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Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
Romanticcomposers
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Romanticcomposers

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  • 1. Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7 th Edition by Roger Kamien Part V The Romantic Period Composers 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • 2. Ch. 1- Romanticism in Music <ul><li>Many important Romantic composers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much individual alteration and adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued use of Classical period forms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater range of tone color, dynamics, and pitch than in Classical period </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded harmony—complex chords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franz Schubert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bed ř ich Smetana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antonin Dvo řá k </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter Tchaikovsky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johannes Brahms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giuseppe Verdi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giacomo Puccini </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Wagner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Schumann </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clara Schumann </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fr é d é ric Chopin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franz Liszt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Felix Mendelssohn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hector Berlioz </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Ch. 2 - Romantic Composers and Their Public <ul><li>Demise of the patronage system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers regarded themselves as “free spirits” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in aristocratic fortune—Napoleonic wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New urban classes/new musical topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public was entranced by virtuosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano became a fixture in most homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers/audience: same social class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few composers financially successful </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Ch. 4 - Franz Schubert <ul><li>Born in Vienna (1797-1828) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Romantic composer </li></ul><ul><li>Prodigious output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When 18 years old wrote 143 songs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 19 years wrote 179 works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included 2 symphonies, opera &amp; mass </li></ul></ul></ul>Schubert’s Music <ul><li>Wrote over 600 songs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also symphonies, string quartets, other chamber music, sonatas, masses, operas, &amp; piano works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Unfinished Symphony : only 2 movements, not 4 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. Ch. 5 - Robert Schumann <ul><li>German, early to mid-Romantic (1810-1856) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem with hand ended his ambition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments &amp; gadget made problem worse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wanted to be piano virtuoso </li></ul><ul><li>Temperamentally unsuited for some of the musical positions he attempted </li></ul><ul><li>Married his piano teacher’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to asylum where he died </li></ul>Robert Schumann’s Music <ul><li>Wrote piano pieces, art songs, and later symphonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano pieces and art songs frequently in cycles </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Ch. 6 - Clara Wieck Schumann <ul><li>German (1819-1896) </li></ul><ul><li>Leading concert pianist </li></ul><ul><li>Pair was friends w/ Johannes Brahms </li></ul><ul><li>Married Robert Schumann </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of 1 st well-known women composers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopped composing after his death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on performing his works </li></ul></ul>Clara Schumann’s Music <ul><li>Stopped composing at age 36 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered herself primarily a performer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote songs, piano pieces, a concerto… </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Ch. 7 - Fr é d é ric Chopin <ul><li>Polish born musician (1810-1849) </li></ul><ul><li>Poet of the piano </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Paris at age 21 – European artistic capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known for his beautiful tone, rhythmic flexibility and extensive use of piano pedals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piano teacher to the daughters of the rich </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoided concert halls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote nocturnes, mazurkas, preludes &amp; waltzes </li></ul></ul>Chopin’s Music <ul><li>Developed personal style at early age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evokes a variety of moods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured the spirit of the Polish people </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Ch. 8 - Franz Liszt <ul><li>Hungarian born composer (1811-1886) </li></ul><ul><li>Touring concert pianist until age 36 </li></ul>Liszt’s Music <ul><li>Extremely controversial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombastic &amp; vulgar, or the ideal music? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created symphonic poem ( tone poem ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtuoso pianist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incredible performer and showman—”rock star” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retired from touring &amp; became court conductor and later took minor holy orders – Abb é Liszt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broke away from strict Classical forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found new ways to exploit the piano </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Ch. 9 - Felix Mendelssohn <ul><li>German composer (1809-1847) </li></ul><ul><li>Early to mid-Romantic period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote symphonies, concertos, sonatas, and other works before being teenager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed early </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for revival of Bach’s music </li></ul><ul><li>Died of a stroke while touring </li></ul>Mendelssohn’s Music <ul><li>Somewhat more conservative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids emotional extremes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects both elegance and balance </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Ch. 11 - Hector Berlioz <ul><li>French composer (1803-1869) </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-Romantic Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passionate &amp; unpredictable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Won Prix de Rome for Symphonie fantastique </li></ul><ul><li>One of the first of the great conductors </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote unconventional music </li></ul><ul><li>Worked as music critic for support </li></ul>Berlioz’s Music <ul><li>Imaginative, innovative orchestrations </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneered concept of id é e fixe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required huge resources </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Ch. 13 - Antonin Dvo řá k <ul><li>Followed Smetana composing Czech national music (1841-1904) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As teenager, played in orchestra under Smetana </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York </li></ul><ul><li>Later returned to Prague Conservatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urged Americans to write nationalist music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote From the New World during 1 st year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Got his break when Brahms heard him </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Ch. 14 - Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky <ul><li>Russian, Late Romantic (1840-1893) </li></ul><ul><li>Married, divorced two weeks later </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by benefactress (patron) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not start until age 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By age 30 had a symphony, opera, tone poem and his1 st great orchestra work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studied music in Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They corresponded but never met </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traveled Europe and United States </li></ul>Tchaikovsky’s Music <ul><li>Wrote symphonies, concerti, overtures, operas, and more </li></ul><ul><li>Fused Russian folk music &amp; European style </li></ul>
  • 13. Ch. 15 - Johannes Brahms <ul><li>German composer (1833-1897) </li></ul><ul><li>Became close friends with the Schumanns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived with Clara while Robert in asylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong friends with Clara, he never married </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Son of a musician (father played bass) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At 13, studied music by day/played gigs by night </li></ul></ul>Brahms’s Music <ul><li>Considered somewhat conservative due to his use of classical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote in all traditional forms except opera </li></ul><ul><li>Studied earlier composers’ works in detail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially Bach, Haydn, Mozart &amp; Beethoven </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Ch. 16 - Giuseppe Verdi <ul><li>Italian (1813-1901) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Busseto &amp; Milan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by patron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Married patron’s daughter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid- and late Romantic composer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote operas with political overtones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalist, supported unification of Italy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrote for middle-class audience who enjoyed opera </li></ul><ul><li>Critics blasted his scandalous subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seemed to condone rape, suicide, and “free love” </li></ul></ul>Verdi’s Music <ul><li>Favorite topic: love story w/ unhappy ending </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful music summons up heroes &amp; villains </li></ul><ul><li>Known for opera </li></ul>
  • 15. Ch. 17 - Giacomo Puccini <ul><li>Italian (1858-1924) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known primarily for operas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late-Romantic composer </li></ul><ul><li>Became wealthy and world famous due to the popularity of his music </li></ul><ul><li>Made use of Exoticism, setting his operas in foreign places </li></ul><ul><li>Short melodies, simple phrases, and realistic dialog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic style verismo (reality): “true to life” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera La Boh è me 1 st major success </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Ch. 18 - Richard Wagner <ul><li>German (1813-1883) </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote in many styles, famous for opera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later moved to Paris—did not work out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid to late Romantic composer </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>His works were large, full blown affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Lived large off of others—ran up debts </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted id è e fixe to leitmotif approach </li></ul>Wagner’s Music <ul><li>Huge orchestrations for operas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires big voices to be heard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No recitatives &amp; arias—just non-stop music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returned to Germany, got in trouble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally settled &amp; succeeded in Munich, Bavaria </li></ul></ul>

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