Limpopo Basin
 Focal Project
                              LBFP Research Team
                              18 September, ...
Limpopo Basin
Botswana (60% of population in the basin),
South Africa (25% of nat’l population in basin),
Mozambique, Zimb...
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
15 %
                                      21 % basin area


19 %
basin area




   45 % basin area River Basin Focal Proj...
The Situation
Twin development & water management
trajectories

             VERSUS

Trading places on the development
con...
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Influences
  History: uneven development
  Neighbors
  Regional bodies:
SADC, COMESA, AMCOW, OKACOM,
  ORASACOM, LIMCOM


...
Line color (by type of relationship)
Now- Limpopo BFP




                                              Node color (by att...
Change Processes
Who were we talking with/listening to?
What do we hope to change?
What do we offer that can positively af...
Key Stakeholders
1st tier
 National level policy makers
 LIMCOM

 2nd tier
 GWP, FANRPAN

 3rd tier
 Implementing agencies...
The Change
EVIDENCE
Networks
Agenda setting!!!!!




       Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Population Density




                                    Limpopo River Basin Focal Project


Population density (persons...
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Population Density




                                    Limpopo River Basin Focal Project


Population density (persons...
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Lim popo
229 bcm    Irrigation    Net Runoff

Woodland                                         57% of the basin is
       ...
Where is the water?




250 mm in theLimpopo River central Focal Project
              hot dry west & Basin areas
1,050 mm...
Where is the water?




Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
When is the water available?
                                                                                     Water Av...
Supply Risks
                                                                                   Water Available to Agricul...
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Land Cover II




Limpopo River Basin Focal Project


                            Global Land cover classes – 2000 (UNEP)
Water Productivity




Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
water stress    8-day ET (mm)

ETa/ETp                                                Basin average




                  ...
Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Water productivity
Water Productivity (WP) values in Limpopo basin
are generally low & extremely variable;
Gross value pro...
Institutions
All riparian countries have policies aimed at supporting
small-scale farmers to increase their productivity a...
Institutions
IWRM guiding policies—serious implementation lags.
Ownership and access to land & water
Women’s contribution ...
Who is working




Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Linkages between agriculture,
      water and poverty




     Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Water, agriculture and poverty
    in basins are linked by
            women.



      Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Poverty
The feminization of poverty is the
tragic consequence of women’s
unequal access to economic
opportunities.
       ...
Water, agriculture, livelihoods &
            poverty
A livelihoods approach=

Water (availability + access) +
Income +
Ed...
Water, agriculture, livelihoods &
                     poverty in Mozambique
              Mozambique - Poverty level     ...
Poverty & Water in South Africa
                                                                                          ...
Unemployment and HH headedness
               in Botswana
                   Percentage of Unemployed Persons             ...
Land tenure and water in Zimbabwe
                                          Land Tenure                                   ...
Development and Poverty in
                                          Zimbabwe
                                    Human De...
Strategic Interventions




  Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
Strategic Interventions
1.   Compile interventions
2.   Sort
3.   Investigate interventions
4.   Technical sift
5.   Stake...
Strategic Interventions

     Political voice=Governance=Institutions
1.   Formulation of general development strategies
 ...
Strategic Interventions
Gender sensitivity through strengthened women’s
   capacity:
1. To participate effectively in poli...
Major Issues
-Role of small holder agriculture in poverty
  reduction across the basin—ask the question!
-Vulnerability of...
Thank you



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Limpopo Basin Focal Project

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Presented at the Basin Focal Project workshop 'Clarifying the global picture of water, food and poverty' from 18-20th September in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

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Limpopo Basin Focal Project

  1. 1. Limpopo Basin Focal Project LBFP Research Team 18 September, 2009 Chiang Mai, Thailand Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  2. 2. Limpopo Basin Botswana (60% of population in the basin), South Africa (25% of nat’l population in basin), Mozambique, Zimbabwe 14 Million People in 416,000 km (34/km2) Nearly half rural/urban Water Scarce Less than 3,000,000 ha under crops 91% under rain fed conditions Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  3. 3. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  4. 4. 15 % 21 % basin area 19 % basin area 45 % basin area River Basin Focal Project Limpopo
  5. 5. The Situation Twin development & water management trajectories VERSUS Trading places on the development continuum Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  6. 6. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  7. 7. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  8. 8. Influences History: uneven development Neighbors Regional bodies: SADC, COMESA, AMCOW, OKACOM, ORASACOM, LIMCOM Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  9. 9. Line color (by type of relationship) Now- Limpopo BFP Node color (by attitude) Limpopo River Basin Focal Project Positive Negative No Info
  10. 10. Change Processes Who were we talking with/listening to? What do we hope to change? What do we offer that can positively affect the change we anticipate? Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  11. 11. Key Stakeholders 1st tier National level policy makers LIMCOM 2nd tier GWP, FANRPAN 3rd tier Implementing agencies, NGOs, district level authorities Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  12. 12. The Change EVIDENCE Networks Agenda setting!!!!! Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  13. 13. Population Density Limpopo River Basin Focal Project Population density (persons per km2) – (CIESIN -2000)
  14. 14. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  15. 15. Population Density Limpopo River Basin Focal Project Population density (persons per km2) – (CIESIN -2000)
  16. 16. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  17. 17. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  18. 18. Lim popo 229 bcm Irrigation Net Runoff Woodland 57% of the basin is classified as grassland 40% is estimated to be Rain fed under rain fed agriculture. Cropping .6% is devoted to irrigated agriculture, yet they use .8% of available water Grassland resources. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  19. 19. Where is the water? 250 mm in theLimpopo River central Focal Project hot dry west & Basin areas 1,050 mm in the high rainfall eastern escarpment
  20. 20. Where is the water? Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  21. 21. When is the water available? Water Availability over Time 100.000 Million cubic metres per Month 10.000 1.000 0.100 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 391 421 451 481 511 541 571 601 631 661 691 721 751 781 811 Simulation Month Monthly Runoff Priority Demands Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  22. 22. Supply Risks Water Available to Agriculture 100 Million cubic metres per Month 10 1 0.1 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 391 421 451 481 511 541 571 601 631 661 691 721 751 781 811 Simulation Month Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  23. 23. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  24. 24. Land Cover II Limpopo River Basin Focal Project Global Land cover classes – 2000 (UNEP)
  25. 25. Water Productivity Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  26. 26. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  27. 27. water stress 8-day ET (mm) ETa/ETp Basin average Limpopo Province - Rainfed Olifants- irrigated Olifants - irrigated Rainfall Downstream - XaiXai Limpopo River Basin Focal Project Day of year
  28. 28. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  29. 29. Water productivity Water Productivity (WP) values in Limpopo basin are generally low & extremely variable; Gross value production of agriculture major driving factor of WP differences. It is caused not only by yield variation, but also highly fluctuating prices in different markets (same yield = very different income); Poor rainfall distribution makes the predominant rain fed areas and the associated famers more vulnerable to risks (small irrigated area); Huge gap in annual potential and actual ET. Room for increased productivity with targeted investment in certain areas (Mozambique). Project Limpopo River Basin Focal
  30. 30. Institutions All riparian countries have policies aimed at supporting small-scale farmers to increase their productivity and profits, yet effectiveness of implementation varies considerably; Limited inter-ministerial and departmental collaboration for promoting agricultural water management limits cross-cutting integrated policies to support agricultural water management, hinder best arrangements; LIMCOM’s emergence as an effective RBO significantly enhances the capacity of the basin countries to implement major benefit-sharing programs Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  31. 31. Institutions IWRM guiding policies—serious implementation lags. Ownership and access to land & water Women’s contribution to irrigated farms (48% of global ag workforce, higher in Africa--90% in some areas) Decision making at farm level Participation in WUAs Access of poor women & men to irrigation benefits Domestic and other uses of water Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  32. 32. Who is working Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  33. 33. Linkages between agriculture, water and poverty Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  34. 34. Water, agriculture and poverty in basins are linked by women. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  35. 35. Poverty The feminization of poverty is the tragic consequence of women’s unequal access to economic opportunities. —UNDP 1995 Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  36. 36. Water, agriculture, livelihoods & poverty A livelihoods approach= Water (availability + access) + Income + Education + Infrastructure +, +, + Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  37. 37. Water, agriculture, livelihoods & poverty in Mozambique Mozambique - Poverty level N Mozambique Drought W E S MASSANGENA MABOTE MASSANGENA MABOTE CHIGUBO CHIGUBO CHICUALACUALA CHICUALACUALA FUNHALOURO MASSINGA FUNHALOURO MASSINGA MABALANE MABALANE Poverty level (%) 50 - 59 LEGEND 60 - 69 MASSINGIR MASSINGIR PANDA 70 - 79 PANDA Drought 80 - 89 GUIJÁ GUIJÁ 90 - 95 1 - 9.99 CHIBUTO CHIBUTO 10 - 19.99 CHÓKWE CHÓKWE MANJACAZE MANJACAZE 20 - 29.99 N XAI-XAI XAI-XAI 30 - 39.99 BILENE BILENE CIDADE DE XAI-XAI CIDADE DE XAI-XAI 40 - 55 W E 200 0 200 Kilometers 200 0 200 Kilometers S Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  38. 38. Poverty & Water in South Africa LEGEND Limpopo basin boundary SA district boundary SA Water source Poverty level by municipality 0 - 16 % N 17 - 34 % 35 - 46 % Vhembe Vhembe W E 47 - 57 % 58 - 70 % 71 - 81 % S > 81 % Mopani Capricorn Mopani Waterberg Capricorn Waterberg Greater Sekhukhune Greater Sekhukhune Ehlanzeni Bojanala Central Ehlanzeni Basin boundary City of Tshwane Bojanala Nkangala District boundary City of Tshwane Metsweding Piped water inside house Metsweding Nkangala City of Johannesburg 0 - 10% Central 11 - 20% Bophirima N West Rand Ekurhuleni City of Johannesburg 21 - 30% West RandEkurhuleni 31 - 40% Southern Gert Sibande Sedibeng 41 - 50% Sedibeng W E Gert Sibande 51 - 60% 61 - 70% 71 - 80% S 200 0 200 400 Kilometers 100 0 100 200 Kilometers Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  39. 39. Unemployment and HH headedness in Botswana Percentage of Unemployed Persons Percentage of Female Headed Households N N W E W E S S North East district North East district Francitown City Francitown City Central district Selibe Phikwe town Basin boundary Basin boundary Selibe Phikwe town International boundary International boundary Central district % Unemployed % Female headed households 10 - 15 30 - 35 16 - 20 36 - 40 21 - 25 41 - 45 46 - 50 26 - 30 51 - 55 31 - 35 56 - 60 Kweneng district Kweneng district Kgatleng district Kgatleng district Gaborone city Gaborone city Southern district South east district Southern district South east district Lobatse town Lobatse town 300 0 300 600 Kilometers 300 0 300 600 Kilometers Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  40. 40. Land tenure and water in Zimbabwe Land Tenure Percentage of Population with No Access to Clean Water N N W W E S S BULILIMA UMZINGWANE INSIZA BULILIMA UMZINGW ANE MBERENGWA INSIZA MANGWE MBERENGWA MATOBO MANGWE GWANDA MATOBO MWENEZI CHIREDZI GWANDA MWENEZI CHIREDZI Basin boundary BEITBRIDGE BEITBRIDGE No access to clean water (%) 10 - 20 21 - 30 31 - 40 41 - 45 Basin boundary District boundary Landtenure Communal Land Ressetlement Area Large Scale Commercial Farming Area Small Scale Commercial Farming Area 100 0 100 200 300 Kilometers National Park 100 0 100 200 300 Kilometers Forest Land lake Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  41. 41. Development and Poverty in Zimbabwe Human Development Index N Human Poverty Index N W E W E S S BULILIMA UMZINGWANE BULILIMA INSIZA UMZINGWANE INSIZA MBERENGWA MANGWE MBERENGWA MATOBO MANGWE GWANDA MATOBO MWENEZI GWANDA CHIREDZI MWENEZI CHIREDZI Basin boundary HDI BEITBRIDGE Basin boundary 0.4 - 0.45 BEITBRIDGE HPI 0.45 - 0.5 10 - 15 0.51 - 0.55 0.56 - 0.6 16 - 20 0.6 - 0.65 21 - 25 25 - 30 100 0 100 200 300 Kilometers 100 0 100 200 300 Kilometers Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  42. 42. Strategic Interventions Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  43. 43. Strategic Interventions 1. Compile interventions 2. Sort 3. Investigate interventions 4. Technical sift 5. Stakeholder identification of hotspots 6. Stakeholder sift 7. Technical assessment Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  44. 44. Strategic Interventions Political voice=Governance=Institutions 1. Formulation of general development strategies and plans LAND, WATER 2. Formulation of ag sector policies and plans LAND, WATER, RURAL FINANCE 3. Formulation of plans at the local level 4. Development of political processes leading to institutional reforms. Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  45. 45. Strategic Interventions Gender sensitivity through strengthened women’s capacity: 1. To participate effectively in policy processes 2. Conduct relevant analyses (gender specific ag expenditures, budgeting) 3. Use research based knowledge in policy process 4. Analyze political economy of specific policy processes through a gendered lens Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  46. 46. Major Issues -Role of small holder agriculture in poverty reduction across the basin—ask the question! -Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to water shortages (increased risk of food insecurity) -Where water productivity is low and can be increased, it should be a priority (depends upon diagnosis) -Underdeveloped institutional frameworks for nr management at different levels (targeting) Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
  47. 47. Thank you Limpopo River Basin Focal Project
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