PART 7 NONWESTERN MUSIC• Reflects/expresses world’s diversity • Each culture has its music practice • Some have all 3—folk, pop, & classical• These musics influence western music • Especially true in the 20th Century • French composer Claude Debussy • British rocker George Harrison • Jazz artist John Coltrane
MUSIC IN NONWESTERN CULTURE• Characteristics on Nonwestern Music • It reflects its supporting culture • Frequently linked with religion, dance and drama • Often used to communicate messages & relate traditions• Oral Tradition • Frequently transmitted by oral tradition • Music notation far less important than in western culture • Many cultures do not have a music notation • When they do, it serves as a record, not for teaching or performance
CHARACTERISTICS OF NONWESTERN MUSIC• Improvisation • Improvisation is frequently basic to the music • Improvisation usually based on traditional melodic phrases and rhythmic patterns• Voices • Singing usually main way of making music • Vocal approach, timbre, and techniques vary throughout the world • Nasal sound • Strained tone • Throat singing • Many others
CHARACTERISTICS OF NONWESTERN MUSIC• Instruments • Four types based upon sound production: • Membranophones—stretched skin • Primarily drums • Chordophones—stretched string • Harp-types • Aerophones—performer’s breath • Flutes, trumpets, etc • Idiophones—instrument’s body is sound generator • Bells, gongs, scrapers, rattles, etc.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NONWESTERN MUSIC• Style and application within culture causes particular types of instruments to dominate • Strings allow great flexibility of pitch • Idiophones/membranophones: rhythmic emphasis • Aerophones aid in outdoor performance• Geography & materials availability influences• Religion also influences instrumentation
MELODY, RHYTHM, & TEXTURE• Most nonwestern music is monophonic • Sometimes accompanied by a drone• Some cultures use heterophony • All perform same melody with different ornamentation• Scales in nonwestern music are frequently quite different than western musical scales • Intervals between tones can be larger or smaller• Much nonwestern music has very complex rhythms
NONWESTERN & WESTERN• Nonwestern music has been greatly impacted by western influences due to: • Increased urbanization • Spread of technology • Almost worldwide access to recorded music• Some governments subsidize traditional music to preserve cultural heritage