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THE TERRITORIAL WATERS, CONTINENTAL SHELF, EXCLUSIVE
ECONOMIC ZONE AND OTHER MARITIME ZONES ACT, 1976
• Mostly borrowed from the draft of UNCLOS 1982
• Defines limits of the territorial sea, contiguous
zone and exclusive economic zone.
• Lays down the rights of India in each zone.
• Empowers Central govt. to extend any law, as it
thinks fit, to the contiguous zone and EEZ.
THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL
ACTS AGAINST SAFETY OF MARITIME
NAVIGATION AND FIXED PLATFORMS
ON CONTINENTAL SHELF ACT, 2002
• It extends to the whole of India including the limit
of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the
exclusive economic zone.
• Section 3 defines offences against ship, fixed
platform, cargo of a ship, maritime navigational
• Section 3(i)(g) provides for death penalty in case
• Acc to Sec. 4, the central govt. can confer on
any gazetted officer of the coastguard or any
other gazetted officer of the central govt.
powers of arrest or investigation exercisal by
• Sec. 5 – offences to be tried only by a special
court which shall be setup to try the case on a
• The offences under section 3 shall be deemed
to have been included as extraditable offences
and provided for in all the extradition treaties
made by India with Convention States
• Burden of proof on the accused to disprove
• Section 4 (2) - The provisions of this Code
apply also to any offence committed by any
person on any ship or aircraft registered in
India wherever it may be.
• Section 55 of the General Clauses Act, 1897
defi es ship to i lude e e des iptio of
vessel used in navigation not exclusively
propelled by oars.
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
• Section 188 (b) - When an offence is committed
outside India by a person, not being such citizen,
on any ship or aircraft registered in India, he may
be dealt with in respect of such offence as if it
had been committed at any place within India at
which he may be found.
• no such offence shall be inquired into or tried in
India except with the previous sanction of the
• Ministry of Home Affairs, by a notification
dated 27 August, 1981 extended the
application of the Indian Penal Code, 1860
and the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 to
the exclusive economic zone.
• Section 5(5) and 7(6) of the Maritime Zones
Act empowers the Central govt. to extend any
law as it think fits to the contiguous zone and
Enrica Lexie Case
• Upheld jurisdiction of India to try the Marines
• Police has no jurisdiction to investigate into
offences taking place beyond the territorial sea.
Only Union Govt can.
• Special court has to be setup by Central Govt. and
cannot be tried.
Issuance of ID Cards to Fishermen
• The Ministry of Agriculture has, on 11.12.2009,
launched a Central Sector Scheme on Issua e of
Biometric Identity Cards to Coastal Fishe e at
a total cost of 72 crore
• Out of 18,11,697 coastal fishermen identified for
issuance of biometric ID cards, data collection in
respect of 16,40,722 has been completed.
• Fishermen in the Kochi fishing harbour ha e t
been issued these cards.
Unmanned Maritime Vehicle
• Liquid Robotics Inc., a Sunnyvale, California-
based company, has developed a hybrid wave
and solar propelled Unmanned Maritime
• e plo e po tio s of the o ld s o ea s i
conditions that previously were too
challenging or costly to operate.
• Maybe tested in India to improve Maritime
Trilateral Cooperation on Maritime
• Held in Colombo from July 8-9.
• the three countries agreed on a roadmap for
future cooperation in maritime security
• Outcome Document outlining collaborative
measures in the areas such as Maritime
Domain Awareness, strengthening
coordination of maritime Search and Rescue
etc was signed.
What a fishing boat should do in case a
• Place a double-sided black cone/ fishing
basket on top of the boat.
• During Night, place white light on top of green
light on top of the ship.
What a boat should do in case a Ship
• Communicate using VHF
• O f e ue 16, sa < oat s a e> <ship s
name> and ask the ship to change to another
• Say <mayday mayday mayday> <name of
oat> < oat s ode> <its positio > < hat is
Marine Enforcement Wing
• Special cell and squad of fishery Guards in the
Department of fisheries for the enforcement
of the provisions contained in Kerala Marine
fishing Regulation Act 1980.
• Out of the 9 Coastal Districts, 5 have Marine
Enforcement Units, attached to Fisheries Stations -
Vizhinjam in Thiruvananthapuram District, Neendakara
in Kollam district, Vypin in Ernakulam District, Beypore
in Kozhikode District and Kannur in Kannur District.
• Each station is having a big hired boat and a speed boat
each, owned by the Department.
• Informations/ intelligence are gathered during the
patrolling are being conveyed in time to coast Guard
and Local Police authorities for further necessary
Automatic Identification System (AIS)
What is AIS?
The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an
automatic tracking system used on ships and by
vessel traffic services (VTS) for identifying and
locating vessels by electronically exchanging data
with other nearby ships, AIS base stations, and
satellites. AIS integrates a standardized VHF
transceiver with a positioning system such as a
LORAN-C or GPS receiver, with other electronic
• Various information regarding the vessel such
as name, nationality, type of good, speed etc.
can be obtained via the AIS.
• Radar can only show location.
Types of AIS
• Class A - Type A: Required on IMO/SOLAS
commercial vessels, this equipment includes a
12.5watt VHF transmitter a dual channel
receiver and either a built in GPS or port to
external gps. It can transmit and receive the
full complement of AIS information.
• Cost : $ 4500
AIS Class B
• Less expensive AIS functionality for smaller commercial
vessels and pleasure vessels. This equipment also
includes a VHF transmitter, a dual channel receiver and
is required to have a built in GPS.
• Transmission power is restricted to 2W, giving a typical
range of about 5 – 10 miles.
• only a subset of the possible AIS information (for
instance, not destination, ETA, draft, navigational
status) is transmitted at a reporting rate less than Class
• Cost : $1500 plus $1000 for a 6 screen.
Receive only AIS
• Inexpensive, low power systems that only
receive information from other vessels and do
not transmit any information
• Cost :750 $
Pros of AIS
• The AIS system will give you the MMSI number
and description (and the call sign for type A AIS
systems) of other vessels. This allows users to
easily establish VHF voice contact.
• The AI“ s ste ill see ette th ough ai
squalls, over islands and around corners than
recreational radar systems.
• The AIS system draws less power than a radar
Cons of AIS
• AIS only shows other targets that have functional
• There is some concern that if thousands of
pleasure vessels start transmitting AIS signals it
will clutter the system to the point that it will be
• AIS is a relatively complex system. Users are
depending on the other vessel having properly
maintained, interfaced and functional equipment.