Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7 th  Edition by Roger Kamien  Part V The Romantic Period Opera 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Ed...
Romanticism  (1820-1900) <ul><li>Stressed emotion, imagination and individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional subjectivity ...
<ul><li>Individuality of Style </li></ul>Characteristics of Romantic Music <ul><ul><li>Composers want uniquely identifiabl...
<ul><li>Program Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association with a story/poem/idea/scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive...
<ul><li>Expanded  Range of Dynamics, Pitch & Tempo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics  ff, pp  expanded to  ffff  &  pppp </li...
Ch. 16 - Giuseppe Verdi <ul><li>Italian (1813-1901) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Busseto & Milan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sup...
Ch. 17 - Giacomo Puccini <ul><li>Italian (1858-1924) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known primarily for operas </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Listening <ul><li>La Boheme  (1896) </li></ul><ul><li>by Puccini </li></ul><ul><li>Act I: Scene between Rodolfo and Mimi t...
Ch. 18 - Richard Wagner <ul><li>German (1813-1883) </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote in many styles, famous for opera </li></ul><ul>...
Listening <ul><li>Die Walk ü re  ( The Valkyrie , 1856) </li></ul><ul><li>by Wagner </li></ul><ul><li>Act I: Love Scene, C...
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Romantic opera

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  1. 1. Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7 th Edition by Roger Kamien Part V The Romantic Period Opera 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  2. 2. Romanticism (1820-1900) <ul><li>Stressed emotion, imagination and individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional subjectivity basis of arts </li></ul><ul><li>Favorite artistic topics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasy and the supernatural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Period of the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in social and economic changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Ages/concept of chivalry & romance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature: as mirror of the human heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture revived Gothic elements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Individuality of Style </li></ul>Characteristics of Romantic Music <ul><ul><li>Composers want uniquely identifiable music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive Aims and Subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark topics draw composers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All approaches were explored: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flamboyance, intimacy, unpredictability, melancholy, rapture, longing, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romantic love still focus of songs & operas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lovers frequently depicted as unhappy and facing overwhelming obstacles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism and Exoticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism : music with a national identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exoticism : intentionally imply foreign culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently in operas with foreign settings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Program Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association with a story/poem/idea/scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive Tone Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers tried to create unique sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the music enhanced through reading program or viewing associated work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blending of existing instruments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of new instruments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone color important to emotional content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorful Harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chords built w/ notes not in traditional keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonic instability consciously used device </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Expanded Range of Dynamics, Pitch & Tempo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics ff, pp expanded to ffff & pppp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms: Miniature and Monumental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some composers went on for hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely high and low pitches were added </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in mood frequently underlined by (sometimes subtle) shifts in tempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others music lasted only a few minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written for a single instrument </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required hundreds of performers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers wrote symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, concertos, operas, and many other Classically traditional works </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ch. 16 - Giuseppe Verdi <ul><li>Italian (1813-1901) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Busseto & Milan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by patron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Married patron’s daughter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid- and late Romantic composer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote operas with political overtones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalist, supported unification of Italy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrote for middle-class audience who enjoyed opera </li></ul><ul><li>Critics blasted his scandalous subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seemed to condone rape, suicide, and “free love” </li></ul></ul>Verdi’s Music <ul><li>Favorite topic: love story w/ unhappy ending </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful music summons up heroes & villains </li></ul><ul><li>Known for opera </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ch. 17 - Giacomo Puccini <ul><li>Italian (1858-1924) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known primarily for operas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late-Romantic composer </li></ul><ul><li>Became wealthy and world famous due to the popularity of his music </li></ul><ul><li>Made use of Exoticism, setting his operas in foreign places </li></ul><ul><li>Short melodies, simple phrases, and realistic dialog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic style verismo (reality): “true to life” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera La Boh è me 1 st major success </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Listening <ul><li>La Boheme (1896) </li></ul><ul><li>by Puccini </li></ul><ul><li>Act I: Scene between Rodolfo and Mimi through Rodolfo’s aria: </li></ul><ul><li>Che gelida manina (How cold your little hand is!) </li></ul><ul><li>Storyline of meeting of Rodolfo and Mimi </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 260 Basic Set, CD 7:01 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 4:28 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Dialog is more realistic </li></ul><ul><li> Tempo shifts to accentuate music & text </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ch. 18 - Richard Wagner <ul><li>German (1813-1883) </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote in many styles, famous for opera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later moved to Paris—did not work out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid to late Romantic composer </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>His works were large, full blown affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Lived large off of others—ran up debts </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted id è e fixe to leitmotif approach </li></ul>Wagner’s Music <ul><li>Huge orchestrations for operas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires big voices to be heard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No recitatives & arias—just non-stop music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returned to Germany, got in trouble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally settled & succeeded in Munich, Bavaria </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Listening <ul><li>Die Walk ü re ( The Valkyrie , 1856) </li></ul><ul><li>by Wagner </li></ul><ul><li>Act I: Love Scene, Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Storyline of the Ring Cycle & this scene </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Guide: p. 268 Basic Set, CD 7:05 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 4:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Huge production, large orchestrations </li></ul><ul><li> Big, powerful voices required </li></ul><ul><li> Several leitmotifs (sword leitmotif; </li></ul><ul><li>love and spring ) </li></ul>

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