midages

994 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
994
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
62
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

midages

  1. 1. Part II The Middle Ages and Renaissance 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education Music: An Appreciation 7 th Brief Edition By: Roger Kamien
  2. 2. Time Line <ul><li>Middle Ages (450-1450) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rome sacked by Vandals—455 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beowulf —c. 700 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Crusade—1066 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black Death—1347-52 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales – 1387-1400 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joan of Arc executed by English—1431 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Middle Ages <ul><li>A thousand years of European history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early - a time of migrations, upheavals & wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later – a period of cultural growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanesque churches & monasteries; Gothic cathedrals; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crusades to recover the Holy City from the Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Distinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobility sheltered in fortified castles; knights in armor; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amused themselves with hunting, feasting & tournaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants vast majority of population; lived miserably; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subject to feudal overlords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clergy Roman Catholic church exerted power; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monks held a virtual monopoly on learning </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ch. 1 - Music in the Middle Ages <ul><li>Church was the center of musical life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music primarily vocal and sacred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments not used in church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few medieval instruments have survived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music manuscripts did not indicate tempo, dynamics or rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Important musicians were priests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Women were not allowed to sing in church, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but did make music in convents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Only sacred music was notated </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Gregorian Chant <ul><ul><li>Official music of the Roman Catholic church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No longer common since 2 nd Vatican Council (1962-1965) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the voice of the church rather than an individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monophonic melody set to Latin text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melodies tend to move by steps in a narrow range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible rhythm - without meter and sense of beat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for Pope Gregory I (r. 590-604) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later the melodies were notated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notation developed over several centuries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Church Modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic scales made of different whole & half-step patterns </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Listening <ul><li>Alleluia: Vidimus stellam </li></ul><ul><li>(We Have Seen His Star) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 66 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 1:63 Brief Set, CD 1:47 </li></ul><ul><li>Gregorian Chant </li></ul><ul><li>Monophonic texture </li></ul><ul><li>Ternary form: A B A </li></ul>
  7. 7. Listening <ul><li>O successores (You successors) </li></ul><ul><li>Hildegard of Bingen </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 69 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 1:66 Brief Set, CD 1:50 </li></ul><ul><li>Chant </li></ul><ul><li>Originally written without accompaniment </li></ul><ul><li>This recording includes a drone— long, sustained notes </li></ul><ul><li>Note extended range of melody </li></ul><ul><li>Written for nuns by a nun (sung in a convent) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Secular Music in the Middle Ages <ul><li>Composed by French nobles who were poet-musicians </li></ul><ul><li>Troubadours (southern France) </li></ul><ul><li>Trouv è res (northern France) </li></ul><ul><li>Performed by jongleurs (traveling minstrels) </li></ul><ul><li>Song topics: love, Crusades, dancing, </li></ul><ul><li>spinning songs </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental dances </li></ul>
  9. 9. Listening - Estampie <ul><li>Medieval dance music </li></ul><ul><li>Strong beat (for dancing) </li></ul><ul><li>Single melody line is notated </li></ul><ul><li>Performers improvised instrumental accompaniment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 1:67 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 1:51 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Development of Polyphony: Organum <ul><li>Between 700-900 a 2 nd melody line added to chant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional part initially improvised, not written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralleled chant line at a different pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>900-1200 added line grew more independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed its own melodic curve (no longer parallel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. 1100 note-against-note motion abandoned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 lines w/ individual rhythmic and melodic content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New part, in top voice, moved faster than the chant line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>School of Notre Dame (Paris): Measured Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Leonin & Perotin developed notation of precise rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chant notation had only indicated pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medieval theorists considered interval of 3 rd as dissonant </li></ul><ul><li>Modern chords built of 3 rd s, considered consonant </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fourteenth-Century Music: The “New Art” in Italy and France <ul><li>Secular music more important than sacred </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in musical style – known as new art </li></ul><ul><li>ars nova (Latin) </li></ul><ul><li>New music notation system evolved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beats could be subdivided into 2 as well as 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syncopation became important rhythmic practice </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Listening <ul><li>Puis qu ’ en oubli sui de vous </li></ul><ul><li>(Since I am forgotten by you; around 1363) </li></ul><ul><li>by Guillaume de Machaut </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set: CD 1: 72, Brief Set: 1:52 </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 74 </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Melody accompanied by two lower parts </li></ul><ul><li>Syncopation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Listening <ul><li>Agnus Dei from Notre Dame Mass by </li></ul><ul><li>Guillaume de Machaut </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 76 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 1:73 Brief Set, CD 1:53 </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphonic; triple meter; syncopation </li></ul><ul><li>Ternary form: A B A (form results from the text) </li></ul>

×