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Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7 th  Edition by Roger Kamien  Part VI The 20th Century & Beyond Music after 1945 2011 © McG...
Ch. 17 - Musical Styles since 1945 <ul><li>Many societal changes since WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant communication ha...
<ul><li>Extensions of the 12-Tone System: Serialism </li></ul>Increased Use of the 12-Tone System <ul><li>After WWII, Euro...
<ul><li>Minimalist Music </li></ul>Chance Music <ul><li>Opposite of serialism </li></ul><ul><li>Composers choose pitches, ...
<ul><li>Return to Tonality </li></ul>Musical Quotation <ul><li>Represents conscious break with serialism </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Mixed media </li></ul>“ Liberation of Sound” <ul><li>Use of wider variety of sounds than ever </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Ch. 18 - Music since 1945:    Five Representative Pieces <ul><li>Sonatas and Interludes  for Prepared Piano </li></ul><ul>...
Listening <ul><li>Po è me  é lectronique  ( Electronic Poem;  1958) </li></ul><ul><li>by Edgard Var è se (1883-1965) </li>...
Listening <ul><li>Concerto Grosso 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>(To Handel’s Sonata in D Major for Violin and Continuo, First Mov...
Listening <ul><li>Short Ride in a Fast Machine , by John Adams </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 351 </li></ul><ul><...
Listening <ul><li>Shard  (1997) by Elliott Carter </li></ul><ul><li>for solo acoustic guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Listening o...
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20th century1945

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Transcript of "20th century1945"

  1. 1. Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7 th Edition by Roger Kamien Part VI The 20th Century & Beyond Music after 1945 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  2. 2. Ch. 17 - Musical Styles since 1945 <ul><li>Many societal changes since WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant communication has altered the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant demand for novelty </li></ul></ul>Characteristics of Music Since 1945 <ul><li>Increased use of the 12-tone system </li></ul><ul><li>Serialism —12-tone techniques extended </li></ul><ul><li>Chance music that includes the random </li></ul><ul><li>Minimalist music w/ tonality, pulse, repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate quotations of earlier music in work </li></ul><ul><li>Return to tonality by some composers </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic music </li></ul><ul><li>“ Liberation of sound” </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed media </li></ul><ul><li>New concepts of rhythm & form </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Extensions of the 12-Tone System: Serialism </li></ul>Increased Use of the 12-Tone System <ul><li>After WWII, Europeans explored 12-tone </li></ul><ul><li>12-tone viewed as technique—not a style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Webern’s music & style became popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazi’s had banned music by Schoenberg & Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European composers heard 12-tone as “new” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pointillist approach w/ atomized melodies </li></ul><ul><li>The system was used to organize rhythm, dynamics, and tone color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone row ordered relationships of pitches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serialism ordered other musical elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result was a totally controlled, organized music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships often very difficult to perceive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Minimalist Music </li></ul>Chance Music <ul><li>Opposite of serialism </li></ul><ul><li>Composers choose pitches, tone colors, & rhythms by random methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Cage: 4’33”, Imaginary Landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karlheinz Stockhausen: Piano Piece No. 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steady pulse, clear tonality, repetition of short melodic fragments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics, texture, & harmony constant over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on simple forms, clarity, understatement </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Return to Tonality </li></ul>Musical Quotation <ul><li>Represents conscious break with serialism </li></ul><ul><li>Improves communication w/ audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quoted material conveys symbolic meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallels quotation in implying other styles </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently juxtaposes quoted material with others, creating an Ives-esque sound </li></ul>Electronic Music <ul><li>Uses technological advances for new music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recording tape, synthesizers, computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows composers to skip the middle step of performers to convey their ideas to an audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides unlimited palette of sounds/tone colors </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Mixed media </li></ul>“ Liberation of Sound” <ul><li>Use of wider variety of sounds than ever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sounds were previously considered noises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual art often combined w/ music for effect </li></ul><ul><li>Novel & unusual performance techniques are required (screaming, tapping instrument, …) </li></ul>Rhythm and Form <ul><li>Some new compositions ignore rhythmic notation & specify sound in seconds/minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some music “unfolds” w/o obvious form devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of microtones, clusters, any new sound </li></ul><ul><li>Often intended to relax concert atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional forms giving way to new ideas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ch. 18 - Music since 1945: Five Representative Pieces <ul><li>Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Sonata II (1946-1948) </li></ul><ul><li>by John Cage (1912-1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 9:01 Brief Set, CD 5:35 </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared piano is grand piano w/ objects inserted between some strings </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Binary form—A A B B </li></ul><ul><li> Percussive sounds on some notes </li></ul><ul><li> Polyphonic </li></ul>
  8. 8. Listening <ul><li>Po è me é lectronique ( Electronic Poem; 1958) </li></ul><ul><li>by Edgard Var è se (1883-1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 348 Basic Set, CD 9:03 </li></ul><ul><li> Brief Set, CD 5:37 </li></ul><ul><li>Created using recording tape, wide variety of raw sounds that are often electronically processed </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Electronic and electronically processed sounds </li></ul><ul><li> Some tone-like sounds, some noise-like </li></ul><ul><li> Early electronic composition </li></ul>
  9. 9. Listening <ul><li>Concerto Grosso 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>(To Handel’s Sonata in D Major for Violin and Continuo, First Movement) </li></ul><ul><li>by Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (b. 1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 350 Basic Set, CD 9:16 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 5:41 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Quotation music, each of its 5 movements uses material from 1 st movement of the Handel piece. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Use of quoted material </li></ul><ul><li> Continuo part, as in Baroque Period </li></ul><ul><li> Terraced dynamics to imply Baroque </li></ul>
  10. 10. Listening <ul><li>Short Ride in a Fast Machine , by John Adams </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 351 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 9:18 Brief Set, CD 5:43 </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid tempo </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic drive </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful, colorful sonorities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Listening <ul><li>Shard (1997) by Elliott Carter </li></ul><ul><li>for solo acoustic guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Listening outline p. 354 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 9:22 Brief Set, CD 5:47 </li></ul><ul><li>Jazzlike offbeat accents </li></ul><ul><li>Dyads – two tones sounding simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonics </li></ul>
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