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  • Listening Outlines
  • es

    1. 1. Part I Elements Sound Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7th Edition by Roger Kamien 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education
    2. 2. <ul><li>Music—vital part of human society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heard everywhere in modern life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides entertainment, emotional release, accompanies activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience affected by emotional state of both performer and audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Live performance—special excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating music performances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptive listening enhances enjoyment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of musical elements enhances perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access, portable audio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recorded music is a 20 th century innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background music vs. alert, active listening </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Ch. 1 - Sound: Pitch, Dynamics, and Tone Color <ul><li>Our world is filled with sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds can be pleasant or unpleasant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins as result of a vibrating object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are able to focus on specific sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can ignore sounds that do not interest us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitted through a medium - air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our eardrums vibrate, too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulses sent to brain for processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music: organization of sounds in time </li></ul><ul><li>Four main properties of musical sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Determined by frequency of vibration </li></ul>Pitch: Highness or Lowness of Sound <ul><ul><li>Fast vibration=high pitch; slow vibration=low pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In music, definite pitch is a tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tones have specific frequencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interval : distance between 2 tones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., 440 cycles (vibrations) per second = A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, smaller vibrating objects=higher pitches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular vibrations create sounds of indefinite pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Octave : doubling/halving of frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tones an octave apart seem to blend together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western music divides octave into 12 tones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-western music may divide into different number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range : distance between voice or </li></ul>instrument ’s highest & lowest possible tones
    5. 5. <ul><li>Relative loudness of a sound </li></ul>Dynamics <ul><ul><li>Related to amplitude of vibration producing sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accent : tone played louder than tones near it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian terms used to indicate dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in dynamics may be sudden or gradual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremes: ppp, pppp, fff, ffff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crescendo : gradually louder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrescendo (diminuendo) : gradually softer </li></ul></ul>pianissimo pp very soft piano p soft mezzo piano mp moderately soft mezzo forte mf moderately loud forte f loud fortissimo ff very loud
    6. 6. <ul><li>Quality that distinguishes tones </li></ul>Tone Color – also called timbre <ul><li>Can be bright, dark, mellow, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in tone color create variety and contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone colors add a sense of continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unlimited variety of tone colors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers frequently blend sounds of instruments to create new tone colors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern electronic techniques create new tone colors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific melodies with specific tone colors </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Listening Outlines, Vocal Music Guides, and the Properties of Sound <ul><ul><ul><li>Listening Outline - points out notable musical sounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide – helps the listener follow the thought, story, or drama </li></ul></ul>* Suggestion: while listening to one passage, look ahead to what is next. <ul><ul><li>Listening Outlines & Vocal Music Guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps focus attention on musical events as they occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preceded by description of the music ’s main features </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Listening <ul><li>The Firebird, Scene 2 (1910) </li></ul><ul><li>by Igor Stravinsky </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set: CD 1:01 </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Tone Colors through instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic contrasts </li></ul>2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education
    9. 9. Listening <ul><li>C-Jam Blues (1942) </li></ul><ul><li>by Duke Ellington and His Famous Orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Brief set, CD 1:3 </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Tone Colors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated note melody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvised solos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muted brass instruments </li></ul></ul>2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education

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