upward tendency of growth is mainly due to the reduction of government’s support for family planning initiatives (Table A.1.1, Appendix-A; also shown in Figure-1.1). 2.40% 2.20% Growth Rate (%) 2.00% 1.80% 1.60% 1.40% 1.20% 1.00% 1981 1991 2001 2004 Year Figure 1.1 Growth Rates of Population over Decades in Bangladesh The population density is 916 per square kilometer in 2004. This is an extremely high density and so Bangladesh faces many constraints in developing the standard of living of her population. The male-female ratio, as per the 2001 census is 106 (BBS, 2005). Of the total labor force 62.30% are farmers, 30.10% are miscellaneous laborers and only 7.5% constitutes the industrial laborers (manufacturing, electricity, gas). The literacy rate in 2002 was estimated to be 62.66% (MoF, 2004). Dhaka is the capital, and the largest metropolitan cities of the country. Chittagong, the port city, is the second largest metropolis. Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal and Sylhet are other major towns. According to the latest census, about 77% of the total population lives in the rural areas and 23% lives in major cities. The coastal areas of Bangladesh include Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Feni, Lakhshipur, Noakhali, Borguna, Bhola, Barisal, Jhalokati, Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Bagerhat, Satkhira, Khulna (Figure 1.2); and the percentage of population in these areas constitute 22.2% with a population density of 699 per square kilometer (Table A.1.2, Appendix-A). For non- coastal areas, the percentage of population is 77.8% and the population density is 890 per square kilometer. Therefore, concentration of population is predominantly seen near the non-costal areas than the coastal areas. E-16
  • 19. Bay of Bengal Figure 1.2 Map of Bangladesh 1.5.2 Political The political environment of the country is extremely unstable. ADP-GOB (2004) mentioned……. “The economy of Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable economies in the world which is characterized by an extremely high population density, low resource base high incidence of natural disasters, and persistent political instability during most of the period after Independence”. Chowdhury (2002) remarked “…..social instability caused by corruptions, cheating, extortion of money, robbery, abduction, eviction, violence at meetings, processions, hartals etc. and other E-17
  • 20. organized crimes form an important component of daily news of the local dailies in recent years. These untoward events have spread to such a scale that Bangladesh hits newspaper headlines recently by being one of the most corrupt and crime hit countries of the world. The most worrying aspect of these phenomena is that these menaces have been on the rise without any sign of being abated. This has cast a shadow of gloom in the society” He further mentioned that about 2.0 to 3.0 percent GDP growth rate per annum is reportedly sacrificed at the altar of corruption alone. 1.5.3 Social Socio-economic If looked at from a socio-economic context, both the GDP per capita and GNI per capita have increased over time to US$ 421 and US$ 444 respectively (MoF, 2004; BBS, 2005). The increase in GNI from the previous year was significant (Table 1.1). Table 1.1 Per capita GDP and GNP over time Per Capita 1997-98 1999-2000 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 (US$) (US$) (US$) (US$) (US$) GDP 354 368 361 389 421 GNI 365 381 378 411 444 Sources: MoF (2004): Bangladesh Economic Survey 2004 for figures of 2004 BBS (2005): Statistical Pocketbook Bangladesh 2003 for all other figures However, the income distribution is very unfair. The gap in income between the poorest of the poor (bottom 5%) and richest of the rich (top 5%) is widening. In 1995-96 the income of the top 5% of the household was 23.6%, which was about 27 times the income accrued to the lowest 5% households, who shared only 0.67% of the income. On the contrary, in 2000, income share of the top 5% of the households has increased to 30.7%, which was about 46 times of the income accruing to the lowest 5% of the household (BBS, 2003). The Gini coefficients show increasing trend during the last two decades indicating the widening of income gap. Urban income inequality is higher than the rural areas (Figure 1.3). 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 National Gini Coefficient 0.43 Rural Gini Coefficient Gini coefficient 0.42 Urban Gini Coefficient 0.41 0.4 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.32 1983-84 1985-86 1988-89 1991-92 1995-96 2000 Years Figure 1.3 Inequalities in Income over Years in Bangladesh E-18
  • 21. Education To be in line with the MDG, government aims at ensuring primary education for all by 2015. The total government expenditure on education has been on the increase from the previous year. Per capita total public expenditure on education has also been on the increase. The adult literacy rate of population above 15 years for both sexes is 51% and the trend is on the increase. Net primary enrolment as well as women’s economic participation has gone up significantly; and gender parity has been achieved in primary and secondary education (Planning Commission, 2004). Health The average life expectancy is 68.3 years (72.8 years in urban areas and 66.7 years in rural areas) in 2001 showing an increasing trend from 56.3 years in 1992. The IMR (infant mortality rate) is 56 in every thousand children born. The crude birth rate and death rates are 19 and 5 respectively. All these demonstrate improvement over time. Patient per bed in the government hospitals in 2003 was estimated at 4109, and number of person per registered doctor was 3866. Ninety seven percent take fresh drinking water; and 41.22% use proper sanitary latrines. Per capita government expenditures on health and family planning have been on the increase: from Taka 151 in 1999 to Taka 182 in 2002 (BBS, 2005). 1.6 Poverty Situation Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries of the world. One out of every two of its citizens is absolutely poor on the basis of cost-of-basic needs (CBN); and two out of three of the poor are hard core poor (Ahmed et al. 2002). In 2000, percentages of population living below absolute poverty line (2122 k. cal/day/person) and hard core poverty line (1805 k. cal/day/person) were 33.7 and 49.8 respectively (Head count ratio, CBN method (BBS, 1998; and BBS, 2001b). 1.7 Sectoral GDP Trend There are three broad sectors of economy in Bangladesh: agriculture, industry and services. Service sector dominates the GDP of Bangladesh; it centers on 49% during the last 6-7 years. The contribution of agricultural sector to GDP was 22.83% in 2003-04, registering a decline from 25.87% in 1996-97. Share of industry has gone up from 24.87% in 1995-96 to 27.24% in 2002-03 (Table A.1.3, Appendix-A). During the last three decades contribution of crop sector has been on the decline. The share of crop sector to agricultural GDP was the highest (85.70%) in 1974-75, which has fallen to 73.36% in 1979-80, 60.31 in 1995-96, 55.95% in 2000-01 and finally to 56.95% in 2003-04. On the other hand, share of fisheries sector in agricultural GDP has increased by more than three times from 6% in 1974-75 to 19% in 2000-01, and finally 22.69% in 2003-04 (Table A.1.4, Appendix-A and Figure 1.4). Contribution of livestock sub-sector to agricultural GDP kept on remaining lower than fisheries following 1990-91, while the trend was just the reverse from 1977-78 to 1985-86. Before 1985-86, both these sectors were performing hand to hand. (Table A.1.4, Appendix-A, and Figure 1.4) E-19
  • 22. 100 S Crop h 90 Forestry a 80 Livestock r 70 Fishery e 60 50 % 40 30 20 10 0 1972/73 1973/74 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79 1979/80 1980/81 1981/82 1982/83 1983/84 1984/85 1985/86 1986/87 1987/88 1988/89 1989/90 1990/91 1991/92 1992/93 1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 Year Figure 1.4. Trend of Crop, Forestry, Livestock and Fishery Share to Agricultural GDP 1.8 Unemployment There has been a significant increase in the rate of unemployment in both the male and female population since the Labour Force Survey (LFS) conducted in 1989. The overall unemployment rate has increased to 3.7% in LFS 1999 from only 1.2% in LFS 1989. Unemployment rate in the urban areas is higher as opposed to that of the rural areas. For example, in the 1999 LFS (BBS, 2004), unemployment rate for both sexes in the urban areas was 5.5%; whereas it was 3.2% in the rural area (Table A.1.5, Appendix-A and Figure 1.5). Both Sex Male 3.8 Female 3.7 3.6 2.5 2.7 2.3 1.9 2 1.9 1.2 1.3 1 1989 1990-91 1995-96 1999-2000 LFS Figure 1.5 Trend in Unemployment Rate in Bangladesh E-20
  • 23. 1.9 Balance of Payment The trade balance has always been deficit during the last 6-7 years and the amount of deficit was the highest in FY 2002-03. In 1996-97, the trade deficit was US$ 2113 million, whereas the same in 2003-04 has increased to US$ 2207 million (MoF, 2004). Current account balance remained negative till 2000-01 after which it became not only surplus but also shows increasing trend. Balance of payments fluctuated over the last 6-7 years, but following financial year 2000-01 it started becoming a surplus. (Table A.1.6, Appendix-A). 1.10 Human Development Index Bangladesh is ranked 138th in the Human Development Report 2004, with a recent most HDI value of 0.509 (Table A.1.7, Appendix-A). This value can be compared to the best and worst performer in South Asian region. The best performer Maldives has a HDI value of about 47.7% higher than Bangladesh; while the worst performer in the same region, Pakistan has a 2.36% lower HDI value than Bangladesh (UNDP, 2004). This indicates that the human development status of Bangladesh is far off from the best performer. However, the hope lies in the fact that Bangladesh has shown a steady growth trend in HD indices since 1985 to 2002. Bangladesh is ranked 126th in terms of life expectancy, 140th in terms of combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio; and 138th in terms of GDP per capita (Table A.1.8, Appendix-A). E-21
  • 24. 2 POVERTY SITUATION IN BANGLADESH 2.1 Introduction This chapter provides a review of poverty situation of Bangladesh. The nature and extent of poverty, its trend, measurement approaches, national and regional distribution, factors affecting poverty and poverty reduction strategy of the government and so on have been discussed. 2.2 Poverty dimensions and measurement Poverty is a state of non-fulfillment of minimum requirements of food, shelter, fuel, clothing etc. that is basic needs. It has manifold expressions, many dimensions and, indeed, many roots. Given the multidimensionality, all routes: income and non- income matter for combating poverty in the country. Poverty seen in this context cannot be conceived as something reducible or summarily expressible in terms of quantitative indicators alone. What is critical is to recognize the heterogeneity of voices and perspectives expressed in economic as well as socio-cultural terms such as class, gender, caste, ethnicity, and community. Poverty is measured in Bangladesh using two approaches; of which the first method is based on Direct Caloric Intake (DCI). A household with a per capita caloric intake of less than 1805 k.cal per day is considered “hard core poor”, while a household with less than 2,122 k.cal per day per capita is considered as “absolute poor” BBS (2003). The second method is the cost-of- basic needs (CBN) method. To be considered as poor, a household must have a per capita expenditure below a given poverty line. DCI and CBN methods have been used to measure the extent of poverty in the latest Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) of Bangladesh. In earlier household expenditure surveys (HES), up to 1991-92, BBS used both Food Energy Intake (FEI) and DCI methods for measuring the incidence of poverty in the country. This is the second times in HES series of BBS that CBN method had been used to measure incidence of poverty. (B.2.1., Appendix-B, for details of the poverty estimation methods) 2.3 Extent of poverty and its trend The latest available estimate for poverty is for the year 2000, when 44.3 percent of the total population was estimated to be in absolute poverty level on a DCI. The corresponding figure for population was 55.9 million. This 44.3% absolute poor includes 20.0% hard core poor, who consume only 1805 k.cal/day/person (Table 2.1). Based on the CBN method, percentages of population under absolute and hardcore poverty in 2000 were 33.7% and 49.8% respectively (Table 2.2). Interpreting in terms of CBN method, one out of every two citizens is absolutely poor; and two out of three of the poor are hardcore poor (Ahmed et. al., 2002). Over the last 10 years (during mainly nineties), the incidence of absolute poverty at national level has decreased to 33.7% in 2000 from that of 42.7% in 1991-92, according to the lower line of poverty. The same trend also holds for the upper poverty line, which decreased to 49.8% in 2000 from 58.8 in 1991-92. Poverty ratio, as measured by E-22
  • 25. CBN, fell by about one percentage point per year during the 1990s (Table 2.2). The incidence of poverty in rural areas is more for both poverty lines I & II. Table 2.1 Incidence of Poverty (Head Count Ratio) by DCI Method Poverty Line I Poverty Line II Year Absolute Poverty Level Hard Core Poverty Level (2122 k.cal/day/person) (1805 k.cal/day/person) Population (million) % of Population Population (million) % of Population National 1983-84 58.4 62.6 34.3 36.8 1985-86 55.3 55.7 26.7 26.9 1988-89 49.7 47.8 29.5 28.4 1991-92 51.6 47.5 30.4 28.0 1995-96 55.3 47.5 29.1 25.1 2000 55.9 44.3 25.2 20.0 Urban 1983-84 7.3 67.7 4.0 37.4 1985-86 7.9 62.6 3.8 30.7 1988-89 6.3 47.6 3.5 26.4 1991-92 6.8 46.7 3.8 26.3 1995-96 9.6 49.8 5.2 27.3 2000 13.3 52.5 6.3 25.0 Rural 1983-84 51.1 61.9 30.2 36.7 1985-86 47.4 54.6 22.8 26.3 1988-89 43.4 47.7 26.0 28.6 1991-92 44.8 47.6 26.6 28.3 1995-96 45.7 47.1 23.9 24.6 2000 42.6 42.3 18.9 18.7 Sources: BBS (1998) Household Expenditure Survey, 1995-96 BBS (2000) Preliminary Report of Household Income and Expenditure Survey –2000 Table 2.2 Incidence of Poverty (Head Count Ratio) by CBN Method Poverty Line I (Lower Line) Poverty Line II (Upper Line) Year Absolute Poverty Level Hard Core Poverty Level (1805 k. (2122 k. cal/day/person) cal/day/person) Urban Rural National Urban Rural National 1983-84 28.0 42.6 40.9 50.2 59.6 58.5 1985-86 19.9 36.0 33.8 42.9 53.1 51.7 1988-89 22.0 44.3 41.3 43.9 59.2 57.1 1991-92 23.3 46.0 42.7 44.9 61.2 58.8 1995-96 14.3 39.8 35.6 35.0 56.7 53.1 2000 19.1 37.4 33.7 36.6 53.0 49.8 Source: World Bank (1998), Bangladesh: From Counting the Poor to Making the Poor Count. BBS (2001) Preliminary Report of Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2000,. Table 2.3 presents information on the incidence of poverty and squared poverty gaps based on CBN methods in Bangladesh. The poverty gap (depth of poverty) provides information regarding how far off households are from poverty line. This measure captures the mean aggregate income or consumption shortfall relative to the poverty line across the whole population. The squared poverty gap (poverty severity) takes into account, not only the distance separating the poor from the poverty line (the poverty gap); but also the inequality among the poor. That is, a higher weight is placed on those households further away from the poverty line. The table reveals that E-23
  • 26. both the poverty gap and squared poverty gap show a declining trend for particularly the national and rural context, but as far as the urban area is concerned they declined from 1991 to 1995 showing an increasing trend thereafter. Table 2.3 Poverty Gap and Squired Poverty Gap of CBN Method Poverty Lines Year Poverty Gap (%) Squared Poverty Gap (%) National Rural Urban National Rural Urban Absolute poverty 1991 (Lower Poverty Line) 1995 7.6 8.6 2.6 2.5 2.8 0.7 2000 7.3 8.2 3.8 2.3 2.6 1.2 Hard Core Poverty 1991 17.2 18.1 12.0 6.8 7.2 4.4 (Upper Poverty Line) 1995 13.9 14.6 7.2 4.8 5.3 2.5 2000 12.9 13.8 9.5 4.5 4.8 3.4 Sources: BBS (2001) Preliminary Report of Household Income & Expenditure Survey-2000,. World Bank: Poverty Trends in Bangladesh during the nineties 2.4 Differences in poverty estimates Table 2.4 reveals that there exist sharp variations in the results of head count indices computed with different methodologies. The table shows national poverty estimates (head count index) in 2000, based on per capita income are more than 5 percentage points lower than those based on per capita consumptions (44.2% vs. 49.8%). A similar trend is also observed for rural and urban areas. Table 2.4 Comparative statement showing head count index by different methods Head Count Index (%) CBN Method Using Consumption Using Income DCI Year Residence Method Lower Lower Upper Upper Poverty Poverty Poverty Poverty Line Line Line Line National 44.3 33.7 49.8 30.6 44.2 2000 Rural 42.3 37.4 53.0 34.1 47.4 Urban 52.5 19.1 36.6 16.9 31.3 Source: BBS (2003) Household Income and Expenditure Survey- 2000 2.5 Regional incidence of poverty From the data of Table 2.5 it is evident that, under both measures of poverty, the districts in the Rajshahi Division are the most poverty stricken. Within the Rajshahi Division, incidence of poverty is less in urban areas than the rural areas. The second most poverty stricken area is the Khulna Division, in which it also follows the same urban-rural poverty pattern as that of Rajshahi Division. In these two regions, the incidence of poverty is even higher than the national poverty figure, under both measures. E-24
  • 27. Table 2.5 Incidence of poverty (Head Count Ratio) by Regions Poverty Line I (Lower Line) Poverty Line II (Upper Line) Absolute Poverty Level Hard Core Poverty Level Regions (2122 k. cals/day/person) (1805 k. cals/day/person) Urban Rural National Urban Rural National National 19.1 37.4 33.7 36.6 53.1 49.8 Barisal 19.5 29.6 28.8 37.9 40.0 39.8 Chittagong 23.3 25.3 25.0 44.0 48.4 47.7 Dhaka 12.0 41.7 32.0 28.2 52.9 44.8 Khulna 27.5 36.8 35.4 47.1 52.2 51.4 Rajshahi 32.3 48.8 46.7 48.1 62.8 61.0 Source: BBS (2003) Household Income and Expenditure Survey- 2000 Table 2.6 Incidence of poverty according to Main Occupation of Household Head Poverty Line I (Lower Line) Poverty Line II(Upper Line) Absolute Poverty Level Hard Core Poverty Level (1805 k. Main occupation of head (2122 k. cals/day/person) cals/day/person) Urban Rural National Urban Rural National Professional, technical and related 12.0 21.9 18.8 26.6 35.5 32.2 works Admin and management works 1.9 12.7 4.9 1.9 23.0 7.7 Clerical, related works and govt. 22.0 40.5 33.1 39.2 54.8 48.6 executives Sales workers 14.6 27.3 22.6 29.4 45.2 39.4 Service workers 29.6 39.4 35.9 53.5 56.2 55.2 Agriculture, forestry and fisheries 25.0 40.6 39.9 49.3 56.3 56.0 Production, transport and related 20.0 37.2 31.2 39.1 53.4 48.5 works Head not working 10.7 26.5 22.2 18.2 36.1 31.3 All 19.1 37.4 33.7 36.6 53.1 49.8 Source: BBS (2001b). Preliminary Report of Household Income Expenditure Survey-2000. p.29. 2.6 Incidence of Poverty by Main Occupation of Household Head Table 2.6 presents information about the incidence of poverty according to main occupation of household heads. It is clear that highest incidence of poverty are for households where the occupation of the head was agriculture, forestry and fisheries. This holds for both the lower and upper poverty lines. The incidence of poverty for the heads having agriculture, forestry and fisheries as occupations were 39.2% and 56% for the lower and upper poverty lines respectively. On the contrary, the lowest incidence of poverty (4.9%) was observed for households with head in administration and managerial works. There exists notable difference in terms of poverty incidence between urban and rural areas. 2.7 Income and its inequalities among the households Average monthly income per household at current prices was estimated to be Taka 5842, Taka 4816, and Taka 9878 at the national, rural and urban level respectively. Incomes per member were Taka 1128, Taka 928 and Taka 1926 at the national, rural E-25
  • 28. and urban level respectively. Incomes per earner were Taka 4029, Taka 3368 and Taka 6414 for the same levels respectively. In terms all the household income, income per member and income per earner; the 2000 level is higher than those of the 1995-96 and 1991-92, meaning that the trend is on the increase (Table 2.7). Table 2.7 Household Income, Income per member and earner HES Household Income Income per member Income per earner survey National Rural Urban National Rural Urban National Rural Urban year 2000 5842 4816 9878 1128 928 1926 4029 3368 6414 1995-96 4366 3658 7973 830 697 1504 2950 2505 5014 1991-92 3341 3109 4832 625 581 905 2421 2253 3501 Source: BBS (2003) Household Income and Expenditure Survey- 2000, p. 19 Table 2.8 Percentage Share of income of Households by Decile Group Decile of Household National Rural Urban (Household Income 2000 1995-96 2000 1995-96 2000 1995-96 Scale) Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Lowest 5% 0.67 0.88 0.75 1.00 0.63 0.74 Decile 1 1.84 2.24 2.08 2.56 1.70 1.92 Decile 2 3.13 3.47 3.55 3.93 2.81 3.20 Decile 3 3.96 4.46 4.45 4.97 3.60 4.06 Decile 4 4.77 5.37 5.34 5.97 4.46 4.98 Decile 5 5.68 6.35 6.23 6.98 5.37 5.97 Decile 6 6.84 7.53 7.42 8.16 6.43 7.20 Decile 7 8.32 9.15 8.87 9.75 7,86 8.98 Decile 8 10.40 11.35 10.88 11.87 10.06 11.35 Decile 9 14.30 15.40 14.50 15.58 14.10 16.29 Decile 10 40.72 34.68 36.62 30.23 43.56 36.05 Top5% 30.66 23.62 26.74 19.73 33.64 24.30 Gini-Coefficient 0.472 0.432 0.430 0.384 0.497 0.444 Source: BBS (2003) Household Income and Expenditure Survey- 2000, p. 21 Table 2.8 shows that income gap between the poorest of the poor (bottom 5%) and richest of the rich (top 5%) is widening as far as the income distribution is concerned. In 1995-96 the income share of the top 5% of the households was 23.6%, which was about 27 times higher than the income share of the lowest 5% of the households. In 2000, income share of the top 5% of the households went up to 30.7%, marking about 46 times that of the income of the lowest 5% of the households. E-26
  • 29. 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 National Gini Coefficient 0.43 Rural Gini Coefficient 0.42 Urban Gini Coefficient G in i c o e ffic ie n t 0.41 0.4 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.32 1983-84 1985-86 1988-89 1991-92 1995-96 2000 Years Figure 2.1 Inequality of Income over years in Bangladesh Although there has been growth in the economy inequality in income distribution still exists. Over the last two decades, the National Gini Coefficient has been increasing, which indicate that the inequality in the distribution of income has been on the increase. When the rural and urban Gini coefficient is compared, it is evident that the inequality is even more in the urban area. From the Figure 2.1 it is seen that somewhere between 1984, the Urban Gini coefficient was lower than the national inequality. However, after 1988-89 the inequality in urban areas exceeded the national coefficient. Ever since, the urban Gini coefficient is showing an increasing trend. The inequality in the rural area is the lowest. The national inequality in income displays a decreasing trend since1995-96. (Table B.2.2, Appendix-B) Contributions of different sources of income at national level, in order of importance in 2000 were professional’s wage of salary accounting for 29.4%, business and commerce (25.9%), agriculture (18%), gift remittances (10.9%), housing services (7.8%), and others (8.0%). The trend of contribution were declining for agriculture and increasing for business and commerce. Changes in contribution of the professional’s wage salaries were very minimal (Table 2.9). Table 2.9 Percentage Share of Income of Household by Sources of Income E-27
  • 30. HES/HIES Total Agriculture Business Professional Housing Gift Others and wages of services remittance commerce salary National 2000 100 18.3 25.9 29.4 7.8 10.9 8.0 1995-96 100 26.3 20.3 30.3 6.8 9.1 7.2 1991-92 100 33.4 14.8 24.3 9.4 10.3 7.8 Rural 2000 100 25.5 22.4 27.7 5.0 11.0 8.4 1995-96 100 35.4 14.7 27.7 6.5 9.6 6.1 1991-92 100 40.1 12.4 21.1 9.1 10.6 6.7 Urban 2000 100 3.7 32.4 32.6 13.1 10.6 7.5 1995-96 100 4.8 33.4 36.6 7.4 7.9 9.9 1991-92 100 5.9 24.7 37.9 11.0 9.1 11.4 Source: BBS (2003) Household Income and Expenditure Survey- 2000, p. 22 2.8 Per Capita Calorie Intakes Table 2.10 shows that average per capita per day intake of energy is 2240 k.cal in 2000, which is 0.62 % less than that of 1995-96. This decrease is mainly due to the receipt of low calorie food in urban area than the rural area. Rice constituted 75.4% of the calorie intake in 2000, while fish accounts for 2.4% of the total calorie intake. Calorie intakes are more in rural area. Table 2.10 Per Capita Daily Calorie Intake by Food Items National Rural Urban Food item groups 2000 1995-96 2000 1995-96 2000 1995-96 Cereals 1609.9 1758.8 1746.0 1804.5 1470.9 1528.2 Potato 53.8 44.0 53.1 41.5 56.6 56.4 Vegetables 78.6 72.5 80.5 74.4 71.0 63.0 Pulses 55.6 47.7 52.9 44.0 62.2 66.3 Milk/milk products 31.0 37.5 29.1 34.7 38.6 51.1 Edible oils 115.4 88.1 101.1 75.3 171.9 152.9 Meat, poultry, egg 24.4 19.7 20.4 16.0 39.8 38.9 Fish 53.1 63.6 51.5 59.7 59.4 83.4 Condiments and spices 53.1 38.0 51.2 37.0 60.2 43.2 Fruits 19.3 18.9 17.9 16.9 25.1 28.9 Sugar/gur 27.3 36.8 25.3 36.2 35.0 40.0 Miscellaneous 38.3 28.4 34.1 22.9 55.4 55.8 Total 2240.3 2254.0 2263.2 2263.1 2150.0 2208.1 Source: BBS (2003) Household Income and Expenditure Survey- 2000, p. 33 2.9 Determinants of poverty Planning Commission (2004), by making use of the HIES 2000 data, has employed a regression analysis to identify the major factors behind poverty in Bangladesh. Ten variables or factors were considered in the analysis. The variables were of three different types. First, there were three quality and demographic aspects of the households, viz. the gender of the household head, the literacy level of the household head, skill level of the household head, the religion of the household, the size and location of the household (i.e. rural or urban). Then there were intervention variables, E-28
  • 31. i.e. whether the household has electricity connection and is the recipient of female stipend. Finally, land ownership and income from assets owned were the asset and income variables. The findings suggest that households with electricity connections (as a proxy of infrastructural facilities) are likely to avert the incidence of poverty. The female stipend programme is another important factor which is likely to help reduce the incidence of poverty. Households whose heads are literate and have acquired skills are also likely to escape poverty. Households owning cultivable land are less likely to be poor, which is in line with the general perception that land ownership is an important factor in reducing poverty in Bangladesh. Similarly, households who have asset income are likely to be non –poor. An important observation is that the higher the size of the household the higher is the probability of being poor. The findings regarding literacy and skill of household head as they relate to poverty, underscore the need for expansion of literacy and skill development programmes as one of the factors in reducing poverty in Bangladesh. Similarly, provisioning of basic infrastructure (as proxied by electricity) is likely to pave the way for poor households to engage in productive activities, raising their income and hence reducing poverty. The objectives of the female stipend programme are twofold: (i) to influence or induce households to send their girls to primary schools; and (ii) to receive cash transfer from the government in recognition of their decision, which may also raise the income of the recipient households. It is believed that both of these channels are likely to have a positive effect on reducing poverty incidence. This indicates the importance of this programme in reducing poverty in Bangladesh and hence the programme should be continued and may even be expanded. One major reason for larger household size contributing to the probability of being poor is the uncertainty arising from a low life expectancy at birth and up to five years of age. IT is expected that an expansion of the basic health services aimed at reducing IMR and U5MR will help reduce family size. However, the evidence of TFR remaining on a plateau is a major cause of concern which may have negative impacts on population stabilization, household size and the poverty situation. Thus, attention must be given to reactivate the population programme to attain demographic targets. 2.10 Bangladesh’s Poverty Targets and Social development Goals The vision of Bangladesh’s poverty reduction strategy is to substantially reduce poverty within next generation. For this, poverty reduction has been made the overarching development goal and Bangladesh’s commitment is to achieve the MDGs and targets set in the PAPR with the ADB. Through adopting a comprehensive approach, the Strategy visualizes that, by the year 2015, Bangladesh would achieve the following targets: 1. Reduce the number of people living below the poverty line by 50%; 2. Attain universal primary education for all girls and boys of primary school age; 3. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education; E-29
  • 32. 4. Reduce infant and under five mortality rates by 65%, and eliminate gender disparity in child mortality; 5. Reduce proportion of malnourished children under five by 50% and eliminate gender disparity in child malnutrition; 6. Reduce maternal mortality rate by 75%; and 7. Ensure availability of reproductive health services to all women. Given the pattern of economic growth, which is accompanied by rising inequality, the growth elasticity of poverty reduction for rural areas was estimated at -0.73, while the figure for urban areas is -0.64. Using these elasticities, the results show that the attaining of Millenium goal of reducing the income poverty by half by 2015 will require significant additional efforts. The rural head count index will be halved by the year 2015 only if the per capita rural consumption expenditure grows at a rate of at least 4% per year. The calculations show that if the goal of reducing the incidence of poverty by half is to be achieved by 2015 then Bangladesh needs to sustain a GDP growth rate of about 7% per year over the next 15 years. As regards other indicators, the likelihood of target achievement is higher given the encouraging performance of the nineties in reducing child mortality and child malnutrition as well as success in removing gender inequality at primary and secondary schooling. The available evidence also suggests that the MDG target of halving malnutrition rates by 2016 is not likely to be met through economic growth alone. More effective public actions than in the past will be necessary in attaining the goal of halving malnutrition. This would also require the exploitation of important synergies between income and non-income indicators. Many of the social indicators included under the MDGs are influenced by economic growth through the channels of income- poverty reduction and public expenditures on social sectors. As the level of income-poverty gets reduced and private spending on social sectors increases, progress in attaining social development goals will be further stimulated. Better governance of social expenditures along with higher allocations through government and non-government channels, as emphasized under the strategy, would provide additional momentum to the process of social development. E-30
  • 33. 3 ECONOMIC GROWTH OF BANGLADESH 3.1 Introduction Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable economies in the world characterized by an extremely high population density, low resource base, high incidence of natural disasters, and persistent political instability during the most of the period after independence. Notwithstanding these difficulties, the economy has performed relatively well as is reflected in the real per capita income of the people has nearly doubled during the last three decades. This has also been accompanied by an impressive progress in human development (BIDS, 2001). Yet the development challenges are still formidable in view of the low per capita income US$444 along with nearly half of the population living below the poverty line. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate into the pattern of economic growth the country has achieved over time along with contribution of fisheries sector to the growth process. 3.2 Time Phases of Economic Growth of Bangladesh During the last 32 years (1972/73-2003/04) in the history of economic growth in Bangladesh, three successive time phases of policy changes can be clearly identified. These are the phase of intensive intervention, the initial phase of liberalization and the phase of economic reform. Phase one starts from 1972/73 and goes up to 1977/78. This phase was characterized by the post independence reconstruction that broadly corresponds to the implementation period of the First Five Year Plan (1973/74-1977/78). The objective of planned development was to achieve socialism in a democratic manner. All financing organizations and industries were nationalized. There was considerable state control over the economy. Agriculture enjoyed heavy subsidy and the public sector was responsible for input distribution. Domestic industries were protected from foreign competition through import restriction. Thus the first six years of post independence period can be identified as the phase of intensive intervention. Phase two goes from 1978/79 to 1989/90. Three development plans, namely the Two Year Plan (1978/79-1979/80), the Second Five Year Plan (1980/81-1984/85) and the Third Five Year Plan (1985/86-1989/90) were implemented during this period. This was a phase of army-led development. This phase was marked by denationalization of industries, gradual withdrawal of subsidies from agricultural inputs and privatization of input distribution system. Government policies were influenced by structural adjustment policies of the World Bank and the IMF (Alam, 1999). These 12 years can be identified as the initial phase of liberalization. Phase three starts from 1990/91 and goes up to 2003/04. During this phase the Fourth Five Year Plan (1990/91-1994/95) and the Fifth Five Year Plan (1997/98-2001/02) were implemented. The economy relied more on market forces and state intervention in the economy was substantially reduced. There was a marked reduction of tariff rates on imports and reduction of subsidies from agricultural inputs. A tight monetary and fiscal policy and a flexible exchange rate policy were followed throughout this E-31
  • 34. phase. These 15 years can be identified as a period of parliamentary democracy and a period of economic reform. 3.3 Aggregate Growth Structure of the Bangladesh Economy World Bank Country Study (1995) estimated that Bangladesh is required to undergo a sustained growth of over 4 percent per capita for a decade in order to enable an average poor Bangladesh to cross the poverty line. The Draft I-PRSP (2002) recognizes that …..if the goal of reducing the incidence of national poverty by half is to be achieved by 2015, Bangladesh needs to sustain a GDP growth rate of about 7 percent per year over the next 15 years ((MoF, 2002). Table 3.1 Structural Change and Trend of Growth of the Contributions of Large Sectors to GDP of Bangladesh (Constant Price, Base Year: 1995/96) Contribution (%) Sectors 1979/80 1984/85 1989/90 1994/95 1999/00 2003/04 Agriculture 33.21 31.46 29.52 26.02 25.58 22.83 Industry 17.08 18.70 20.78 24.28 25.70 27.80 Service 49.72 49.84 49.70 48.70 48.72 49.37 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Average growth (%) Sectors FY 81-04 FY 81-85 FY 86-90 FY 91-95 FY 96-00 FY 01-04 Agriculture 2.77 2.68 2.40 1.55 4.88 2.23 Industry 6.51 5.70 5.86 7.47 6.44 7.24 Service 4.33 3.83 3.58 4.15 4.81 5.51 Overall GDP 4.41 3.72 3.74 4.39 5.21 5.12 GDP per capita 2.54 1.54 1.50 2.36 3.83 3.70 Source: MoF(2004) Economic Survey of Bangladesh, 2004 It was expected that in a growing economy, the share of agriculture to GDP would fall and that of manufacturing would rise; followed by a rise in the share of service sector. In Bangladesh the share of agriculture has declined sharply over time from 33.21 percent in 1979/80 to 22.83 percent in 2003/04 (in 1995/96 prices); although the total value of agricultural production increased significantly over time (BBS, 2005). In contrast, increase in the share of industries to GDP is not satisfactory, and that of the service sector to GDP increased. It means that the decline in the contribution of agriculture to GDP was compensated by a rise in the share of the service sector. The evidence suggests that the industrial sector in Bangladesh did not grow properly over time and the transfer of labor occurred mainly from agriculture to low paid services rather than to industries. It appears from Sobhan (1990) that the post intervention period reform policies were unable to promote competition in the industrial sector and that there was large-scale financial indiscipline and debt-default in private industries. Frequent strikes and political unrest in the early 1990s was another factor responsible for stagnation in the industrial sector. In any case, the long-term stagnation in the share of industrial sector to country’s GDP is cause of major concern and should be dealt with all seriousness (Alam, 1999). The overall GDP growth rates fluctuated in the eighties and first half of the nineties. It was the second half of the nineties and first 4 years of millennium which mark an average of more than 5 percent per annum Table 3.1). This is an impressive GDP E-32
  • 35. growth rates. It is thus expected that achieving a sustained average growth of 6-7% a year required for achieving MDG goals particularly of reducing poverty by half by 2015 will not be very difficult. 3.4 Disaggregated Growth of Different Sectors in Bangladesh Table 3.2 shows the growth rates of different sub sectors. The overall growth rate of agriculture sector in the beginning of millennium was very good (5.53% in 2000-01), but it slowed down thereafter. Crops and vegetables showed impressive growth rate immediate before the millennium but faced declining growth. Livestock shows impressive growth during the last 4-5 years. Forestry sub-sector does not show any improvement staying within roughly 4-5% per annum. Growth of fisheries sub sector was very impressive in the 1998-99 and 1999-00 ranging between 9 and 10 percent. The sub-sector thereafter had undergone negative growth in 2000-01, which is due to the September tragedy in 2001. Fisheries sector started recovering again thereafter and showing increasing trend of growth (Figure 3.1). Table 3.2 Annual growth of GDP by sectors at constant price (Base: 1995-96 = 100) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Item -94 -95 -96 -97 -98 -99 -00 -01 -02 -03 1.Agriculture and forestry 0.65 1.93 2.03 5.57 1.64 3.24 6.92 5.53 3.59 3.29 Crops and vegetables -3.42 1.74 6.44 1.05 3.11 8.10 6.18 -2.39 2.88 1.67 Livestock 2.47 2.51 2.58 2.64 2.69 2.74 2.81 4.70 4.51` 4.48 Forest resources 2.84 3.46 4.03 4.51 5.16 4.94 4.85 4.91 4.43 4.48 2 Fishing 7.91 6.79 7.39 7.60 8.98 9.96 8.87 -4.53 2.22 2.33 3 Mining and quarrying 5.15 9.65 7.81 3.56 5.76 1.32 9.48 9.75 4.53 6.76 4 Industry 8.15 10.48 6.41 5.05 8.54 3.19 4.76 6.68 5.48 7.41 5 Electricity, gas and water supply 6.54 5.29 5.43 1.93 2.01 6.00 6.78 7.40 7.63 8.09 6 Construction 9.28 9.56 8.50 4.64 9.48 8.92 8.48 8.65 8.61 8.31 7 Wholesale and retail trade 5.55 7.96 4.63 5.48 5.98 6.51 7.30 6.43 6.59 6.54 8 Hotel and restaurant 4.98 4.98 4.98 4.98 6.50 6.65 6.94 7.00 6.92 7.29 9 Transport, storage and communication 4.02 4.95 5.15 5.50 5.61 5.90 6.08 7.92 6.56 6.64 10 Financial Intermediation 5.01 5.09 4.87 5.14 5.27 5.40 5.50 5.54 6.7 6.77 11 Real estate, renting and business services 3.33 3.48 3.40 3.54 3.80 3.82 3.83 3.41 3.42 3.81 12 Public administration and defense 5.64 4.47 4.16 5.50 5.90 5.70 5.97 5.88 5.92 6.07 13 Education 6.61 4.49 2.57 4.77 8.10 7.70 7.74 7.11 7.58 7.66 14 Health and social services 4.63 2.89 2.70 3.90 4.59 4.6 4.8 4.92 5.30 5.75 15 Community, social and personal services 2.74 2.75 2.78 2.79 2.85 2.95 3.06 3.15 3.24 3.32 Overall Growth 4.08 4.93 4.62 5.39 5.23 4.87 5.94 5.27 4.42 5.26 Source: MoF (2004) Economic Survey of Bangladesh, 2004 *provisional E-33
  • 36. It is assumed that this sub-sector growth rate will reach 3.64% in current fiscal year. The growth rates of industry and service sub sectors also increased due to the appropriate measures to develop the investment-friendly environment by the government. In 2003/04, the growth rates achieved in large scale industries and service sub sectors are 7.71 and 5.70 percent. The growth rate of manufacturing industries in 2003/04 is projected to be 7.41 percent in which the growth rates of large scale and small-scale industries were assumed to be 7.32 and 7.65 percent compared to 6.56 and 7.21 percent in 2002/03 respectively. Table 3.1 also shows that the positive trend of structural change of sector-wise contribution from agriculture to non-agriculture sectors is continuing. In 2003/04, the contribution of agriculture with fisheries stood at 22.83 percent which was previously 23.98 and 23.47 percent in 2001/02 and 2002/03 respectively. There is a continuous increase in the growth rate of industry sector after 1999/00. The growth rate of manufacturing industries in the last financial year stood at 16.25 percent from 15.97. The growth rate of wholesale and retail trade is projected to be 14.00 percent in current financial year, which was 13.77 and 13.87 percent in 2001/02 and 2002/03 respectively. The growth rate of transport and communication sector has also increased steadily (Table 3.2). Structure of GDP of Bangladesh has undergone notable change during the last two decades (Table 3.1 and Figure 3.1). The contribution of agriculture was more than 30 percent at the beginning of 1980s, which has been reduced to less than 25 percent in the beginning of current century. On the other hand, in the beginning of 1980s industry contributed less than 20 percent which has increased to 28 percent in the Agriculture and Forestry Crops and vegetables 12 Livestock Forest resources 10 Fisheries Industry 8 Growth Rates (%) 6 4 2 0 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 -2 -4 Year Figure 3.1 Growth Rates of Different Sub-sectors of Bangladesh Economy beginning of current century. Though changes in agriculture and industry sub sectors E-34
  • 37. are in the opposite direction, the growth rate of service sector remained more or less same in the same period. 3.5 Contribution of Fisheries Sector in the Economic Growth of Bangladesh Bangladesh is an over populated developing country. It is striving hard to achieve a positive change of its economy. Fisheries sector is one of the most important sub- sectors, which plays vital role in this change. This sector supplies nutrition, creates rural employment, alleviates poverty and earns foreign exchange. It is generally recognized that Bangladesh has vast fishery potential within its boundaries in the form of river, haors, reservoirs, tanks and vast coastal belts. It has excellent aquaculture potential because of its vast water resources and all these water resources can be utilized for fish culture. At present, fish alone supplies about 63 percent of animal protein and 12.8 million people of the country are directly or indirectly dependent on this sector for their livelihood. Fisheries sector contributes 5.23 percent to GDP and 4.76 percent to total export earning (DoF, 2003). The foregoing section makes it clear that contribution of fisheries in the agricultural GDP has been increasing over the last three decades (see, appendix table A.1.4) current contribution about 22%. The fisheries GDP kept growing on an average 7-10 percent per annum during 1992-92 1999-00. However, following the September crisis, it went down sharply in 2000-01. After then it is again catching up. Country’s fisheries export comprises frozen shrimp, frozen fish, dry fish, salted and dehydrated fish, turtle/tortoise, shark fin, fish maws and frog leg (exported till 1991-92). Frozen shrimp and frozen fish are the main fisheries exportable items accounting for 79% and 19% respectively of the total quantity exported. Other items represent only 2% of the total fisheries quantities. This is 2nd important foreign exchange earner after ready made garments. During the last two decades a notable structural change in fishery has taken place. During this period aquaculture expanded significantly with the gradual development of fish culture technology and successful transfer of the same for adoption by the fish farmers. BFRI has played a very big role in this direction by developing 24 different fish culture technologies. The most important technology accepted widely is carp polyculture, Pangas monoculture, shrimp and giant freshwater prawn culture and Genetically Improved Farmed Tiapia (GIFT) culture. Most of these are practiced in ponds. Currently 305,025 ha of pond areas and 5488 ha of baor areas are being utilized for fish (finfish and freshwater prawn) couture; and 203,017 ha of coastal areas are being used for coastal shrimp culture. As mentioned in the next chapter that during the last 21 years production of fish grew at the highest rate of 12% per annum for shrimp, 11% for mainly carp in ponds and 8.6% for carp in Baor. It is the inland aquaculture that had grown @11% per annum. Over the last two decades productivity of ponds increased by 309% from 843kg/ha in 1985-85 to about 2609 kg in 2003-04 while that of the baor increased by 443% from 176kg/ha to 780kg/ha during the period and 780 kg per ha. Shrimp farm could produce only 229 kg per ha during 1985-86 which has increased to 564kg/ha now. Value added from aquaculture is estimated to total Taka 36,695 (US$643 million) Development of this is attributed to a variety of factors. Use of supplementary feed, wider supply of fingerlings available and aquaculture extension effort of the DoF, E-35
  • 38. BFRI, BAU, NGOs, projects of WorldFish. Center and MAEP of DANIDA. The MAEP has developed and promoted pond polyculture systems suitable for smallholders, with activities in the 7 districts of the greater Mymensingh area with a current population of 17.8 million. The MAEP has had a tremendous impact on production in the project area, rising from 80,000 metric tons in 1989 to 329,000 tons in 2002. Average yield has risen from 1ton/ha to 3.3 tons/ha. Number of hatcheries and their capacities of producing hatchlings increased markedly during the last 12 years. In 1989-90, there were 89 govt. and 218 private hatcheries with corresponding capacity of producing 2512 kg and 22,171 kgs of hatchlings (4-5 day old fry). The number of government and private hatcheries have increased to 112 and 696 with corresponding capacity of producing 3902 kg and 297,781 kgs of hatchlings (1 kg hatchling comprise 0.4 million 4-5 day old hatchlings). In the post harvest sector, several different element can be identified; those serving domestic markets- based on bulking, distribution, and limited processing, mainly drying, and those targeted towards exports, mainly for shrimp, involving grading, primary treatment such as cleaning and de-heading, freezing and packing in bulk, catering or retail forms. There some 3-5 million workers within the domestic market and distribution sector, generating a value added of Tk 38,356 million, comprising Tk 33,302 million from finfish and Tk 2658 million from shellfish. The fish processing sector employs a further 9.780 workers adding value of Tk 2,396 million. There are about 124 processing factories in Bangladesh with a collective capacity of around 165,000 tons. This allows for processing 825 mt per day. Only around 18- 20% of the total factory capacity is utilized. Of the 124 factories, 35 are presently operational in Khulna, 39 are operational in Chittagong district and 51 plants have either closed down or are awaiting approval of a quality inspection license (FFSFDS, 2003c: p102). 3.6 Potential for Achieving MDGs in Bangladesh Bangladesh made noteworthy progress in poverty reduction and attainment of “Millenium Development Goals” during the 1990-2000 period in spite of pitfalls such as instability, inefficiency, leakage, mistargeting and erosion of regulatory standards (MoF, 2004). The observed rate of actual progress achieved by Bangladesh during 1999-00 is consistent with or even higher than the pace of annual progress required for achieving the MDGs by 2015 (set against the benchmark of 1990). In the case of IMR and CMR, the rates of progress achieved were -2.8% and -2.3% respectively against the required target rates of -2.7%. Similarly, progress achievement rates in the case of primary and secondary enrolment were 3.4% and 13.2% against the required rates of 3.1% and 10.3% respectively. Gender gap in enrolment at primary and secondary level has been virtually eliminated. Incidence of income poverty decreased from 59 % in 1991 to 49.8% in 2000, giving an annual decline of 1,5%, which is however lower than required rate of 2% per annum. A growth of per capita real income of 4 to 5% per annum is required to achieve the income poverty target. An overall real income growth rate of 6 to 7% per annum on a sustained basis along with a population growth of around 1.5% is needed to attain the target per capita income growth and hence the reduction in income poverty. Projections based on past E-36
  • 39. historical trends indicate that Bangladesh may be able to attain most of the MDGs at the aggregate level by 2015 (MoF, 2004). 4 FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN BANGLADESH 4.1 Introduction This chapter focuses the fisheries sector of Bangladesh. The different issues covered in the chapter are institutions and administrations, fisheries resources and fish productions, importance of fisheries to the nation, fisheries management efforts, changes in the pattern of fisheries and potential of different sub-sectors within fisheries. 4.2 Fisheries Institutions and Governance: Fishery resources in Bangladesh are mainly owned and managed by the public sector. It is characterized by complex institutional and governance issues, engaging a mix of formal and informal institutions, public, private civil society sector agents, and involving a range cross sectoral linkages and areas of responsibility. Formal responsibilities for the sector are vested in the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MoFL) and are executed through the Department of Fisheries (DoF). National fisheries management, development, extension, training, conservation, quality control, law enforcement, policy advice, and information collection are the responsibilities of the DoF. Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (BFDC) is another related autonomous organization responsible for national development of marine fisheries, management of Kaptai Lake, and marketing and processing of fish. Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) is a vital organization in fisheries having responsibility of national fisheries research on riverine fisheries, marine fisheries and aquaculture. The involvement of too many institutions often adversely affects the development of fisheries sector (World Bank, 1991, FSRFDS, 2003a). 4.3 Fisheries Resources and fish production Depending on the types of water, Bangladesh fisheries are broadly classified into two categories, namely, (i) inland freshwater fisheries and (ii) Marine fisheries. Inland freshwater fisheries comprise capture fisheries in rivers and estuaries, beels, Kaptai Lake and flood land; and culture fisheries in ponds and ditches, baors and coastal shrimp farms. The country is very fortunate to have an extensive and huge water resources scattered all over the country in the form of the above resources covering an area of 4.48 million hectares (Table 4.1), comprising 4.04 million of open waters and 0.51 million hectares of closed waters. The country has a coastal area of 2.30 million ha and a coastline of 710 km along the Bay of Bengal (Mazid, 2002). The country has a total fish production of 2.102 million tons during the 2003-04 comprising 34.83% from inland open waters (capture), 43.52% from inland closed waters (culture), and 21.66% from marine waters. E-37
  • 40. Table 4.1 Area, catch and productivity by sectors of fisheries, 2003-04 Water area Production (Metric ton) Catch per Sectors of fisheries Quantity hectare Area (ha) % % (ton) (kg) A. Inland Fisheries: (i) Capture (Open water) 1. River & Estuaries* 1,031,563 22.62 137,337 6.53 134 2. Sundarbans - 15,242 0.73 - 3. Beel 114,161 2.50 74,328 3.54 651 4. Kaptai Lake 68,800 1.51 7,238 0.34 105 5. Flood Land 2,832,792 62.11 497,922 23.69 176 Capture Total 4,047,316 88.73 732,067 34.83 (ii) Culture (Closed water) 1. Pond & Ditch 305,025 6.69 795,810 37.86 2609 2. Baor (Ox-bow lakes) 5,488 0.12 4,282 0.20 780 3. Coastal Shrimp & Fish 203,071 4.45 114,660 5.45 565 Farm Culture Total 513,584 11.26 914,752 43.52 Total Inland Water 4,560,900 100.00 1,646,819 78.34 B. Marine Fisheries 1. Industrial Fisheries 32,606 1.55 (Trawl) 2. Artisanal Fisheries 422,601 20.10 Marine Total 16,606,600 455,207 21.66 Country Total 2,102,026 100.00 Source: (DoF, 2005): Fisheries Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh 2003-04 * Sundarban area is included in River & Estuaries but catch shown separately 4.3.1 Inland Openwater Capture Fisheries Inland Openwater capture fisheries comprise rivers and estuaries (brackish waters), beel, Kaptai Lake (a man-made lake) and flood plains. Flood plains constitute the highest of all open waters accounting for 62.11% of all inland open waters areas. Comprising all these components, the total inland open water fisheries constitute 88.73% of total inland waters. Floodplains contribute about 24 percent to the total fish production, followed by rivers and estuaries (6.5%) and beels (3.54%). Sundarbans and Kaptai Lake contribute a little less than 1% each. About 35% of the total fish production is contributed by the inland capture fisheries. 4.3.2 Marine Fisheries The country has a coastal area of 2.30 million ha and a coastline of 710 km long coast line along the Bay of Bengal, which supports a large artisanal and coastal fisheries. In addition to this, the country has a 200 mile EEZ in the Bay of Bengal (Mazid, 2002). The Bay of Bengal is situated in the south of Bangladesh. There is a total of 166,000 sq. km marine water area including EEZ. Fishing is confined only within 100-meter depth. (DoF, 2003). During 2003-04 marine fisheries produced E-38
  • 41. about 0.455 million tons of fish constituting 21.66% of total production of the country (DoF, 2005). Marine fishing is dominated heavily by artisanal fisheries. It accounts for about 20.10% of all fish production. The rest (1.55%) however, comes from industrial trawl fishing. There are 87 deep sea fishing trawlers (45 shrimp trawlers and 42 fish trawlers), 21,433 artisanal mechanized boats and 22527 artisanal non-mechanized boats engaged in industrial and artisanal fishing respectively. A variety of gears are used in the marine fisheries by the artisanal fishers. These include 106,316 gill net, 50,083 set bag net, 24,614 long line, 6,925 trammel net and 30,643 other nets (DoF, 2004). Commercial gill net fisher produces 73% of marine output. Artisanal ESBN/Beach seine net contributes 18% to the total marine output. The other fisheries were, in terms of contribution, artisanal ESBN/gill net, industrial trawl shrimp trawl and PL collectors 4.3.3 Inland Closed Water Fisheries (Aquaculture) Aquaculture takes place in freshwater as well as coastal waters. The freshwater aquaculture comprises farming/culture in ponds/ditches and ox-bow lakes. The country has 305, 025 ha of ponds and ditches, 5,488 ha of ox-bow lakes where culture and stock-based culture are being taken place. The total closed water accounts for only 11.26% of all inland waters of the country. Of the inland closed waters, ponds and coastal shrimp farms are important constituting 6.69% and 4.88% respectively. Ox-bow lakes form only 0.12% of the inland closed water area of the country. The coastal aquaculture comprises shrimp farms and fish farm. Inland culture fisheries at present contribute about 44% to the total fish production of the country. Inland culture fisheries provide about 44% to the total fish production comprising 37.86% from ponds and ditches and 5.45% from the coastal shrimp farms. Ox-bow lakes provide only 0.20% to the overall production. Nine important sub-sector fisheries in inland and coastal areas can be identified. These are: pond carp polyculture (of Indian and Chinese carps), pond monoculture (mainly Pangas and Tilapia), small-scale cage culture, hapa nursing (a simple fine mesh net bag suspended in a pond or other waterbody, in which fry and fingerling are stocked), commercial cage fish culture, pen culture and lake/enclosure stocking. Pond carp polyculture accounts for 85% of production from approximately 400,000 ha. Pond monoculture produces only about 3% (mainly Pangas and tilapia) from 700 ha. 4.3.4 Value of Produced Fish Estimation of fish value is not an easy task as there are a hundreds of species, prices of which are not maintained by any agency. However, Department of Agricultural Marketing (DAM) collects some data for a handful of species from some urban city markets. BBS Statistical Yearbooks also provide price data for major carp species (e.g. cut piece of Ruhu), but disaggregated species wise price data are not provided. DAM does not collect quantity traded data in the market it surveys which results in an over estimation of yearly price. Low price and high price months are given equal weights in averaging. FSRFD (2003c), by making use of HES consumption and expenditure data, has estimated a composite price data at Taka37.95 per kg for 1995 E-39
  • 42. and Taka 42.32 for 2000. These prices do not appear to be realistic for those years. In fact they appear to be under estimated. The current market price (even the wholesale price) however, is much higher than those estimated. Mazid (2003) found much rational to use average per kg price of Taka 60 to value the fish produced in 1999-2000. Using this price, value of fish was estimated at Taka 99,660 million (US$1980.87: 1US$=50.3112 in 1999-00). Using the same price, the value of fish produced in 2003-04 comes to about Taka 126122 million (US$2151.48 million: 1US$=58.6201 in 2003-04). However, the value of US$ has appreciated by roughly 16% between 1999-00 and 2003-04. Inflating the 1999-00 average price of Taka 60 by 16%, the equivalent 2003-04 average price comes to about Taka 70 per kg of fish. Thus the value of fish produced in 2003-04 at an average price of Taka 70 per kg becomes Taka 147143 million (US$2510.06 million: 1US$). The break up of value of fish produced for different fisheries is presented in Table 4.2. Table 4.2 Value of fish produced in 2003-04 under two price scenarios Production Production Value Value (million share (%) (million (million Fisheries ton) Taka) Taka) @Taka @Taka 60/kg 70/kg Inland culture fisheries (pond, ditch and baor) 0.800092 38.06 48006 56007 Coastal fisheries (shrimp culture) 0.114660 5.45 6880 8026 Inland Openwater capture fisheries 0.732067 34.83 43924 51245 Marine capture fisheries 0.455207 21.66 27312 31865 2.102026 100.00 126,122 147,143 4.4 Fish Production Trend Total fish production of the country during the last three decades after independence has increased about two and a half times, from 814 thousand tones in 1971-72 to 2102 thousand tones in 2003-04 (Table C.4.1, Appendix-C). The inland and marine fisheries production, during this period, has increased 2.26 and 5.35 times respectively. Figure 4.1 shows fish production from inland waters started falling after 1975-76 recovering again from 1991-92. Marine fish production kept on increasing steadily. Annual exponential growth rates of different fisheries are presented in Table 4.3. The last 21 – year exponential growth for the total fish production was estimated to be 5.53% per annum as opposed to 6.61% and 3% for 11-year period (1993-04 to 2003- 04) in the nineties and 10- year period (1983-84 to 1992-93) in the eighties. Fish production growth rates were the highest for inland culture fisheries in each of the periods ranging from 7.87% to 12.1%, highest being in the nineties. Shrimp and pond fish farming registered the highest rates of production growth of all fisheries in Bangladesh. Rivers and estuaries had negative production growth. E-40
  • 43. 2500 Production ( Thousand Tonnes) Inland Marine 2000 Total 1500 1000 500 0 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Year Figure 4.1 Trend of Fish Production in Bangladesh Table 4.3 Exponential Growth Rates of fish production from different fisheries 1993-94 to 1983-84 to 1983-84 to 2003-04 Name of fisheries 1992-93 (11 years) 2003-04 (10 years) (21 years) Rivers & estuaries -5.87 -1.08 -1.78 Sundarbans -1.21 8.36 3.76 Beel 0.85 3.25 3.10 Kaptai lake 3.57 2.20 4.84 Floodland 5.45 3.41 5.68 Total inland capture 0.80 2.44 2.98 Ponds 7.21 12.6 10.8 Baors 8.11 6.30 8.65 Shrimp farms 13.4 8.91 12.0 Total inland culture 7.87 12.1 10.9 Total inland fisheries 2.66 6.71 5.95 Trawling -3.09 10.7 4.37 Artisanal fishing 4.51 6.15 4.15 Marine total 4.07 6.40 4.15 Country total 3.00 6.61 5.53 Note: the growth rates are author’s estimation using DoF data series published in Fish Catch Statistics and Fisheries Yearbook of Bangladesh for the years 1983-84 to 2003-04 (Table C.4.2, Appendix-C). 4.5 Species Abundance and Composition The fisheries sector of Bangladesh is highly diverse in resource types and species. There are about a total of 795 species of fish and shrimp available in Bangladesh waters comprising 284 freshwater fish species (including freshwater prawn) and 511 E-41
  • 44. marine species (including marine shrimp) (Mazid, 2002). Twelve exotic species have also been introduced in the country at different times. Hilsha used to be the most important single species in the Bangladesh fisheries. However, its contribution has reduced from 24% in 1985 to about 12%% in 2003-04 (Table 4.4). Shares of major carps comprising Ruhu, Catla and Mrigal keep on increasing. Their current contribution to total production in 2003-04 is 22.60%. Of this a bulk of major carps is produced from aquaculture. In fact, the expansion of aquaculture has made the most of available major carp production. Exotic carps also keep on increasing its share to the total production due to expansion of aquaculture. Shrimp is produced both in marine and freshwater environments. It shows some declining trend from 10.21% in 19985 to 8.31% in 2003-04. Table 4.4 Percentage composition of different species of inland and marine fisheries Name of species Origin 1985- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- (I/M) 86 91 96 01 02 03 04 Major Carp I 10.74 13.41 18.03 21.28 21.67 22.36 22.60 Other carp I 2.26 1.84 1.18 0.39 0.87 0.77 0.41 Exotic carp I - 2.77 5.55 11.75 12.13 12.22 11.60 Cat fish I 3.77 3.39 2.72 1.77 1.90 1.62 1.76 Snakehead I 2.74 2.86 5.43 3.17 3.00 3.12 3.41 Live fish I 1.84 4.35 5.59 3.12 2.41 2.55 2.63 Miscellaneous I 31.92 29.95 26.47 26.57 26.04 26.21 25.99 (inland) Hilsha I, M 24.07 20.33 16.48 12.90 11.67 9.96 12.17 Bombay Duck M 2.75 2.14 1.40 1.79 1.81 1.79 1.79 Indian Salmon M 0.08 0.11 0.13 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.05 Shrimp I, M 9.62 8.97 9.27 7.88 8.07 7.98 8.31 Miscellaneous M 10.21 9.88 7.75 9.35 10.40 11.37 9.28 (marine) Source: DoF: Fish Catch Statistics of Bangladesh and Fisheries Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh: various issues (1985-86 …. 2003-04) Note:1. I and M stand respectively for Inland and Marine 2. Hilsha is caught both from inland fresh open water and marine waters 4.6 Contribution of fisheries Sector: 4.6.1 Share in Gross Domestic Product The fisheries sector accounts for 5.15% (at 1995-96 constant price) of Bangladesh’s GDP in 2003-04. The total GDP at current price in 2003-24 was estimated at Tk. 332,567 crore (US$ 57 billion) and fisheries GDP constituted 23% of the agricultural value added (MoF, 2004). Despite its relatively small size, the fisheries sector is crucially important to Bangladesh because: (i) The country has the resource (floodlands, rivers, ponds, other waterbodies of water, and a long coast line), diverse aquatic wealth, and climate suitable for high yields and a considerable increase in fish production. (ii) Fish is an important and probably the cheapest source of protein. Over 70% of all animal protein consumed is from fish (BBS, 2003 HIES) (iii) There are considerable scope for increased shrimp and frozen fish exports- an already fast growing industry E-42
  • 45. (iv) The fisheries sector could significantly to the poverty alleviation, environmental protection, and gainful employment opportunities for women. Most of the rural population engages in fisheries at least part- time. 4.6.2 Employment Estimates of employment in the fisheries sector are incomplete and vary widely across sources (World Bank, 1991). According to estimates made in the late eighties there are about 1.25 million commercial fishermen in 1987-88, 60% were in inland fisheries and 40% in marine fisheries (BBS, 1989). About 8% of the population then were dependent on fisheries for livelihood (Planning Commission, 1978), and about 73% of the households were involved in subsistence fishing in floodlands in 1987-88 (DoF, 1990). The number of households fishing for subsistence in the floodlands was 10.8 million in 1987-88. However, the most recent estimate has been made by the Fisheries Sector Review and Future Development Study (FSRFDS, 2003a). According to FSRFDS, full time equivalent of 5.2 million people, or 9% of the labour force were involved in fisheries in 2000. In the capture fisheries, some 1.1 million people – landless, part time and full time fishers and landowners – are directly involved. Around 650,000 (67%) are engaged in the inland fisheries and 444,000 (33%) in coastal and marine fisheries. Table 4.5 Employment status in inland and marine fisheries Inland capture fisheries Marine Fisheries Aquaculture Types of fishers Employ- Type of fishers Employ- Type of Employ- ment ment aquaculture ment Subsistence fishers 275,534 Commercial gill 114,308 Pond carp 803,290 net fishers polyculture Part-time fishers 26,451 Artisanal 17,500 Pond 1,120 ESBN/gill net monoculture Land owners with 6.012 Artisanal 32,561 Small cage/hapa 1,200 traps and ponds ESBN/Beach culture (kua) seine Land owners with 153,075 Shrimp trawl 2100 Commercial cage 80 fixed gill nets culture (katha) Full time (small 77,149 Industrial trawl 900 Pen culture 2,000 scale fishers) Full time (small 113,996 PL collectors 185,000 Bagda farms 94,342 scale fishers) Full time with 78,191 Golda farms 58,333 hilsha Total 730,408 Total 352,369 Total 960,365 Capture fisheries total employment = 1,082,777 Aquaculture = 960,365 Adapted from FSRFDS (2003a) Around 177,500 people are involved in fish and shrimp or prawn seed collection, husbandry and distribution. To this can be added a conservative estimate of 185,000 (77,500 Full Time Employed) collecting shrimp fry and a further 2,000 collecting carp seed. In aquaculture (freshwater and coastal together), about 0.96 million are involved in different activities, of which some 84% work in farming of carp polyculture in ponds. There are some 3-5 million workers within the domestic market E-43
  • 46. and distribution sectors. The processing sector employs a further 9,780 workers, (3260 full-time equivalents). 4.6.3 Food security In the past plentiful of fish resources gave rise to various local adages relating to the food habit and life style of the Bengali people. One such adage is Maache bhate Bangali meaning Fish and Rice make Bengali. Another such adage is Likhibo poribo moribo duk-khe, motso dharibo khaibo sukhe meaning I would catch fish and live happily ever after rather than reading and writing which will only lead to my drudgery and miserable death (Tsai et. al. 1997). These adages really reflect the attachment of the people to fish and fishery. It is estimated that about 80% of the rural people catch fish as a full timer, part-timer and as a recreational activity. Fish provides very good supplement to the people of diet. It is true that rice intake still dominates the diet of Bangladeshi. The year 2000 estimate of the BBS (2003) shows that calorie intake from fish constitutes 2.4%. As far as the protein intake is concerned, fish constitutes 12.6% which is next to cereal 58%. Moreover, fishing activities are particularly associated with poorer rural dwellers in Bangladesh, as an opportunity to apply specialized skills and generate income, and as a means of access to food in seasonal shortages. Factors bearing social impacts include access to resources and rights to fish, opportunities for work within production and supply networks. 4.6.4 Value added of Fisheries The value added of fisheries sector is presented in Table 4.6. Total value additions estimated by FSRFDS (2003a) is Tk. 93,688 million comprising Tk 26,937 million (29%) from inland capture fisheries, Tk. 28,577 million (30%) from marine fisheries sub-sector, and Tk. 38,174 (41%) from inland and coastal aquaculture. The post harvest activities also generate a value added of Tk.38,356 million (Tk.33,302 million from finfish and Tk. 2658 million from shell fish) Table 4.6 Value added of fisheries resources at current prices Types of fisheries Value added % of total (Million Taka) Inland capture fisheries 26,937 29 Inland and coastal aquaculture 38,194 41 Marine fisheries 28,577 30 Total 93,708 100 Adapted from FSRFD (2003a) 4.6.5 Fisheries Export Bangladesh’s main fisheries item of export is shrimp. Frozen fish, dry fish, salted and dehydrated fish, turtles/tortoises/ crab, shark fin and fish maws are main items of fisheries export. Quantities of export as well as value of the same have been on the increase in general although some fluctuations exist. In absolute terms, export quantity of fish and fish product had increased from 23,048 metric ton in 1985-86 to 54,141 metric tons in 2003-04 (Table 4.1). During this period the value of export has increased from Taka 356.25 million to Taka 2363.47 million. In percentage terms, E-44
  • 47. shrimp accounts for 59 % of the total quantity of export of fish and fisheries product in 1985-85, 65% in 1995-96, 76% in 2000-01 and 79% in 2003-04. 4.6.6 Women involvement in fisheries In Bangladesh involvement of Women in fisheries is passive due to many factors of which religion is important one. By custom, the life of a woman in Bangladesh is shaped by the patriarchal, patrilineal and patrilocal nature of the social system. Her reproductive role is emphasized by social, cultural and religious traditions (Sultana et al., 2002) . In Bangladesh, fishing is the second most occupation in the non-farm sector, but only 3% of working women are estimated to be involved in Fisheries (BBS 1996). The role of women in fisheries encompasses social and economic tasks both within and outside the family in order to sustain the activities of fishing communities. Traditionally, fishing was a Hindu occupation and only men in the fishing communities were engaged in catching fish. The only exception to this was some old and widowed Hindu women, who caught fish for their household consumption as well as for sale in the southern part of the country. Now, not only the old and widows, but also all poor women irrespective of religion, age and marital status are found to catch shrimp fry in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. About 80% of the workforce in shrimp fry collection is women and children. This change has happened due to high poverty level and growth of shrimp farming which created a need and demand for a low cost way of earning money. Although fry-catching by women is now quite accepted in coastal areas, fishing by women is not yet a regular and common picture. Some Hindu women catch fish in the cannels and waterbodies near their houses with rods and hooks, but rarely with cast nets. Women usually catch fish by hand in shallow water and paddy fields, particularly in the coastal areas. It is even more unusual for women to have a say in management decisions regarding fisheries. However, there is no concrete evidence as to the extent of women involvement in fisheries; but the extent of involvement has certainly gone up over the years. Women are more comfortable in the closed water culture fisheries then the open water capture fisheries. Table 4.7 Trend of export of fish and fish related product, Bangladesh Shrimp Other fisheries products Total Qty. (Ton) Value Qty. (Ton) Value Qty. (Ton) Value Year (million (million (million Taka) Taka) Taka) 1985-86 13631 269.31 9417 86.94 23048 356.25 1987-88 15023 361.17 8400 92.95 23423 454.12 1989-90 17505 414.31 5834 64.96 23339 478.77 1991-92 16730 455.73 5350 68.62 22080 524.35 1993-94 22054 787.73 9781 133.23 31835 920.96 1995-96 25225 1106.39 13704 234.55 38929 1340.94 1997-98 18630 1181.48 11528 206.33 30158 1387.81 1999-00 28514 1612.12 10877 19944 39391 1811.56 2000-01 29713 1885.15 9275 1476 38988 2032.75 2001-02 30209 1447.76 11273 1893 41482 1637.14 2002-03 36864 1719.99 10507 2216 47371 1941.59 2003-04 42943 2152.77 11198 2107 54141 2363.47 Source: DoF, Fish Catch Statistics and Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics, various issues (1983-2005) E-45
  • 48. Even in the closed culture fisheries, women’s involvement is confined to those activities which can be done staying at home in the adjacent ponds and ditches. But for activities like input, purchase and sale of fish; women are still constrained. They usually take care of the aquaculture by spending time for activities like feeding, fertilizing and guarding. Now days, with the introduction of community based project involvement of NGOs, the rate of participation of women in outside fisheries activities is on the increase. 4.7 Wages Table 4.8 presents information on wages of the different sectors of the economy. The mean wage index is seen to be the lowest for agricultural labourer followed by construction workers. Wage in fisheries is in the third position in order. Wages for the manufacturing labourer was the highest followed by general workers. The mean wage index for fisheries was 2027 as against 2402 for manufacturing industry, 2142 for general workers, 1995 for construction workers and 1882 for agricultural workers. Table 4.8 Wage rate indices by sectors (Base 1969-70 = 100) Nominal wage indices Year General Manufac- Construc- Agriculture Fisheries turing industry tion 1990-91 1482 1575 1487 1321 1452 1991-92 1553 1641 1512 1425 1547 1992-93 1639 1724 1579 1523 1641 1993-94 1709 1828 1598 1593 1699 1994-95 1786 1947 1613 1653 1770 1995-96 1900 2064 1754 1738 1882 1996-97 1990 2161 1848 1808 1974 1997-98 2141 2395 1990 1870 2053 1998-99 2259 2522 2163 1950 2138 1999-00 2390 2701 2286 2037 2220 2000-01 2489 2832 2356 2141 2292 2001-02 2637 3035 2444 2262 2411 2002-03 2926 3501 2624 2443 2563 2003-04 3079 3705 2669 2582 2733 Mean 2142 2402 1995 1882 2027 Source: MoF (2004) Economic Survey 2004 4.8 Fisheries interventions for fish production A series of policy changes have taken place during the last three decades of independence in the field of fisheries management in Bangladesh, most of which had outcome not favourable for fishers including loss of wet lands, overfishing and declines in fish species. In response to these problems of an increasing human population and declining inland fish stocks (particularly of carps), a number of interventions and projects had aimed to increase fish production from ponds and public fisheries. Aquaculture using hatchery-reared carp in ponds has expanded and intensified. The main thrust of government interventions in these fisheries since the mid 1980s had been fish stock enhancements and culture based fisheries in common E-46
  • 49. waterbodies, notably involving stocking of carp in permanents baors (ox-bow lakes) with screened outlets to prevent escape of fish, and in open seasonal floodplain beels (lakes and wetlands). Secondly, there had been policies and projects aimed at strengthening fisher rights (the moves to licensing of fishers) and then fisher or community based management. Additionally there had been some more specific attempts to restore capture fisheries in certain areas by restoring links between rivers and floodplain wetlands. These initiatives in Bangladesh in the late 1990s were of more than national importance, they add up to probably the largest body of experience of tropical inland fishery management through enhancements, community participation and development of common property regimes. The management of these fisheries had been a priority for the government and other associated agencies. The Bangladesh government has supported a range of experiments and pilot activities in inland fisheries management during the last two decades. These management measures were i) stock enhancement using carp fingerlings in lakes and floodplains, ii) alternative measures to restore and conserve natural fish populations, and iii) community-based approaches to management of inland fisheries. Stocking of openwaters in the country was initiated by the DoF in 1989 through stocking of jalmohals under the New Fisheries Management Policy (NFMP) with carp fries produced in the Fish Seed Firms (Rahman, 2002). The programme continued for three years. In the nineties, DoF implemented a number of projects with supports from donors for fisheries management. The implemented projects are (i) Second Aquaculture development Project (SADP) funded by the Asian development Bank in the north eastern Bangladesh (1989-96), (ii) World Bank assisted Third Fisheries Project (1991-96) in western Bangladesh, Ford Foundation assisted Community Based Fisheries Management Project (1994-98), and World Bank/DFID assisted Fourth Fisheries Project with large components of habitat improvement, operation of fish passes and fish friendly regulators, operation of sanctuaries for conservation of resources and large scale stock enhancement programme through community’s participation. 4.8.1 The stocking programme The stocking programmes were undertaken for mainly ox-bow lakes (including Kaptai lake) to increase production. Ox-bow Lake Project-1 (OLP-I) aimed at converting six ox-bow lakes into carp culture based fishery through the development of screening inlets and outlets. DoF was responsible for management and stocking of the ox-bow lakes. This was the first time that responsibilities for guarding and protecting the resources were vested to adjacent fishers in exchange of a share of catch. BCAS (1993) made some case studies and found that that production of the baors (ox-bow lakes) as well as income of the associated fishers improved. Ox-bow Lake Project II (OLP-II) was implemented during 1989-97. The difference of OLP-II in contrast to OLP-I was that full responsibility for fisheries management of lakes (deweeding, stocking, guarding, harvesting, and marketing) was vested on the fishers community. The objective of OLP II was however, to transfer the complete fisheries management of lakes to the fisher community. Seventeen lakes were stocked during 1994-96. Middendorp et al. (1999) studied 10 such ox-bow E-47
  • 50. lakes and found that average carp yield was 669 kg/ha. The benefit cost ratio averaged 2.11 and return on fingerling costs 474%. 4.8.2 The Second Aquaculture Development Project The basic concept of stocking programme under Second Aquaculture Development Project (SADP) was based on selecting and using beels, depressions and road side canals as low-dyked nurseries for raising 3-5 day old hatchery produced carp fingerlings. The dykes around beels, road side nurseries were constructed to raise fry to desirable size (10-12 cm) before they were inundated during the rainy season and the fires are automatically dispersed in the Openwater floodplain system. Openwater stock enhancement programme under the SADP was undertaken in 2516 ha of the Beel nurseries stocked with 2467 kg or 987 million hatchling during the project period. The completion report of the project made in 1997 stated that this floodplain stocking programme was economically viable 4.8.3 Third Fisheries Project (TFP) TFP was funded through a credit from the World Bank. Technical assistances came from DFID and UNDP. DoF implemented the programme. This was also a stock enhancement programme. Some 3,000 ha were stocked with carp fingerling in 1991 which subsequently went up to 45,000 ha in 1996. Most of the stocked waterbodies were regulated by flood control measures and were partially or completely dyked with sluice gates. A total of 149,500 ha of Beel areas were stocked during the project period. Studies made on this project (such as Ali and Islam, 1998; BCAS, 1995) showed that significant production and financial benefits were achieved. 4.8.4 Aquaculture Development Project (ADP) The ADP was funded by IFAD. The ADP (1998-2004) was implemented by DoF in 8 districts of Midwest Bangladesh. ADP had programme of stocking and management of 750 ha of Ox-bow lakes involving the fishers in accordance with the methodologies followed in the OLP-II. The different intervention for the ADP were dyke construction, deweeding, water control structure, screens and stocking with carp fingerlings. 4.8.5 Community Based Fisheries Management Project (CBFM) The first phase of the CBFM (CBFM-I), funded by the Ford Foundation, was implemented during 1995-2001 by the WorldFish Center (formerly, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, ICLARM) and DoF. Following successful completion of the CBFM-1, a second phase (CBFM-2) was initiated from July 2001 for a period of five years with the funding from DFID. YEAR 2005 is the fourth year of the CBFM-2 project. The CBFM-2 is working in 120 waterbodies in 47 Upazillas of 22 district. The solutions of the questions being asked are: (i) can CBFM result in sustainable use systems?, (ii) are benefits in such systems more equitably distributed?, (iii) what are the most appropriate models of CBFM-2? (Hossain et al. 1999). It was reported that groups of fisheries with NGO support established control over waterbodies, stocked carp fingerlings, undertook surveillance of the stock, provided protection of specified areas as sanctuaries and E-48
  • 51. achieved greater equity in income sharing through increased production by these interventions. 4.8.6 Fourth Fisheries Project (FFP) FFP is being implemented by the DoF with credit from World Bank and technical support from DFID. The FFP undertakes fisheries interventions in four areas of Openwater ecosystem. These interventions are stocking of floodplains, establishment and operation of fish sanctuaries for conservation of fish stocks and biodiversity, habitat restoration through re-excavation and construction of fish passes and friendly regulators for movement and migration of fish. In addition to all the inland fisheries management interventions mentioned earlier, there are quite a good number of inland fisheries management project implemented in Bangladesh between 1991 and 2003 in which funding came from Ford Foundation, IFAD, DANIDA, FRG and the Dutch, USAID, CIDA, IDA, GEF, and UNDP (Table C.4.3,Appendix-C). There are some other CBFM approaches ongoing in Bangladesh. MACH is such a project. It is a GoB program sponsored by USAID. The government of Bangladesh and the USAID approved this project in May 1998. MACH seeks to demonstrate that sustainable management of wet land resources is possible with participation of stakeholders and users of those resources. It advocates a multi-disciplinary, multi sector and participatory process of planning, implementation and monitoring for sustainable wetland resource management. Recognizing that reduction of fishing pressure is a critical part of reviewing the wetland fisheries, MACH has included supplemental income-generating activities focused on fishers and others directly dependent on fishing.. Similarly, there is another project entitled “Empowerment of Coastal Fishing Community on Liveihood Security (ECFCLF), undertake for 5 years up to 2000 by the UNDP/FAO. The project aims at empowering targeted fisherfolk communities through a multi-dimensional approach facilitated with multi-sectoral support. The overall theme is to initiate a process of change that enhances the targeted communities’ capacity (in terms of an increase in livelihoods assets, or reduction on the vulnerabilities challenging livelihood security). The specific objectives of the project is to (i) assist the communities to empower themselves to collectively address their problems and needs, (ii) introduce various economic and community welfare activities which are operated and managed by their community organizations, and (iii) facilitate sustainable conservation and management of coastal marine and estuarine fisheries resources and habitats through strengthening of community based management of the resources. It is realized that without organizing the communities, development efforts can not be sustained. It is a very potential solution particularly for public waterbodies. Towards these ends community based projects have been developed and practiced in different waterbodies in Bangladesh. The projects are creating positive impacts, but the major threat is to continue the positive results beyond the project period. The CBFM project of the WorldFish Center has been intervening for last 8-9 years and has created many positive impacts too. The productivities of the waterbodies are E-49
  • 52. improved, micro-credit delivery has improved income, distribution of income from waterbodies has been made equitable, considerable savings has been created, basic necessities and food securities have been improved, the fishers are well organized and are actively participating in the decision making process and management of waterbodies, community based organizations (CBOs) are created and disciplined, and their management and leadership capacities are being developed. All these are meant for making them able to run their project and manage waterbodies independently in the absence of project. Concerned departments and people are hopeful about its success of the project and approach. However, the result is still inconclusive. WorldFish Center is planning to let some of the experienced CBOs run on their own without support of the associated NGO. It is expected that better messages can be obtained out of this effort, and policy people can be provided with evidence that the process and approach works. 4.9 Fisheries Laws and Regulations Four sets of laws and regulations govern in fisheries sector of Bangladesh. These are (i) The Protection and Conservation of Fish Act, 1950, amended in 1982, (ii) The Tanks Improvement Act, 1939, modifies in 1986, (iii) The Fish and Fish Products (Inspection and Quality Control Ordinance 1993, and (iv) The Marine Fisheries Ordinance, 1983, and Marine Fisheries Rules, 1983 (Table C.4.4, Appendix-C). Regulations such as minimum catcheable size, catching of jatka, use of current net, creating barrier across rivers to trap migrating Hilsha, catching brood in the breeding season and use of explosives for fishing and so on apply to riverine fisheries. There are mesh size regulations for shrimp and fish trawlers as well as drift net, set bag nets in the marine fishery. Similarly, there are area prohibition for trawlers and other small-scale artisanal gears operating in the marine fisheries. There is adequate number of regulations, laws and rules to protect and conserve the fisheries in Bangladesh. But the main problem is that these are not effectively enforced, however, for lack of resources (human, physical, and financial) or lack of will to enforce them. Officials responsible for enforcing fisheries laws, for example, lack the transport needed to monitor large bodies of water. No new laws or regulations are needed until the existing laws are effectively enforced (World Bank 1991). 4.10 Studies on Resources rent: There is real dearth of studies attempting estimation for determination of resource rent in the Bangladesh fisheries although some other kind of studies are available to some extent. Two important studies: one in inland fisheries and the other in marine fisheries deserve worth mentioning: Ahmed (1991) derived an operational model and analyzed the performance of Bangladesh riverine fisheries. Functions and parameter estates of a base model were estimated by deriving two sub models, i) bio-economic production and ii) the market using regression techniques. The author has made use of both the primary and secondary data. Results indicate that the riverine fisheries of Bangladesh are capable, under optimal conditions, of generating a total net benefit of Tk.1383 mi annum of which 96% would accrue as production surplus. Also a significant over capacity E-50
  • 53. exists in the existing fleet in terms of application of efforts relative to resource availability UNEP (2004) has made a study, by employing a Schaefer model, estimated that with an annual yield of 642,130 tones and efforts of 101,442 HP at the point of the MSY, the estimated catch per unit of effort (HP) would be around 6.33 tones while economic rent per unit of effort would be around Taka 205 million (US$ 4.27 million). The actual catch (310,000 tones) was estimated to be just half of the MSY indicating that exploitation in the marine fisheries have not reached the point of MSY, and the actual yield is below the estimated MSY. The actual effort that is being applied at present (71,184 HP) is also lower than the estimated level of effort at MSY (101,442 HP), implying that the present level of exploitation of marine fishery resources in Bangladesh could be theoretically be doubled. The study thus indicated that the marine fisheries sector of Bangladesh has not yet reached the open access equilibrium level . 4.11 Reliability of Fisheries Statistics Generation of fisheries data in developing countries in general is very difficult. This is mainly due to the segmentation of fisheries activities for which coordination is almost absent. Bangladesh is no exception. In addition to the public fish landing stations, fishers have been using hundreds of unrecognized places depending on their movement and ease for landing the catches. Unofficial sources provide support to the belief that fishes caught in the mid sea are often sold there and thus remain outside of record. The 1996 Agricultural Census shows that the land area operated by rural households got squeezed by 82,000 hectares every year (225 ha every day) during 1983/84 – 1996 period because of expansion of urban areas, increase in homestead land and development of rural infrastructure (MoF, 2002). It is believed that large scale transformation of crop land to permanent fish farms (ponds) is another reason for the reduction of crop land. In this backdrop, the repeated use of statistics for area and number of ponds and calculation of fish production and fish productivity is hard to rely on. The construction of rural houses requires raising base by digging ditch or small ponds which are often used for fish production. These are not also updated in the annual fisheries statistics provided by the department. The floodplain statistics is also not free from those problems. The Team of the BARC-DoF (2001) study on fisheries review and 10 years production projection made extensive visits in different districts to determine production trend of the rivers and estuaries, and none of the Duos, Sufis and UFOs believe that the trend is increasing. Whereas, the published statistics keep showing that this is also increasing (see, for example, Alam and Thomson, 2001). Fish consumption statistics also vary across sources (for example, DoF versus BBS) and therefore, very hard not only to rely on but also to interpret (see, World Bank, 2001 p. 18). Statistics for number of boats and gears operating in the marine fishery perhaps suffer from downward bias as a huge number of unlicensed boats and gears ply in the fishery. Above all, data must pass through office executives before it is released for pubic consumption, where there may have the likelihood of some manipulations depending on the political and government interest and donor satisfaction. There is therefore, good chances that the data people see have some upward as well as downward biases, and this is not only because of the above reasons alone. Lack of capacity, manpower and efficiency that matters too. E-51
  • 54. 5 POLICY MAKING 5.1 Introduction This chapter reviews the policy context, policy frameworks, and policy processes relevant to fisheries management in a historical perspective. The poverty reduction policy in general and fisheries in particular has also been reviewed. The different stakeholders in fisheries management and their roles and attitudes to the sector are also examined. 5.2 Fisheries Management and Policy Processes 5.2.1 Before partition of Bengal Fisheries were not looked upon as an important source of revenue by the indigenous rulers and it was ranked fourth after agricultural land, forestry and mineral resources (Habib, 1999). Abundant water and aquatic resources was considered sufficient to meet the needs of a much smaller population compared to its present size in Bangladesh and this ensured a flexible regime. The main rivers, where Hindu caste fishermen held sway, were either open access or partially controlled by the fishing communities themselves through a series of informal arrangements. Similarly, it was customary to allow open access to all the floodplains as long as no boundaries or other means of establishing ownership could be distinguished (Overseas Development Administration, 1994). The closed fisheries were under nominal control of the zamindars and some restriction was imposed on fishing in those waterbodies. These pre-colonial zamindars were primarily collectors of revenue and did not necessarily have proprietary rights on all lands under their jurisdiction. After assumption of diwani or the right to collect revenues of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in 1765, the East India Company was looking for ways of maximizing revenue income. Between 1765 and 1793, it carried out a number of experiments that finally led to the promulgation of the Permanent Settlement Regulations in 1793. Interestingly enough, one of the experiments used the bidding system as a mechanism of leasing land. The rationale behind it was to find out the true value of land through competitive bidding in open public auction. However, rather than attracting the genuine producers, the system provided inducement to “men of desperate fortunes who were without ostensible means of livelihood” (Ali, 1986). A large number of speculative biddings resulted in huge defaults and the experiment was abandoned. The Permanent Settlement Regulations finally accepted the principle of revenue collection through appointed agents. The Permanent Settlement had facilitated two developments that had lasting influence on inland fisheries management in Bangladesh. One was the segmentation of large navigable rivers into innumerable jalmahals that passed through the territories of several zamindars. The other one was the offshoot of the fixity of annual rent that encouraged large estates to be sub divided and then settled with sub ordinate zamindars or jotdars. These people leased the Jalmahals settled with them to leaseholders or ijardars, majority of whom were not fishermen. These developments severed the patron-client relationship between E-52
  • 55. the zamindars and fishermen that had existed for centuries and immensely complicated the access situation for the fishers. The leaseholders were mostly venture pseudo-capitalists with no connection to land and became notorious for their oppressive measures on the poor tenants. The British rulers were also getting dismayed at the fixed system of rent when the need for revenue generation had increased manifold. The government of Bengal appointed a Land Revenue Commission in 1938 under the chairmanship of Sir Francis Floud to examine all relevant issues and make suitable recommendations. The Commission submitted its report in 1940 and majority of the members recommended the abolition of the zamindari system and assumption of all rent-receiving interests by the state. 5.2.2 Partition to Independence The government of East Pakistan accepted the Floud Commission Report and through the passage of Ease Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act (EBSATA) 1950 abolished the zamindary system in Bangladesh. Under the provisions of the Act, ownership and management of all Jalmahals were vested in the Government. The MoL, through a high powered Board of revenue, was put in charge of management of these newly acquired assets. It is to be noted here that the MoL, overnight, had become the owner of most of the valuable resources of the country. In the exercise of this newly acquired power, the MoL officials found it more comfortable to work with a few ijardars, mahajans, rural elites and other influential people as against innumerable fishers. From the very beginning, the MoL has looked upon this non-fisher leaseholder class as the main constituency and has considered the fishers as obstacles to their revenue management. The MoL and District level officials have generally nurtured a negative attitude to the genuine concerns of the fishers. In the 1950s, the government did not have many sources of revenue to lay its hand on. The clear mandate to the MoL, like the immediate past British rulers, was to maximize revenue from this source. For this purpose, the Board of revenue adopted the procedure of public auction that the British had unsuccessfully tried and abandoned. Every year, towards the end of the Bengali calendar year, the district administration would publish a list of Jalmahals it wanted to settle from the next Bengali year through open pubic bidding. The lease tenure was variable depending on the nature of the jalmahal. For seasonal Jalmahals that dry up during the winter, the tenure is for one year only while for the permanent ones the tenure was three years. The MoL, however, has wide discretion with regard to both leasing out without a formal process of auction or to granting lease for longer duration. The abolition of the zamindary system did not end the leasing system that had crept in under the Permanent Settlement. It was rather officially recognized and reinforced. This helped the preexisting leaseholders to participate in the bids and retain their possession with the active help and support of the land revenue establishment. The stable pattern of secure access that had already started eroding came under severe stress of being totally disrupted. These leaseholders or ijardars were mostly non- fishers and rent-seeking was their primary goal. In the mean time the fishermen started protesting against the public auction system through the fishermen’s cooperative societies. In those days, these organizations used to carry some political clout and the government made a significant policy change around 1965. To give E-53
  • 56. some relief to the traditional fishermen, government made a commitment to give preference to the cooperative societies subject to the condition that such societies are registered with the Department of Cooperatives and are agreeable to pay the highest bid money offered at the auctions. This, however, did not help the fishers much for the reason that they did not have the cash to pay for the highest bid money and the non-fisher ijardars started taking over the cooperatives by putting the poor fishers as their surrogates. 5.2.3 Access issue after independence of Bangladesh The Land Administration Manual that provides the operational procedures for management of all land including the water bodies makes a distinction between open and closed water fisheries (MoL, 1991). Open water fisheries are those which are not surrounded by land and where fishing activities may continue throughout the year. Rivers, canals and all flowing streams are considered as open water fisheries. Closed water fisheries are surrounded on all side by land where seasonal fishing activities are carried out, facilitating conservation and growth of the fish resources. 5.2.4 Leasing policy in the early years With the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the access problem to fisheries started to assume new dimensions. With rising population and pervasive incidence of poverty in the early years of independent Bangladesh, large number of rural people flocked into inland fisheries for their livelihood. This happened at a time when the opportunities were shrinking rather than expanding. To the columns of the professional fishers were added these new entrants in the field making an already bad situation worse. Again, under pressure from the fishermen’s cooperatives, govt. made a further change in its auction policy. In 1974, govt. decided to restrict the auction of Jalmahals to the registered fishermen’s cooperatives only during the first round. If they were able to offer at least the base price set by the district administration, they could get the lease. In case of failure, the bid was opened up for all comers including the non-fisher leaseholders. This policy had a number of inconsistencies for which it was doomed to failure from the very start (Huda, 2003). 5.2.5 Policy Shifts between 1980 and 1984 To wards the end of 1970s, the undesirable effects of the dichotomy between ownership of resource by one entity and responsibility of preservation and biological management by another had become so obvious in the inland fisheries sub sectors that the govt. had to take some remedial action. What followed was a series of policy shifts in allocating the management of Jalmahals. Characteristically, these policy shifts were being made on the judgments of the situation by the MoL internally and by others at higher political level. It was not felt necessary to consult either the MoFL/DoF or the fishers who would be most affected by these decisions. The lack of a firm policy on jalmahal management not only showed a serious lack of consensus on this issue among the policy makers but also laid bare their susceptibility to undue pressures from vested quarters. E-54
  • 57. 5.2.6 Transfer of Jalmahals from MoL to MoFL In 1980, the concern for conservation of fish resources had convinced the highest political level to order a wholesale transfer of all Jalmahals from the MoL to the MoFL to facilitate the process of biological management of the fish resources. The later was caught unaware and was not at all prepared to face the challenge right away. It did not have the trained manpower or the required logistics to start the process. Instead, it continued with the old practice of leasing the Jalmahals through the DoF while trying to develop the tools for management of fisheries on biological principles. Failure of the MoFL to quickly respond to the task was negatively portrayed by the MoL and district administration who lobbed hard to get back the control over the settlement of the fisheries. Within three years in 1983, government reversed its earlier order and transferred the Jalmahals back to the MoL. 5.2.7 New Fisheries Management Policy Despite this set back, the need for biological management remained a potent argument for placing at least some fisheries under the control of MoFL. The JMS was also lobbying to secure better access to the poor fishers to improve their livelihood condition. In early 1985, a committed leader was selected by the President to hold charge of the MoFL who genuinely wanted to do something positive for the fishers. Donors working in the sector were also calling for a change of the leasing system. All these circumstances led to the announcement of what has since been known as New Fisheries Management Policy (NFMP). The policy aimed at achieving the twin objectives of stopping exploitation of the fishers by ijarders through new management practices and of ensuring proper conservation of the fish resources. Since the NFMP was developed by people connected with fisheries and not MoL, it contained huge improvements in certain areas compared to the previous policies. The most notable are the following: The leasing system was abolished and in its place a licensing system was introduced for granting fishing rights to the “genuine” fishermen. A screening process for identifying the “genuine” fishermen was established at the Thana level. The term of the lease of Jalmahals was one year for open fisheries and three years for closed fisheries The lease money would be fixed at 10% above last 3 years average revenue from the concerned jalmahal. The DoF was responsible for collecting the lease money from the licensees who were charged on the basis of size of the gear. To ensure conservation of resources, fish aggregating devices were prohibited from fishing For guidance, supervision and monitor in of the operation of the NFMP, district level committees under the chairmanship of the Deputy Commissioner and a national level committee under the chairmanship of the Secretary, MoFL were set up with detailed terms of references. 5.2.8 Further Changes in Leasing System E-55
  • 58. In 1991, there was a further change in the leasing procedure for the Jalmahals retained by the MoL under its control. Public auctioning was replaced by a system of sealed tenders restricted to fishermen’s cooperatives. However, successful bids were to offer at least 25% higher rent than the previous year. If the quoted rate of the tenders submitted by the societies fell below that level, all the tenders were to be rejected. In that event, fresh tenders were called when any individual or organization could take part in bidding. 5.2.9 Open Access of Open Waterbodies In 1995, Government made an abrupt decision to abolish the leasing of the open Jalmahals. The Prime Minister, while inaugurating Fisheries Fortnight in 1995, made this sudden announcement, thus technically rendering the NFMP licensing system defunct. 5.3 Marine Fisheries Management Effort Due to sufficient availability of freshwater fish in inland capture fisheries the people were traditionally used to take freshwater fish and people did not like marine fish. As a result marine fisheries did not receive much attention for development. However, with scarcity of freshwater fish due to man made and natural causes compounded by population growth and due to demand for fish and shrimp in foreign market, marine fisheries drew attention for development. Government policy was therefore to explore the resource and promote fishery and encourage private sector involvement in marine fisheries. In order to know the status of marine fisheries, Government assessed the fish stock and identified the fishing ground of Bay of Bengal through exploratory surveys and studies. Between 1958 and 1972 Department of Marine Fishery (DoMF) and BFDC had conducted some surveys to: (i) determine the timing for exploitation of commercial species and identify their area of concentration, (ii) obtain accurate information on the reproductive cycle of the shrimp and commercial fish species, (iii) obtain information on the potential and adequacy of species in the continental shelf areas, and (iv) determine the feasibility of commercial exploitation of marine fishery resources (Table 5.1). Besides, government also established Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation in1964 with the objective of developing fisheries industry. The organization introduced deep sea fishing by trawler and mechanization of artisanal coastal fishing and private sector was attracted with marine fishing industries. The marine fisheries grew rapidly during 1970s and about 15 trawlers were in operation in Bay of Bengal. Artisanal fishing in coastal area developed rapidly. 5.4 Conflict Between Fisheries Policy and Support Services Since independence, Bangladesh policy has been guided by Five Year Plans (FYP), written by the government with the exception of a Two Year Plan covering period 1978-80. The government of Bangladesh has looked to fisheries sector to increase production, in order to improve nutrition, create employment and increase export earning (Alam and Thomson, 2001). From 2003 the FYPs have been replaced by 3- E-56
  • 59. year rolling plan (TYRP) as a means of creating more flexibility via the monitoring process of social and economic development (FSRFDS, 2003b). Fish and rice are the two principal ingredients of the national diet, yet while rice production has expanded considerably since independence; fisheries have not achieved the same level of success. The 3rd FYP notes that whilst average consumption of fish in 1996-63 was 33 gm per day, by 1979-80 it had dropped to 20 gm per day. It rose slightly to 21 gm five years later in 1984-85 and by the time 1997-2002 (5th FYP) was written it had again risen slightly to 25g. The failure to achieve fisheries target is due to the decline in capture fishery landings as a result of a combination of over-exploitation and habitat modifications/loss due to the intensification of land use for agriculture. Table 5.1 Resource Assessment Endeavour in the Bay of Bengal Organization/year Results Fisheries Training School, Detected mainly presence of rich planktons, enormous shrimp larvae and Nagasaki Japan, 1958 (One plentiful commercial fishes. Sea bottom as well as water condition found month survey) suitable for commercial fishing. Fisheries Training School, Detected presence of rich planktons and sufficient shrimp larvae in the Nagasaki Japan, 1960 (Four- waters. Sea bottom as well as water condition found excellent for commercial month survey) fishing Vessel Kinki Maru, Japanese Tested shrimp net and gill net in the estuaries of the Sudarbans, off coast of team (One-year experimental Khulna, Barisal and Chittagong. Found that estuaries and river beds are not fishing operation survey, 1960- suitable for trawling and mechanized gill netting due to infestation of under 61) water obstacles, uneven bottom, strong current and salinity declination. On the other hand, bay of Bengal was observed to be abundant in commercial species Country team (during 1963-65) Traced plentiful existence of pelagic species through gill netting Marine Fisheries department Overhung bottom trawl net was proved to be the suitable type of fishing gear under supervision of FAO for trawling. Identified several rich fishing grounds Expert (1962-66) FAO-BFDC collaborative Identified fishing grounds namely, South Patches (6200 sq. km.) with survey (1968-71) estimated standing stock of 11.4-16.0 tons per sq. mile; Middle Ground (4600 sq. km.) with estimated standing stock of 10.2–14.4 ton per sq. mile and Swatch of no Ground (3800 sq. km.) with standing stock of 8.4-12.0 tons per sq. mile. All these grounds are within the reach of small scale fishers operating 9-15 meter long motorized boats fitted with 15-35 hp engines. Annual exploitable demersal species was estimated to be 57,000 tons in addition to the then 100,000 tons of marine landing without taking into consideration the existence of pelagic species and shrimp. MoFL-Japan Joint venture Trawled 4,200 sq. miles in 5259 hours of trawling. Of 4200 sq. miles, 3100 (1976-1977) sq. miles were considered to be economical for commercial shrimping. Estimated annual sustainable yield was 200-4000 metric tons Joint Bangladesh-Thai Explored information on average catch per hour, edible trash species expedition (March 7-18, 1978) composition, condition of the river and sea bottom trawl and drift gill net in addition to some oceanographic data such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH etc. at different depths. Bangladesh-Norway expedition The investigations covered the whole of shelf area of Bangladesh deeper than (25 Nov-12 Dec, 1979 and 7 10 meter (10-200 meter depth cover 40,000 sq. km: area shallower than 10 Mar-24 May 1980) meter depth was about 24,000 sq. km). The survey indicated that standing stock of demersal and pelagic fishes of Bangladesh were 150,000 and 60,000 metric tons respectively Source: Extracted from Alam (1993) E-57
  • 60. Although successive plans for fisheries and budgetary allocations were made in the past, it is characterized by subsequent failures too in terms of achieving physical as well as financial targets. For example, Table 5.2 shows that level of achievement of physical target of fish production ranged from 63% to a maximum of 96% during the past three decades. Achievement fish production targeted at the beginning of the 1st FYP took 22 years. The target was achieved at the end of 4th FYP only. This dismal scenario is also prevalent in the Table 5.2 Targets and Achievements of Fisheries Production and Fisheries Budget Fish production (million tones Budget allocation (million Taka) Five Year Plans Targeted Achieved Targeted Achieved 1st FYP (1973-1978) 1.02 0.643 (63) 480.50 190.00 (40) 2-year Plan (1978-1980) 0.81 0.646 (80) 440.00 380.60 (87) 2nd FYP (1980-1985) 1.00 0.774 (77) 1740.00 1580.00 (93) 3rd FYP (1985-1990) 1.00 0.847 (85) 3500.00 1400.00 (25) 4th FYP (1990-1995) 1.20 1.020 (85) 7490.00 2900.00 (39) 2-year Plan (1995-1997) 1.37 1.310 (96) 1294.10 1086.00 (84) 5th FYP (1997-2002) 2.08 1.890 (91) 5861.80 4847.00 (83) 6th FYP (2002-2007) 2.45 Sources: Mazid (2002), FYP’s of the GOB. Note: Figures within parentheses indicate percentage achievement spending of the budgeted amount for the fisheries development. Several reasons have been given for the failure to meet production targets and spend allocated funds; reduced investment, lack of infrastructural facilities for culture of fish, organizational weakness and environmental effects of irrigation and chemical use in crop production (3rd FYP); lack of technical knowledge, fish seed, proper management, disease control and suitable manpower (5th FYP); disruption of fish migratory routes, non-compliance with fisheries legislation, short term leasing of open water bodies, lack of good quality data to back up management plan, lack of agency coordination and inadequate programme monitoring and accountability (6th FYP). Fisheries also received less priority although as a sector in spite of its increasing contribution over the years. It has received lees allocation. Hossain (2002) mentioned that the share of fisheries sector to total public investment steadily decreased over the years (for 1992-93 to 1998-99 period). Conversely, its share to GDP increased gradually. As a result the estimate of investment bias (IB) index for fisheries sector declined dramatically over time (IB index fallen from 0.16 in 1992-93 to 0.058 in 1998-99). Fisheries credit also shows a dismal picture. For large scale fisheries establishments (such as processing plants, feed mills, commercial fish farms etc.) bank credit for fisheries is less problematic. But for small scale fish farmers and fishers it is a big problem. Even it is available for those, lack of adequate amount as well as timely disbursement are important constraints. One survey conducted on fish farmers in Khulna and Cox’s Bazar reveals that 50% faced lack of capital as the major constraint in shrimp culture (Rahman, 1990). Processing plant owners found it difficult to get institutional credit for working capital; hatchery/nursery operators found the credit process too complex and bureaucratic; and fish/shrimp farmers and E-58
  • 61. fishermen often fail to qualify for institutional credit as they have no collateral. Fishermen are usually ineligible for institutional credit for lack of collateral. Over the years production has increased, but at the cost of inland aquaculture. The inland capture fisheries in fact declined. The large scale use of agro-chemicals and pesticides, development of unplanned FCD and FCDI projects obstructing the migratory routes, the revenue earning and exploitative lease system of waterbodies, over fishing by growing fishermen, siltation in river systems, poor implementation of fisheries laws and so on are believed to be the reasons for declining fish production particularly in the rivers and floodplains. While crop sectors historically received priority in terms of allocations, subsidies and investment; fisheries have never been supported like this. Moreover, too many institutional involvements hamper the implementation of programmes. Ownership of waterbodies with one ministry and implementation with other ministry also results in delay in programme implementation. Moreover, the rural and political elites dominate the bid in the auctioning of waterbodies. Programme implementation in fisheries by the poor fishers of the community is often constrained. All these are happening very often which do not support that fisheries sector received adequate attention by the public authority. 5.5 The Bangladesh Poverty Reduction Strategy The Government of Bangladesh has been engaged in the process of preparation of Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) as required by the World Bank and the IMF as an aid conditionality. Only highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs) and users of Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) of the IMF are supposed to be required to produce a PRSP before they can seek new programme support from the IMF or the World Bank. Bangladesh is not a HIPC, but as a least developed country (LDC), it felt obligated to formulate a PRSP in the hope of getting future debt relief or new soft loans from the two donor agencies (Islam, 2002). A “draft for discussion” of the interim PRSP (I-PRSP) titled, Bangladesh: A national Strategy for Economic growth and Poverty Reduction, had been floated in April as a step toward that goal. Since preparing the I-PRSP in 2003, Bangladesh has for the first time graduated to the league of countries that have attained “medium human development” according to the Human Development report of the UNDP. AS regards Bangladesh’s progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the country is not only well ahead in several aspects of human development, but has also been striding ahead in reducing poverty. In moving from I-PRSP to PRSP, the objective is to articulate a medium-term socio- economic framework supported by well-prioritized strategies to combat poverty and to continue efforts to attain MDGs. The strategies for poverty alleviation by implication are continuing ion nature. However, from an operational point of view, the PRSP will attempt to implement the strategies for the period FY05 to FY07. The medium term strategic agenda for Bangladesh for the goal of accelerated poverty reduction is constituted of the following (Planning Commission, 2004): Employment Nutrition Maternal Health E-59
  • 62. Sanitation and Safe water Quality Education (in primary, secondary and vocational) Criminal justice, and Local governance 5.5.1 Concept of Pro-poor Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction Government is very concerned about the reduction of poverty in general and different sectors in particular. It has been realized that a sustained and high rate of economic growth is essential for sustained poverty reduction. The impact of economic growth on the pace and magnitude of poverty reduction depends to a large extent on the nature of inequality of income arising from the very growth process. Thus, the full impact of growth on poverty reduction is dissipated when the process of economic growth is accompanied by worsening income distribution. The concept of “pro-poor” growth strategy appears to point out the crucial association of growth and inequality on the extent of poverty reduction. Adoption of a “pro-poor” growth strategy is thus favoured over “growth maximization” as a means of faster achieving faster decline of poverty. 5.5.2 Outlining the poverty reduction strategy Bangladesh faces a triple challenge in building a road map for accelerated poverty reduction: firstly, build on past achievements while preventing slippages, secondly, address the multi-dimensionality of poverty through a strategic choice of priorities, and , thirdly, unlock the agency potentials of the nation through an optimal mix of public action, private initiatives and community mobilization. The policy triangle on which such a road map broadly rests is constituted of pro-poor economic growth, human development and governance. Bangladesh aims at pursuing accelerated poverty reduction goals through eight specific avenues: 1. supportive macroeconomics to ensure rapid growth with particular focus on stable macroeconomic balances, improved regulatory environment, higher private investment and increased inflow of FDIs, effective trade and competition policies, and, poor and gender sensitive budgetary process; 2. choice of critical sectors to maximize pro-poor benefits from the growth process with special emphasis on the rural, agricultural, informal and SME sectors, improved connectivity through rural electrification, roads and telecommunications; 3. safety net measures to protect the poor, especially women, against anticipate and unanticipated income/consumption shocks through targeted and other efforts; 4. human development of the poor for raising their capability through education, health, nutrition, and social intervention; 5. participation and empowerment of the poor especially women, and other disadvantaged and marginalized groups such as disabled, ethnic minorities, ecologically vulnerable; 6. promoting good governance through improving implementation capacity, promoting local governance, tackling corruption, enhancing access to justice for the poor, and improving sectoral governance; 7. improving service-delivery in the areas of basic needs; and E-60
  • 63. 8. caring for environment and its sustainability 5.5.3 The National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction (NSAPR) for fisheries The NSAPR documented that inland open water capture fisheries have declined substantially and losses in output from the source have adversely affected the poor who used to earn a livelihood from subsistence fishing in the floodplain. In the case of shrimp, the poor have lost livelihood opportunities over time as their small pieces of land were either taken over by rich investors for shrimp enclosures or flooded, although they gained some employment in non-farm activities related to shrimp industry. The rapid growth in inland culture fishery at about 14% per annum has largely offset the loss in the capture fishery (Planning Commission 2004). The poor will benefit from pond fishery through associated employment in fish production, fish catching, processing and marketing activities. Especially, home-based pond aquaculture involves women and children. The recent innovation of polyculture in rice fields has opened up further opportunities for small and marginal farmers to exploit whatever little land they have in growing fish in rice plots concurrently and alternately. However, the sector suffers from shortage of quality fish seeds for which brood fish stock, hatchery and nursery management has to be addressed seriously. In order to address the issues mentioned above, the NSAPR strategies are as follows: The government is committed to accelerate fisheries sector growth. The overall strategy of fishery sector development will envisage intensification of aquaculture by species and ecosystems, addition of export oriented species, product diversification and value addition, the development of appropriate marketing infrastructure. The capacity of DoF will be redefined and strengthened so that it can consolidate and continue support inland aquaculture through intensification of culture fisheries with improved knowledge of fish culture, brood fish stock, quality fingerlings and feeds. The underlying strategy will be to promote a dynamic rural aquaculture, involving the key actors among NGOs and private entrepreneurs, i.e. fish farmers, hatchery and nursery operators, fingerling vendors, feed manufacturers, fish processors. DoF will preserve, patronize and make more productive use inland capture fishery through community based participation of fishermen and fishery related stakeholders. Fisheries research will be upgraded to continue flow of technology generation. Various policies of other ministries impinge upon the fishery sector development because these policies regulate the availability of, access to and use pattern of open water bodies. These will be coordinated and a necessary legal framework will be formulated. Specific programmes will be undertaken to maintain water bodies and make them available for improved aquaculture. Development of waterbodies should be planned by BWDB and LGED in coordination with DoF and DLS. The strategic plan for the implementation of National Fisheries Policy will be finalized so as to increase productivity of scare fishery resources and also to ensure access of poor and fishermen community to waterbodies. The plan of action will address the development of inland and coastal fishery management, education, research and extension services, organizational as well as commercial policies 9i.e. marketing, processing, quality control, export and transportation0. Especially quality assurance in fish harvesting and processing will be emphasized.` E-61
  • 64. Human resource development will be given priority by the DoF, while skill development with respect to fish production, processing and marketing at local level will be accomplished through public sector agencies, NGOs and private sectors. The specific road map indicating the type of intervention to be taken is shown in table 5.3. 5.6 The Different Stakeholders and their Roles in Fisheries Fisheries sector of Bangladesh has numerous stakeholders, of which government plays a vital role in terms of planning, research, promotion, development, management, administration and regulation. The government department/agencies involved are MoFL. MoA, MoE, MoW, MoE, LGED, DoF, BFRI, BFDC. BARC, and MoFE. The non-government entities are NGOs, private sectors, communities, private money lenders and so on. Besides, Banks are also involved in the financing of the sector. The crucial player ministries are MoFL. MoL, MoY, and MoFE. The MoFL is the key ministry for implementing the fisheries activities through DoF. On the contrary, the MoL owns all lands and waterbodies of Bangladesh. Thus permission, green signals and finally, clearance must come to MoFL from MoL for management of any waterbodies. Similarly, there are ministries such as MoFE also manages waterbodies under their jurisdiction. These ministries virtually have no regard with respect to management and administration of waterbodies. The main area of non-cooperation is ownership of land. No agency wants to surrender the ownership to the MoFL. Likewise, financing of any stated government programme for fisheries (either ADP, or FYP must pass MoF clearance which always prioritizes the activities. Thus, the implementation often is delayed. No FYPs could spend the allocated amount of money during the plan period. Moreover, the allocation in fisheries had been historically very small. Hossain (2002) showed that government’s investment bias to agriculture sector in general and fisheries sector in particular had been negative. The performance of fisheries institutions had been poor. Institutional weaknesses were recognized by the Planning Commission and highlighted in the IDA fisheries sub- sectors review of 1983 which recommended remedial action (Planning Commission, 1983). A UNDP financed FAO mission and a World Bank Mission (1986) examined the weakness and made proposals to strengthen the DoF and related agencies (Everett and Chowdhury, 1985). NGOs have been playing a very vital role in disseminating particularly aquaculture technologies all over the country. They have also been involved in the participatory community based fisheries management projects. Many of these projects (such as CBFM of the WorldFish Center, MACH project of the Winrock International, Fourth Fisheries Project of the DoF, MAEP of the DANIDA, OLP I & II of the IFAD) have created positive impact in terms of biological fisheries management and improvement of livelihoods. In the fisheries sector tremendous growth of production has taken place. Aquaculture achieved top most growth. But since this is waterbody based (ponds and ditches) activities, major benefits accrue to those who own pond resources. However, some benefits have trickled down to poor resource deprivers as well through their participation in stocked ox-bow lakes. It is likely that growth in aquaculture widened E-62
  • 65. inequalities. In the inland open waters, since leasing of waterbodies as part of management of inland are in practice, it is likely that the affluent and the elites were able to give the highest bid in the auction process and reaped the benefits of government waterbodies. It is the community based projects that provided equitable distribution of income. Had the coverage of the community based fisheries management project been scaled up, equity in the distribution of income would have been increasing. E-63
  • 66. Table 5.3 Policy Matrix for the Fisheries Sector as outlined in the PRSP Strategic Goal Key targets/Activities Actions Taken PRSP Policy Agenda Future Priorities Responsibilities/Stakehold (FY05-07) ers) Increasing * Increase fish yield * National Fisheries *Complete strategic plan * Amend the national fisheries policy and create * BFRI, DoF, MoL, MoWR, productivity in from pond polyculture Policy is formulated preparation an enabling framework community based inland * Cover 90% of ponds *The strategic plan for *Consolidate MAEP *Redefine and strengthen DoF capacity organizations, fishers aquaculture for fish culture implementation of the experience *Evolve culture techniques and species for very households, and women policy is under *Further strengthen fishery small ponds lease holders finalization research and extension *Promote a dynamic aquaculture involving NGO and private sector actors Increasing *Increase fish output * National Fisheries *Consolidate experience * Enact laws and institute regulatory framework *MoF, BFRI, DoF. MoL, productivity in from semi-closed and Policy is formulated and formulate regulatory with clearly assigned responsibility MoWR, MoLaw, MoEF inland capture closed water bodies *The strategic plan for framework *Reform mandate for of BFRI for new type of fishery *Reclaim and improve implementation of the *Continue handover of research fish habitats and policy is under water bodies * Involve genuine fishers and other stakeholders sanctuaries finalization *Promote MACH type and other stakeholders through community- interventions based approach. Raising income *Increase income from *Training programme *Continue developing low *Develop and disseminate low cost improved *BFRI, DoF, Fish traders, of the poor cage, pen seed and fry on cage and pen cost and improved fish packaging and transport systems. Community-based fishers production culture, seed and fry processing, packaging and *Reduce spoilage through improvement of organizations, NGOs production are transportation systems marketing ongoing Promoting rice *Introduce fish *The strategy is *The strategy is to be *Increase fish production without permanently *DAE, DoF, NGO, Private cum fish culture production in rice land emphasized I the popularised converting rice lands to fish ponds sector concurrently and existing fishery *Rice cum fish culture is *Encourage and train resource poor farmers to alternately research and extension to be emphasized in practice fish culture in rice plots policies fishery curricula and mainstream training programme Strengthening *Accelerate fish *Research outfits exist *Further financial support *Target promotion of rural aquaculture as pro- MoFL, BFRI, MoWR, fisheries research production in BFRI, BAU and is to be provided for poor growth strategy Universities, NGOs and and extension other universities fisheries research [private Sectors Source: Planning Commission (2004). E-64
  • 67. 6 REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL READING ADB-GoP ( 2004). Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Bangladesh. Asian Development Bank, Bangladesh Resident Mission and Government of Japan, Embassy of Japan in Bangladesh, JBIC Dhaka Office and JICA Bangladesh Office. Ahmed, H., M.F. Alam and K.K. Viswanathan (2004). CBFM-2 Baseline Report of Goakhola-Hatiara Cluster Site, WorldFish Center, Dhaka. Ahmed, Mahfuzuddin (1991). A Model to Determine Benefits Obtainable from the Management of Riverine Fisheries of Bangladesh. ICLARM, Manila, Ahmed, Q.K., S.A. Hye and S.S. Habib Ullah (2002). Bangladesh: The Draft Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)- A Review, Bangladesh Journal of Political economy, Vol. 1, No. 2. Alam, Jahangir (1999): A Review of Economic Reforms in Bangladesh and New Zealand, and Their impact on Agriculture, Research Report No. 240, Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand. Alam, M.,F. (1993). An Economic Study on the Utilization and Potential of Marine Fisheries in Bangladesh, a report prepared for Winrock International. Department of Agricultural Finance, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh , June 1993. Alam, M.F. and K.J. Thomson (2001). Current Constraints and Future Possibilities for Bangladesh Fisheries, Food Policy, 26:297-313. Ali, A.M.M. Shawkat (1986). Politics and Land System in Bangladesh, National Institute of Local Government Ali, L. and Z. Islam. (1998). An Assessment of Economic Benefits from Stocking Seasonal Floodplains in Bangladesh. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 374. BARC-DoF (2001). Fisheries Sector review and 10 Years (2002-2012) Production Projection. Department of Fisheries, Matshya Bhavan, Raman, Dhaka. BBS (1989). Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the people’s Republic of Bangladesh, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka BBS (1996). Statistical Pocketbook Bangladesh 1995. Bangladesh Bureau of statistics, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka BBS (1997). Statistical Pocketbook Bangladesh 1996. Bangladesh Bureau of statistics, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka BBS (1998) Household expenditure survey, 1995-96, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka E-65
  • 68. BBS (2001) Preliminary Report of Household Income & Expenditure Survey-2000, Statistics division, Ministry of Planning, GPRB, Dhaka. BBS (2001). 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, 21st Edition. Bangladesh Bureau of statistics, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka BBS (2003). Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey, 2000. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Planning Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka. BBS (2004). 2002 Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, 23rd Edition. Bangladesh Bureau of statistics, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka BBS (2005). Statistical Pocketbook Bangladesh 2004, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Ministry of Planning, Dhaka BCAS (1995. Post-intervention food consumption study, Third Fisheries Project, Dhaka. BIDS (2001). Fighting Human Poverty: Bangladesh Human Development Report 2000, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies and Planning Commission, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka. Chowdhury, A (2002). Economic Growth in Bangladesh: Is There Any Hope? Bangladesh Journal of Political Economy, vol 17, No. 2, December 2002. DoF (1995-2005). Fish catch Statistics and Fisheries Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, various issues (from 1985-86 …. 2003-04). DoF (1999): “Matsha Sampad Unnayan ‘O’ Karmasnggsthan, ‘Matsha Saptaho’- 1999 Sankalan, 25-31 July, Directorate of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka. DoF (2003). Brief on Department of Fisheries Bangladesh. Department of Fisheries and Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Bangladesh. DoF (2003): Fish Week Publication, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka. Economic Survey of Bangladesh (2004): Economic Survey of Bangladesh, Ministry of Finance, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka. Everett, G.V., G.C. Rawson and L.H. Chowdhury (1985). Bangladesh: Strengthening the Department of Fisheries, a report prepared for Fisheries Advisory Services, Phase II Project, FAO. Rome, Italy. FRSFDS (Fisheries Sector Review and Future Development Study) (2003a). The Future For Fisheries: Findings and Recommendations, edited by Professor James Muir, Team Leader, FSRFD study. Dhaka, June 2003. E-66
  • 69. FSRFDS (2003b). The Future Fisheries: Policy Frameworks, edited by Professor James Muir, Team Leader, FSRFD study Dhaka, June 2003. FSRFDS (2003c). The Future Fisheries: Economic Performance, edited by Professor James Muir, Team Leader, FSRFD study Dhaka, June 2003. Habib, Ehsanul (1999). Management of Fisheries, Coastal Resources and the Coastal Environment in Bangladesh: legal and Institutional Perspectives, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila Hassan, M., M.F. Alam and K.K. Viswanathan (2004). CBFM-2 Baseline Report of Kalmakanda Cluster Site, WorldFish Center, Dhaka. Hossain, A., M.F. Alam, K.K. Viswanathan (2004). CBFM-2 Baseline Report of Titas Cluster Site, WorldFish Center, Dhaka. Hossain, M.B. (2002). Sources of Growth, Structural Change and the Role of Support Services to Fishery Sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 17, No. 2. Hossain, M.M., M.S. Kabir, P.M. Thompson, M.N. Islam and M.M. Kadir 1999. Overview of the Community Based Fisheries Management Project, p. 9-11. In H.A. J. Middendorp, P.M. Thompson and R.S. Pomeroy (eds.) Sustainable Inland Fisheries management in Bangladesh. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 58, 280 p. Huda, A.T.M. Shamsul (2003). Fishing in Muddy Waters: Policy Processes for Inland Fisheries in Bangladesh. A consultancy report. WorldFish Center, Dhaka. Mahmud, Wahiduddin (2002). National Budgets and Public Spending Patterns in Bangladesh: A Political Economy Perspective. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 17, No. 2, December 2002. Mazid, M.A. (2002). Development of Fisheries in Bangladesh: Plans and Strategies for Income Generation and Poverty Alleviation, published by Nasima Mazid, 74, A/2, Kallayanpur Main Road, Dhaka 1207, Dhaka. Middendorp, H.A.J., M.M. Rahman and M.A. Sattar, (1999). Financial Performance of Culture Based Fisheries in Ox-bow Lakes in Bangladesh Managed by Fishers’ Groups, pp.177-182. In H.A. J. Middendorp, P.M. Thompson and R.S. Pomeroy (eds.) Sustainable Inland Fisheries management in Bangladesh. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 58, 280 p. Ministry of Planning (2004). Unlocking the Potential: National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction, General Economic Division, Planning Commission, GPRB, December 2004. MoF (2001). Bangladesh Economic Survey 2001, Ministry of Finance, GPRB, Dhaka E-67
  • 70. MoF (2002). Bangladesh: A National Strategy for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Economic Relations Division, Ministry of Finance, GPRB, Dhaka, April 2002. MoF (2004). Bangladesh Economic Survey 2004 (Bengali version), Ministry of Finance, GPRB, Dhaka. p. xvii, 252. MoL (1991). Land Administration Manual, Dhaka, Osmani, S.R., W. Mahmud, B. Sen, H. Dagdeviren and A. Seth (2003). The Macroeconomics of Poverty Reduction: The Case Study of Bangladesh, Asia- Pacific regional Programme on Macroeconomics of Poverty Reduction, United nations Development Programme, Dhaka. Overseas Development Administration (1994). FAP 17 Thematic Socioeconomic Study, Final Report. Supporting Volume No. 19, ODA, Dhaka. Planning Commission (1978). The Two Year Plan: 1978-80. Planning Commission, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka. Planning Commission (2004). Unlocking the Potential: National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty reduction (Revised Draft), General Economic Division, Planning Commission, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, December 2004. Rahman, A.K.A. (2002). Openwater Fisheries management Intervention, A paper presented on occasion of Fish Fortnight 2002 at the BIAM auditorium, Eskaton Garden Road, Dhaka. Rahman, Atiur (1990). Socio-economic Aspects of Shrimp Culture Project: Analysis of Field level data, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka. Sobhan, R. (1990): The Development of Private Sector in Bangladesh: A Review of the Evolution and Outcome of State Policy, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka. Sultana, P., Thompson, P.M. and M. Ahmed (2002). Women-led Fisheries Management- A case Study from Bangladesh, ICLARM, Penang, Malaysia. Thompson, P. and Khan, A.K.M. Firoz (2004). CBFM-2 Baseline Report of Mithamoin Cluster Site, WorldFish Center, Dhaka. Tsai, C., and M.Y. Ali (1997). Openwater Fisheries of Bangladesh. The University Press Limited, Dhaka. UNDP (2004). Human Development Report 2004. New York, USA. United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP (2004). Fisheries Subsidies and Marine Resources Management: Lessons from Bangladesh, Economics and Trade Branch, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, UNEP, Geneva. E-68
  • 71. World Bank (1991). Bangladesh Fisheries Sector Review. Agricultural Operations Division. Asia Country Department 1. Report No. 8830 BD. World Bank, Washington DC, 20 March 2001. World Bank (1995). Bangladesh: From Stabilization to Growth; A World bank Country Study, Washington, DC. World Bank (1998). Bangladesh: From Counting the Poor to Making the Poor Count, Report No. 17534-BD. E-69
  • 72. APPENDIX-A Table A.1.1 Population and its growth over time Factors 1981 1991 2001 2004* Population 89.9 mil. 111.5 mil. 130.03 mil 135.2 mil. Population (Growth) 2.31% 2.04% 1.41% 1.5% MoF (2004). Bangladesh Economic Survey 2004 (Bengali version), p. xvii, 252 *estimated Table A.1.2 Density of Coastal Areas in Bangladesh Coastal Districts Population Area (sq kilometer) Barguna 845060 1832 Barishal 2348440 2791 Bhola 1703200 3403 Jhalokati 692680 758 Patuakhali 1464800 3205 Pirojpur 1099780 1308 Barishal Division Chittagong 6543860 5283 Cox's Bazar 1759560 2492 Feni 1205980 3601 Lakshmipur 1486540 1456 Noakhali 2570640 928 Chittagong Division Bagerhat 1516820 3959 Khulna 2357940 4395 Satkhira 1845120 3858 Khulna Division Total in Coastal Districts 27440420 39269 Density (per sq kilometer) 699 Percentage of Total Population living in 22.2 costal districts (%) Table A.1.3 Gross domestic product, sectoral share and growth rate at constant prices (1995-96) by broad industry sector Sl. Broad 1996- No 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 sector 97 . Gross Domestic Product (million Taka) Agricultur 1 434455 448337 469608 504270 520096 534825 536130 550520 e 2 Industry 420054 454987 477370 506804 544538 577944 622208 670180 106479 112615 3 Services 825020 865952 910625 960513 1013598 1281110 7 2 Share (%) Agricultur 1 25.87 25.34 25.28 25.58 25.03 24.56 23.47 22.83 e 2 Industry 25.01 25.72 25.72 25.71 26.20 26.54 27.24 27.80 3 Services 49.12 48.94 49.02 48.72 48.73 48.90 49.30 49.37 E-70
  • 73. Source: BBS (2000, 2005) Statistical Pocketbook 2001 and ,2003 BBS (200, 2005); MoF (2004) Bangladesh Economic Survey 2004 Table A.1.4 Share of crop, forestry, livestock and fishery sub-sectors to agricultural GDP Percentage share Year Crop Forestry Livestock Fishery All sector 1972/73 75.71 4.75 8.54 10.99 100.00 1973/74 80.03 4.16 7.56 8.24 100.00 1974/75 85.73 2.94 5.26 6.07 100.00 1975/76 78.68 3.65 7.56 10.11 100.00 1976/77 74.83 3.95 8.37 12.84 100.00 1977/78 74.04 5.63 10.76 9.57 100.00 1978/79 71.78 6.03 13.32 8.87 100.00 1979/80 73.36 5.21 13.93 7.50 100.00 1980/81 73.47 6.13 13.05 7.36 100.00 1981/82 77.91 5.38 10.43 6.28 100.00 1982/83 76.89 6.26 10.87 5.98 100.00 1983/84 76.68 7.01 9.87 6.44 100.00 1984/85 74.37 5.74 12.85 7.04 100.00 1985/86 74.05 10.08 8.18 7.70 100.00 1986/87 75.07 9.35 7.38 8.20 100.00 1987/88 72.38 10.95 7.72 8.95 100.00 1988/89 71.91 9.86 8.67 9.57 100.00 1989/90 71.46 9.76 9.31 9.47 100.00 1990/91 72.46 9.53 8.84 9.17 100.00 1991/92 71.20 9.92 9.00 9.88 100.00 1992/93 63.93 11.23 10.94 13.89 100.00 1993/94 61.35 11.03 11.80 15.82 100.00 1994/95 62.30 10.78 11.17 15.75 100.00 1995/96 60.31 11.04 12.02 16.63 100.00 1996/97 59.10 11.06 12.47 17.37 100.00 1997/98 57.16 11.29 13.01 18.53 100.00 1998/99 57.13 11.19 13.31 18.37 100.00 1999/00 56.25 11.09 13.97 18.69 100.00 2000/01 55.95 10.86 14.24 18.95 100.00 2001/02 56.59 8.33 11.88 23.20 100.00 2002/03 57.13 8.41 11.85 22.61 100.00 2003/04 56.95 8.54 11.82 22.69 100.00 Source: BBS (various issues): Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, various issues MoF (2004) Bangladesh Economic Survey 2004 E-71
  • 74. Table A.1.5 Trend in Unemployment Rate in Bangladesh LFS LFS LFS LFS 1989 1990-91 1995-96 1999-2000 Both Sex Both Sex Both Sex Both Sex Female Female Female Female Male Male Male Male Measure Unemployment Rate (excluding under 1.2 1.3 1 1.9 2 1.9 2.5 2.7 2.3 3.7 3.6 3.8 employment)(%) Table A.1.6 Balance of payment situation over time 1996- 1997- 1998- 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2002-03 2003-04 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 (July to (July to Feb) Feb) a. Trade Balance -2113 -1669 -1934 -1865 -2011 -1768 -2207 -916 -1203 b. Services -552 -570 -603 -645 -914 -499 -688 -490 -438 c. Income -107 -100 -135 -221 -264 -319 -195 -115 -159 Current Transfer 1907 1876 2195 2394 2171 2826 3418 2191 2428 Current Account -865 -463 -477 -337 -1018 240 328 670 628 Balance Capital Account 598 445 387 561 432 410 392 140 74 Financial -57 160 -370 -170 352 114 218 -267 -284 Account Errors & 180 -88 267 125 -47 -356 -123 -329 -166 Omissions Total Balance -144 54 -193 179 -281 408 815 214 252 MoF (2004): Bangladesh Economic Survey 2004 Table A.1.7 Trends in Human Development Index HDI Country Trend in Human Development Index Value Index 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2002 138 Bangladesh 0.345 0.363 0.388 0.417 0.445 0.497 0.509 Growth Rate of HDI of Bangladesh (%) 5.22 6.89 7.47 6.71 11.69 2.41 84 Best Performer in South Asia 0.752 (Maldives) 141 Worst Performer in South Asia 0.346 0.373 0.405 0.444 0.473 0.497 (Pakistan) 1 Norway 0.866 0.866 0.897 0.911 0.935 0.954 0.956 9 Japan 0.854 0.879 0.894 0.910 0.924 0.934 0.938 UNDP (2004). Human Development Report 2004. New York, USA. E-72
  • 75. Table A.1.8 Position of life expectancy, gross enrolment ratio and GDP per capita of Bangladesh Life expectancy at birth (years) Combined primary, GDP per capita 2002 secondary and tertiary gross (PPP US$) 2002 enrolment ratio (%) 2001/2002 1. Japan (81.5) 1. Sweden (114) 1. Luxembourg (61,190) 2. Sweden (80.0) 2. Australia (113) 2. Norway (36,600) 3. Hong Kong, China (SAR) (79.9) 3. United Kingdom (113) 3. Ireland (36,360) 123. Mongolia (63.7) 137. Cameroon (56) 135. Sudan (1,820) 136. Lao People' Dem. Rep. s 124. Guyana (63.2) 138. Guatemala (56) (1,720) 125. Bhutan (63.0) 139. India (55) 137. Mongolia (1,710) 126. Bangladesh (61.1) 140. Bangladesh (54) 138. Bangladesh (1,700) 177. Zambia (32.7) 176. Niger (19) 175. Sierra Leone (520) UNDP (2004). Human Development Report 2004. New York, USA. E-73
  • 76. APPENDIX-B B.2.1 Method of Poverty Estimation With the CBN method, poverty lines represent the level of per capita expenditure, at which the members of households can be expected to meet their basic needs (food consumption to meet their caloric requirement, but also non-food consumption). To make the estimate comparable over time, CBN poverty lines were first estimated for a base year, chosen to be 1991-92, and then updated to 1995-96 and 2000 for changes in the cost of living using a price index. Price indices for updating the 1991- 92 CBN poverty lines to 1995-96 and 2000 were derived by combining price information available in the HES (Household Expenditure Survey) data sets and the non-food CPI. The HES data provide price information on food items and fuels that account for approximately two-thirds of the total household expenditure. Inflation of non-foods that cannot be calculated from HES surveys was estimated by the non- food component of the CPI. As prices of some goods and services may vary between geographical areas in Bangladesh, the HES-based Tornqvist price indices were derived separately for each of the 14 main geographical regions. A weighted average of these and non-food CPI (disaggregated by urban and rural sectors) was then taken to derive the 14 region-specific cost-of-living indices for 1995-96 and 2000. These composite price indices were then used to update the 1991-92 CBN poverty lines to 1995-96 and 2000. Three steps were followed for estimating what is cost of a household to meet its basic needs in the base year. First, the cost of a fixed food bundle was estimated. The bundle consists of eleven items: rice, wheat, pulses, milk, oil, meat, freshwater fish, potato, other vegetables, sugar, and fruits. It provides minimal nutritional requirements corresponding to 2,122 kcal per day per person, the same household used to identify the absolute poor with the direct caloric intake method. The second step consisted of computing two non-food allowances for non-food consumption. The third step in the estimation poverty lines consisted simply in adding to the food poverty lines of the lower and upper non-food allowances to yield the lower and upper poverty lines for each of the 14 geographical areas. Thus within each area, the estimates of the cost of basic needs are the same with the lower and upper poverty lines. The difference between the two lines is due to the differences in estimation of the allowances for non-food consumption. The lower poverty line incorporates a minimal allowance for non-food good (the typical non-food spending of those who could just afford the food requirement) while the upper poverty line makes a more generous allowance (the typical non-food spending of those who just attained the food requirement). E-74
  • 77. Table B.2.2: Extent of income inequalities as represented by Gini Coefficients Household income group 2000 1995-96 1991-92 1988-89 1985-86 1983-84 and Gini Coefficient National Lowest 5% 0.92 0.88 1.03 1.06 1.18 1.17 Top 5% 28.66 23.62 18.85 20.51 21.35 18.30 Gini Coefficient 0.417 0.432 0.388 0.379 0.379 0.360 Rural Lowest 5% 1.06 1.00 1.07 1.10 1.23 1.19 Top 5% 24.12 19.73 17.80 19.81 21.36 18.14 Gini Coefficient 0.366 0.384 0.364 0.368 0.360 0.350 Urban Lowest 5% 0.77 0.74 1.09 1.12 1.2 1.18 Top 5% 32.40 24.30 19.42 20.02 18.04 16.93 Gini Coefficient 0.452 0.444 0.398 0.381 0.370 0.370 Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, published in Nov, 2004 E-75
  • 78. APPENDIX-C Table C.4.1 Fish production trend of Bangladesh, 1971-2004 (in ‘000 ton) Year Inland Marine Total Year Inland Marine Total 1971-72 729 85 814 1990-91 654 242 896 1972-73 731 87 818 1991-92 706 246 952 1973-74 732 88 820 1992-93 770 251 1021 1974-75 734 90 824 1993-94 838 253 1091 1975-76 732 89 821 1994-95 908 265 1173 1976-77 541 100 641 1995-96 988 270 1258 1977-78 533 110 643 1996-97 1086 275 1361 1978-79 529 116 645 1997-98 1191 273 1464 1979-80 524 122 646 1998-99 1243 310 1553 1980-81 524 126 650 1999-00 1328 334 1662 1981-82 556 130 686 2000-01 1402 379 1781 1982-83 584 142 726 2001-02 1475 416 1891 1983-84 589 165 754 2002-03 1566 432 1998 1984-85 586 188 774 2003-04 1647 455 2102 1985-86 587 207 794 1986-87 597 218 815 1987-88 600 228 828 1988-89 608 233 841 1989-90 617 239 856 Source: Mazid (2002), DoF (1984-2005) E-76
  • 79. Table C.4.2 Table Fish production from different fisheries over the years Industrial Artisanal Rivers & estuaries Country Sundar- Shrimp capture Marine trawler culture fishing Kaptai _Total Inland Inland Inland Lands Ponds Flood Baors Beels Lake Year farm total total total total ban 1983-84 207766 7783 51373 4057 200616 471595 107944 862 8219 117025 588620 14500 150382 164882 753502 1984-85 213057 6825 45893 2700 194130 462605 111567 962 11282 123811 586415 12440 175123 187563 773979 1985-86 199600 7112 45258 2433 187396 441799 123804 968 19951 144723 586522 11898 195503 207401 793923 1986-87 195117 6035 42077 3981 183796 431006 142876 1174 22050 166100 597106 12356 205223 217579 814685 1987-88 183817 8066 45610 4068 182037 423598 149423 1254 25248 175925 599523 10395 217187 227582 827105 1988-89 181140 6416 47019 3439 186126 424140 155012 1321 27172 183505 607645 10353 222928 233281 840926 1989-90 173410 6393 46594 3713 193762 423872 163730 1357 27505 192592 616464 11379 227684 239063 855527 1990-01 135355 6651 47923 4392 249083 443400 181018 1544 28431 210993 654397 8760 232778 241538 895935 1991-92 124843 6297 49201 4216 295185 479642 195034 1682 30147 226863 706605 9623 235851 245474 952079 1992-93 138746 6939 53019 4142 329573 532419 202167 1803 33773 237743 770162 12227 238265 250492 1020654 1993-94 143425 7127 55592 6635 360597 573376 222542 2201 39447 264190 837566 12454 240590 253044 1090610 1994-95 152782 6951 58298 5556 367558 591145 267282 2460 47331 317073 908218 11715 252935 264650 1172868 1995-96 165637 7265 60768 6148 369333 609151 307974 2764 68349 379087 988238 11959 257743 269702 1257940 1996-97 159660 9225 62798 5764 362453 599900 403830 3014 79020 485864 1085764 13564 261140 274704 1380468 1997-98 156894 7031 67812 5932 378280 615949 483416 3378 88018 574812 1190761 15273 257545 272818 1463579 1998-99 151309 11134 69850 6689 410436 649418 499590 3536 90076 593202 1242620 15818 293979 309797 1552417 1999-00 154335 11648 72825 6852 424805 670465 561050 3622 92448 657120 1327585 16304 317495 333799 1661384 2000-01 150129 12035 74527 7051 445178 688920 615825 3801 93014 712640 1401560 23901 355596 379497 1781057 2001-02 143592 12345 76101 7247 449150 688435 685107 3892 97605 786604 1475039 25165 390255 415420 1890459 2002-03 137848 13884 75460 7025 475116 709333 752054 4098 100894 856956 1566289 27954 403954 431908 1998197 2003-04 137337 15242 74328 7238 497922 732067 795810 4282 114660 914752 1646819 32606 422601 455207 2102026 Source: DoF: Fish Catch Statistics/ Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics (various issues) E-77
  • 80. Table C.4.3 List of Projects involving Communities in Inland Fisheries Project Name Funding Agencies Implementing Partners Schedulin g Improved Management of Openwater Ford Foundation DoF, ICLASRM, BRAC, 1991- Fisheries (IMOF) Proshika and Friends in 1994 Village Development Ox-bow lakes Small Scale Fishermen’s IFAD and DoF and BRAC 1991- Project- Phase II (OLP II) DANIDA 1997 Compartmentalization Pilot Project (CPP) GOB, FRG and BWDB and a number of 1991- the Dutch NGOs at different times 2000 Community Based Fisheries Development Ford Foundation CNRS and Proshika 1994- and Habitat restoration Project, Phase I 1997 Community Based Fisheries management I Ford Foundation DoF, ICLARM, Caritas, 1995- Project (CBFM-I) Proshika, BRAC and 1999 Banchte Shekha Management of Aquatic Ecosystems USAID Winrock, DoF, BCAS, 1998- through Community Husbandry Project CNRS, Caritas 2005 (MACH) Dampara Water Improvement Project GoB and CIDA BWDB, DoF, NACOM and 1998- Tara 2001 Fourth Fisheries Project (FFP) GoB, IDA, GEF, DoF, BWDB, LGED, NGOs 1999- DFID and and local fishing 2004 Beneficiaries communities Sustainable Environment Management UNDP DoF, IUCN, CNRS, 2000- Programme (Fisheries Component) NAVOM and BCAS 2003 Community Based Fisheries Management DFID DoF, ICLARM, Caritas, 1995- II Project (CBFM-II) Proshika, BRAC, CRED, 1999 BS, FemCom, BELA, SDC, GHARONI, SDC, SHISUK, and beneficiaries Community Based Resources Management GoB and IFAD LGED, MoL, DoF, DAE, 2003- Project (Fisheries Component) DoL, BKB, and NGOs 20014 Source: Huda (2003) 78
  • 81. C.4.4 Fisheries Regulations and Enforcement Program There are some important fishery related acts and ordinance in Bangladesh. These legislations cover all aspects of the fisheries sector from capture fisheries to fish marketing. At present management of fishery is regulated by the following laws and rules: Laws I) The Canals Act, 1864 II) The Irrigation Act, 1876 III) The Private Fisheries Protection Act, 1889 IV) The Agriculture and Sanitary Improvement Act, 1920 V) The Forest Act, 1927 VI) The Tanks Improvement Act, 1939 VII) The Non- Agricultural Tenancy Act, 1947 VIII) The Acquisition of Wasteland Act, 1950 IX) The State Acquisition and Tenancy Act, 1950 X) The Protection and Conservation of Fish Act, 1950 XI) The Embankment and Drainage Act, 1952 XII) The Cultivable Waste Land (Utilization) Ordinance, 1959 XIII) The Agriculture Pest Ordinance, 1962 XIV) The Factories Act, 1965 XV) The Agriculture Pest Ordinance, 1971 XVI) The Constitution of Bangladesh –1972 XVII) The Bangladesh Water and Power Development board Order, 1972 XVIII) The Bangladesh Fisheries Development corporation Act, 1973 XIX) The Territorial Water and Maritime Zones Act, 1974 XX) The Marine Fisheries Ordinance, 1983 XXI) The Fish and Fish Products (inspection and Quality control) Ordinance, 1983 XXII) The Local Government (Union Parishad) Ordinance, 1983 XXIII) The Fisheries Research Institute Ordinance, 1984 XXIV) The Land Reforms Ordinance, 1984 XXV) The Land Reform Board Act, 1989 XXVI) The Shrimp Cultivation Taxation Act, 1992 XXVII) The Environment Conservation Act, 1995 XXVIII) The Open Space Protection Act, 2000 Rules I) Territorial Water and Maritime Zones Rules, 1977 II) Marine Fisheries rules, 1983 III) The Protection and Conservation of Fish rules, 1985 IV) Environment Conservation Rules, 1997 V) The Fish and Fish Products (inspection and Quality control) Rules, 1997 Policies I) Land Management Manual, 1990 II) Industrial Policy, 1991 79
  • 82. III) National Environment Management Action Plan, 1995 IV) New Agriculture Extension Policy, 1996 V) National Fish Policy, 1998 VI) Water Policy, 1999 VII) Land Use Policy, 2001 VIII) New Fisheries Management Policy, 1986 All vessels and gears used for capturing fish must be licensed under the provision of Marine Fisheries Ordinance, 1983. A maximum fine of Taka 100,000 or any imprisonment term not three years or to both is provided for in the ordinance as a penalty for illegal activities. In addition to that court may order the forfeiture of the fishing vessels and gears in addition to any other penalty imposed. The penalties are mainly imposed to discourage the fishers from committing any offence. In exercise of the powers conferred by section 5.5 of the Marine Fisheries Ordinance, 1983, the government made the following rules, which is called The Marine Fisheries Rules, 1983. This became the basic rules for managing fisheries in Bangladesh. According to the regulation all the traditional and industrial gear operators have to comply with following regulation. 1. Prohibited method of fishing a) All the fishing vessels shall use mesh sizes of the following dimension: i) For shrimp trawl net (Boom) with low opening, the minimum mesh size shall be 45mm at the cod end. ii) For fish trawl net, mesh size at the cod end shall be 60 mm. iii) For large mesh drift net (LMD), the minimum mesh size shall be 200mm. iv) For small mesh drift net (SMD), the minimum mesh size shall be 100 mm. v) For set bag net (Behundi net), the minimum mesh size at the cod end shall be 30 mm. b) Fishing with any kind of explosives, poison and other noxious substances is totally banned. c) Fishing with electrocuting the marine species of any type is banned 2) Fishing, dredging, etc, prohibited in marine reserve zone declared by the government 3) Area of fishing: The gears can be used only in designated water as follows: a) Areas of fishing with trawlers are earmarked for operation beyond 40 meter of depth at its highest tide. b) Area of fishing of the gears such as set bag net, hooks and lines, drift net (SMD &LMD) up to the depth of 40 meter at its highest tide 80

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