Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems approach
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Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems approach



Presented at the Basin Focal Project Fisheries Workshop at Cali, Colombia, Feb 2008

Presented at the Basin Focal Project Fisheries Workshop at Cali, Colombia, Feb 2008



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Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems approach Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems approach Presentation Transcript

  • Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems approach Martin van Brakel & Sophie Nguyen-Khoa
  • Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Fisheries governance framework • based on both conventional fisheries management and ecosystem management Purpose “to plan, develop and manage fisheries in a manner that addresses the multiple needs and desires of societies, without jeopardizing the options for future generations to benefit from the full range of goods and services provided by fisheries”.
  • Modern fisheries management • strongly based on ecosystem theory • sectoral, vertically integrated • focuses primarily on fishing activity and target fish resources Ecosystem management • area based • loosely cross-sectoral • focuses on habitats and ecosystem integrity.
  • Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries • Originally formulated in relation to marine capture fisheries, the concept is relevant to inland fisheries (FAO, 2005) where it requires: • definition and scientific description of the ecosystem in terms of scale, extent, structure and functioning • assessment of its state in terms of health or integrity as defined by what is acceptable to society • assessment of threats • maintenance, protection, mitigation, or rehabilitation using adaptive management strategies (Garcia et. al., 2003).
  • Ecosystem approach to aquaculture More clearly expressed in a holistic “ecosystem approach” to development: “An Ecosystem Approach for Aquaculture (EEA) is a strategy for the integration of the activity within the wider ecosystem in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of interlinked social and ecological systems” (Soto et. al., 2007).
  • Fisheries “vs.” Aquaculture? Capture fisheries Aquaculture Natural resources management Farming systems management Greater control of the resource
  • Agro-ecosystems & fisheries • (part of) a framework for integrated assessment which: • requires clear vision of agro-ecosystems boundaries • Involves assessment of the different scales and options of fisheries and aquaculture among social groups • includes explicit analysis of how different stakeholders value fisheries and aquaculture differently
  • Agro-ecological basis and ‘scale’ (i) Identification of agro-ecosystems ‘boundaries’ (seasonal floodplains, rain-fed or irrigated farming systems etc.) of importance to inland fisheries and / or aquaculture (ii) Valuation of (agro-) ecosystems goods & services from fisheries and aquaculture (iii) Identification of capacities that stakeholders have or need to develop to influence trends positively and effectively (incl. rights-based approaches)
  • Agro-ecosystems and seasonality • Vegetation Index (VI) or vegetation greenness • High - green vegetation • Low - water and barren • Time series of VI - seasonality
  • Time series analysis
  • Output: farming systems seasonality
  • Agro-ecosystems approach Serves to: • Delineate systems boundaries within which certain options and constraints for different aquatic production systems are more or less similar • Extrapolate and scale up information on systems in use locally (both for “likelihood of occurrence” and identifying potential) • Target development of well integrated and ecologically efficient aquatic production systems
  • Options and constraints Rainfed • Ponds (fish and • Seasonal water shortage supplementary irrigation and trade-offs • Rice-fish (fisheries and • Dependent on level of rice aquaculture) intensification (trade-offs) • Aquaculture or enhanced • Drawdown fisheries in irrigation reservoirs Irrigated
  • Possible applications in: • integrated aquaculture • ecosystem-based approaches of mitigating negative impacts of aquaculture • inter-sectoral integration • broadening stakeholders participation • use of appropriate incentives • use of local and other relevant knowledge • promotion of EAA-specific research (e.g. estimate carrying capacity at farm level, at the aquatic ecosystem level, the regional level etc.)