RomanticProgramandNationalism

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RomanticProgramandNationalism

  1. 1. Music: An Appreciation 7 th Brief Edition by Roger Kamien 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education Edited by Carolyn Ponce
  2. 2. Part 5, Chapters 10 & 11 Program Music <ul><li>Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually performed with written explanation of the piece—a program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually composed for piano or orchestra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common types of Program Music: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program symphony—multi-movement/orchestral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concert overture—modeled on opera overture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symphonic poem (or tone poem )—1 movement, orchestral, flexible form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incidental music—for use before or during a play </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Hector Berlioz <ul><li>French composer (1803-1869) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Won Prix de Rome award for Symphonie fantastique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worked as music critic for financial support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer in professional field of conducting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berlioz’s Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconventional, imaginative, innovative orchestrations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required huge resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneered concept of id ée fixe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Listening <ul><li>Symphonie fantastique </li></ul><ul><li>March to the scaffold, 4 th movement (1830) </li></ul><ul><li>by Hector Berlioz </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 241 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Music reflective of story </li></ul><ul><li>Moment where scaffold falls </li></ul><ul><li>and head bounces </li></ul>
  5. 5. Part 5, Chapters 12, 13, 14 & 15 Nationalism <ul><li>National identity grew during the Romantic Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens, not mercenaries now fought wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonds of language, history & culture formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to unifications creating Germany and Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composers deliberately gave their works distinctive national identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of folksongs and folkdances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created original melodies with folk flavor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote operas and program music inspired by native history, legends, and landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strongest impact in countries dominated by the music and composers of Germany, Austria, Italy and France </li></ul>
  6. 6. Listening <ul><li>The Moldau , from Ma Vlast (My Country) (1874) </li></ul><ul><li>by Bedrich Smetana </li></ul><ul><li>Symphonic Poem depicting the main river that flows thorough the Bohemian (Czech) countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Guide: p. 246 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Program material and how </li></ul><ul><li>composer related it to </li></ul><ul><li>the music </li></ul>
  7. 7. Antonin Dvorak <ul><li>Czech composer (1841-1904) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As teenager, played in orchestra under Smetana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urged Americans to write nationalist music using the African-American spiritual </li></ul><ul><li>Dvorak’s music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective of nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used folktunes/spirituals </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Listening <ul><li>Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, “ From the New World ” (1893) </li></ul><ul><li>First Movement: Adagio; Allegro molto </li></ul><ul><li>by Antonin Dvo řá k </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 248 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Based upon American folk melodies </li></ul><ul><li>Sonata form </li></ul><ul><li> (3 themes instead of 2) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky <ul><li>Russian composer (1840-1893) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not begin studying music until age 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Married, divorced two weeks later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by benefactress (patron) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They corresponded but never met </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled Europe and United States </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tchaikovsky ’ s Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote ballets, symphonies, concerti, overtures, operas, and more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fused Russian folk music & European style </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Johannes Brahms <ul><li>German composer (1833-1897) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Son of a musician (father played bass) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied music by day and had playing jobs by night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became close friends with the Schumanns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lived with Clara while Robert was in insane asylum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong friends with Clara, but never romantically involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Brahms’s Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied earlier composers’ works in detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially Bach, Haydn, Mozart & Beethoven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered somewhat conservative due to his use of classical forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote in all traditional forms except opera </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Listening <ul><li>Symphony No. 3 in F Major </li></ul><ul><li>Third Movement: Poco allegretto </li></ul><ul><li>by Johannes Brahms </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 255 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Triple meter </li></ul><ul><li>Ternary form </li></ul><ul><li>Melody was used by </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos Santana & Dave Matthews– Love of My Life </li></ul>

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