BFP-2 Impact Pathways Workshop

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  • See http://cigr-ejournal.tamu.edu/submissions/volume4/Douthwaite%20Invited%20Paper--28Nov2002.pdf for the story

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  • 1. BFP-2 Impact Pathways Workshop 4 – 5 February, 2008 CIATBoru Douthwaite and Sophie Alvarez, CPWF Impact Project CIAT, Cali, Colombia
  • 2. Impact Pathways Matter
  • 3. Why make Impact Pathways explicit?• People plan and implement projects (programs, countries …) on the basis of their change models - their implicit theories about how the world works, i.e., impact pathways• If you can improve the impact pathways (IPs) you can improve the practice, making impact more likely• IPs show a project’s rationale and networks – Help communicate what the project is doing • More fundable – Help with planning, including MTPs – Provide a basis for evaluation • Starting point for evaluation is a good model of what you think will happen• Provide information to support programmatic integration• Provides impact hypotheses for ex-post impact assessment
  • 4. PIPA makes Impact Pathways explicit It does so by developing two perspectives ….1. A problem tree that shows a linear logic linking project outputs to project goal; and2. Network maps that show the evolving relationships necessary to achieve the goal
  • 5. Impact pathways – a more complete picture…. >--------------Outcome-chain perspective------------------> Problem Tree <-----the full picture----> Network maps >---------------Actor-orientated perspective---------
  • 6. Foundations• Adaptation of concepts from Program Evaluation – Renger and Titcomb (2002) – problem trees – Chen (2005) – program theory – Mayne (2004) - performance stories• Innovation histories – Douthwaite and Ashby, 2005• Social network analysis – Cross and Parker, 2004
  • 7. p ro je c t o u tp u ts to p ro je c t g o a l I d e n t if y in g a lin e a r lo g ic lin k in g 1 . P ro b le m T re e H e lp s u n d e rs ta n d p ro je c t ra tio n a le a n d w h a t n e e d s to c h a n g e P r o d u c ts p r o d u c e d in th e W o r k s h o p 2 . O u tp u ts W h a t th e p ro je c t w ill p ro d u c e 3 . V is io nWorkshop n e tw o rk o f a cto rs n e e d e d I d e n t if y in g t h e e v o lv in g W h e re p ro je c t is g o in g - G o a l t o a c h ie v e t h e v is io nRoad Map 4 . "N o w " n e tw o rk m a p 5 . "F u tu re " N e c e s s a ry 6 . P ro je ct n e tw o rk m a p re la tio n s h ip s S c a lin g N e c e s s a ry in p la c e S tra te g y re la tio n s h ip s to p ro d u c e to a c h ie v e th e O U T P U T S th e V IS IO N I n t e g r a t io n o f 7 . O u tc o m e s lo g ic m o d e l b o t h v ie w s T h e o u tc o m e s th e p ro je c t w ill h e lp a c h ie v e , h o w , a n d w ith w h o m
  • 8. After the Workshop• Complete outcomes logic model (that contains outcome hypotheses)• Identify outcome targets and milestones measuring progress towards them• Project M&E based on these• Regular reflection and updating of outcome hypotheses (i.e., impact pathways)
  • 9. Expectations
  • 10. W h y is t h is p r o b le m h a p p e n in g ? W hy? 2nd LEVEL 1st LEVEL e er t H ar St R e l a t io n s h ip N o in f o r m a t io n a v a ila b le a b o u t w a te r- fo o d - P ro b le m W a te r P o v e rty (W P 1 ) "W a te r P o v e rty " p o v e rty n o t in b a s in s c le a r L a c k o f c l a r it y W h o h a s th e a b o u t th e W a t e r A v a ila b ilit y ( W P 2 ) w a te r? h o w th e u se o f w a t e r in a g r ic u lt u r e D ire c tio n W hat does w a t e r d o in s u p p o rts and b a s in s ? li v e lih o o d s p u rp o s e o f th e C P W F La ck o f d a ta o n u n c le a r W a te r "W h y h a v e W a t e r P ro d u c t iv it y ( W P 3 ) P r o d u c t iv it y b e n ch m a rk b a s in s ? " N o t c le a r w h a t a re th eI n s t it u t io n a n d o p p o r t u n it ie s " M o v in gin t e rv e n t io n a n a ly s is ( W P 4 & 5 ) a n d r is k s f o r fo rw a rd o n c h a n g e s in to o m a n y a g r ic u lt u r a l fro n ts " w a te r u se ( G e n e ric ) P ro b le m tre e fo r th e B F P 2 s
  • 11. Exercise Deriving Products/ 1 Outputs from the Problem Tree• List the outputs, the use of which will address the determinants – The determinants are the problems the project is directly addressing with its outputs
  • 12. Some definitions Activity – what we’re doing inside the project  Hold IP Workshop Outputs – what we produce that other people make use of, that solve the determinant  Improved rice variety; priority setting publication Determinant – determinants are the problems the project is directly addressing with its outputs Next users – people and organizations who directly use the outputs End users – the people and organizations that the next users work with. Often the end users are the ultimate beneficiaries (e.g., resource-poor farmers), but not always. Politically-important actors– people and organizations whose support is needed for project success Outcomes – usually the results of the use of outputs by others (often come in chains)  Promotion of rice variety by extension system  Adoption of rice variety by farmers  Higher rice yields  Higher income  More children sent to school
  • 13. Level of influence of Project Level of influence of a projectHighCONTROLLow Research Output 3 Output Outcome Impact activity target Produce research products SEE Impacts Activities Use of research products (outcomes) 10 - 30 years
  • 14. Scaling Out and Scaling Up• Scaling up - an institutional expansion, from adopters and their grassroots organizations to policy makers, donors, development institutions• Scaling out - spread of a project outputs (i.e., a new technology, a new strategy, etc.) from farmer to farmer, community to community, within the same stakeholder groups
  • 15. Exercise Develop a vision of project 2 success at the end of the project• Take 5 minutes to individually answer the question, then develop common project vision by filling out Worksheet 1 – You wake up after your project has finished. Your project has Keep it realistic been a success and is well on its way to achieving its goal. Describe what this success looks like to a journalist: • What was the situation like before the project started (hint – look at the problem tree) – What were the unmet needs and requirements of next users and end users? • What are the next users (disaggregate) now doing differently? • How are project outputs disseminating (scaling out)? • What political support is nurturing this spread (scaling up)? • What are the end users doing differently? • What are the benefits they are enjoying as a result of the project?
  • 16. p ro je c t o u tp u ts to p ro je c t g o a l I d e n t if y in g a lin e a r lo g ic lin k in g 1 . P ro b le m T re e H e lp s u n d e rs ta n d p ro je c t ra tio n a le a n d w h a t n e e d s to c h a n g e P r o d u c ts p r o d u c e d in th e W o r k s h o p 2 . O u tp u ts W h a t th e p ro je c t w ill p ro d u c e 3 . V is io nWorkshop n e tw o rk o f a cto rs n e e d e d I d e n t if y in g t h e e v o lv in g W h e re p ro je c t is g o in g - G o a l t o a c h ie v e t h e v is io nRoad Map 4 . "N o w " n e tw o rk m a p 5 . "F u tu re " N e c e s s a ry 6 . P ro je ct n e tw o rk m a p re la tio n s h ip s S c a lin g N e c e s s a ry in p la c e S tra te g y re la tio n s h ip s to p ro d u c e to a c h ie v e th e O U T P U T S th e V IS IO N I n t e g r a t io n o f 7 . O u tc o m e s lo g ic m o d e l b o t h v ie w s T h e o u tc o m e s th e p ro je c t w ill h e lp a c h ie v e , h o w , a n d w ith w h o m
  • 17. Airline network
  • 18. What is a network? A network is a collection of people and / or things that are connected to each other by some kind of relationship Many kinds of entities can be part of a network: people, projects, organisations, documents, events, cities, countries, etc. Each of these entities can have different levels of influence in the network, and And there are many kinds of relationships that can link such entities, involving transmission or exchange of information, money, goods, affection, influence, infection, etc.
  • 19. Advantages of network models Actor-oriented descriptions:  observable, understandable, verifiable Captures real-life complexity:  We are subject to multiple influences  We influence many others Network models help us understand innovation processes:  Innovation processes happen through different actors, acting in networks  These interactions, relationships and influence are modeled in network maps
  • 20. Anetworkdiagram(organisationslinked by aproject) Influence pathway: actor + relationship + actor + relationship…
  • 21. WRI A plotted FRANC network diagram, ENTERPRISE CREPA multiple URBANET MAs ISSER relations UDS KNUST SGs CPWF WRC FGs RVAU UC IWMI MOFAThe human eye is an analytic tool of remarkable power, and eyeballing pictures ofnetworks is an excellent way to gain an understanding of their structure.(The structure and function of complex networks, M. E. J. Newman)
  • 22. Network tasks…..1. Identify relevant actors2. Develop network diagrams of key relationships (research, funding, scaling out and scaling up) for  Your project now  Residual network 2 years after project has finished3. Identify key levels of influence4. Develop a scaling influence strategy (Worksheet 2)
  • 23. Identify key actors• Who are the actors involved in research, funding, scaling out and scaling up in the area your project is working in?  Can be positions (eg. DDG-R) or organizations  Remember actors at different scales: community/local, your own organization, regional, national, international
  • 24. Some types of actors Government OrganizationNational Agricultural Research and Extension Organization (NAREO) CGIAR Centre University Ultimate Beneficiary NGO Research Organization Private Sector Donor Other (please specify)
  • 25. Exercise Fill out an actor table 3ACRONYM FULL NAME LOCATION TYPE OF ROLE ORGANIZATIONIRRI Int. Rice Research Los Baños, CG Centre Project Institute Philippines implementerMOFA Ministry of Accra, GO Politically- Fisheries and Agric. Ghana important actorFGs Farmers Groups Northern Ult. beneficiary End user GhanaPhilRice Philippine Rice Muños, NAREO Next user Research Institute PhilippinesDfID Dept. for Int. London, Govnt. Org Funding Development England agencyDDG-R Deputy Director CIAT, Cali CG Centre Politically- General of Research important
  • 26. Exercise Develop a network diagram for 4a your project now  Actors:  Use cards for nodes  Relationships  Use arrows to describe direction  Use colour to describe relationship type  Green = funding; brown = research / work; red = scaling out; black = scaling up  Don’t use distance/length
  • 27. Exercise Identify influence levels 4b and attitudes in the networks Actors:  Construct influence towers (0-3 chips) for key actors  Indicate their attitude towards your project: positive  neutral  negative 
  • 28. Exercise Develop a future network 5 corresponding to the vision Draw a second network showing how actors need to be linked to achieve the vision Adjust the influence and attitude  Will the attitude of the actor remain the same or change?  Will the same actors still be equally influential?  Will there be new influential actors in the area?
  • 29. Exercis Developing a Scaling Strategy e (Table 2) 6 Describe the most Why is the change What are the important important to project’s strategiesdifferences between achieve the vision? for achieving the the two networks change?
  • 30. p ro je c t o u tp u ts to p ro je c t g o a l I d e n t if y in g a lin e a r lo g ic lin k in g 1 . P ro b le m T re e H e lp s u n d e rs ta n d p ro je c t ra tio n a le a n d w h a t n e e d s to c h a n g e P r o d u c ts p r o d u c e d in th e W o r k s h o p 2 . O u tp u ts W h a t th e p ro je c t w ill p ro d u c e 3 . V is io nWorkshop n e tw o rk o f a cto rs n e e d e d I d e n t if y in g t h e e v o lv in g W h e re p ro je c t is g o in g - G o a l t o a c h ie v e t h e v is io nRoad Map 4 . "N o w " n e tw o rk m a p 5 . "F u tu re " N e c e s s a ry 6 . P ro je ct n e tw o rk m a p re la tio n s h ip s S c a lin g N e c e s s a ry in p la c e S tra te g y re la tio n s h ip s to p ro d u c e to a c h ie v e th e O U T P U T S th e V IS IO N I n t e g r a t io n o f 7 . O u tc o m e s lo g ic m o d e l b o t h v ie w s T h e o u tc o m e s th e p ro je c t w ill h e lp a c h ie v e , h o w , a n d w ith w h o m
  • 31. Developing the Outcomes LogicModel (a description of the project’s impact pathways)• Why (Dart, 2005)? – To evaluate or clarify the logic of the project intervention – To provide a framework to evaluate the performance of a project • Before, during and after • Evaluation can provide information to improve decision making and enhance learning
  • 32. Exercis e Outcomes Logic Model 7 (fill one table for all stakeholder groups) Actor (or group Change in Change in KAS Project of actors who Practice of of Actor strategies to are expected to Actor required to bring about change in the support this these changes same way) change in KAS and Practice in Actor KAS = Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills
  • 33. Where we are now F u tu re w ith o u t 1 in te rve n tio nTim e 5 4 3 V is io n Im p a c t 2 P a th w a y s 1 Im p a c t P a th w a y s W orkshop Im p r o v e m e n t
  • 34. Impact Pathways Evaluation2 F u tu re w ith o u t in te rve n tio nTim e 5 A d ju s te d 4 A d ju s te d V is io n Im p a c t P a th w a y s 3 2 1 R e fle ctio n Im p r o v e m e n t
  • 35. The process 3 F u tu re w ith o u t A c tu al im p ro ve m e n ts V is io n s in te rve n tio nT im e 5 4 3 Im p a c t p a th w a y s 2 1 R e fle ctio n W o rksh o ps Im p r o v e m e n t
  • 36. Resources• http://impactpathways.pbwiki.com• Douthwaite, Alvarez, Thiele, Mackay. 2008. Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis: A Practical Method for Project Planning and Evaluation. ILAC Brief (in press)• b.s.alvarez@cgiar.org