Cardiff Case Studies - Morning PresentationPresentation Transcript
Welcome and introduction to Cardiff Case Studies Dr Peter Mackie
The case studies initiative: What are they & how might they be used?
A free resource for teachers to use as examples
A free resource for students to use as examples in their coursework and exams
Improve student awareness of basic university-level skills
The case studies initiative: What are they & how might they be used?
Encourage links between Cardiff university and FE institutions
Raise awareness of issues covered at university. This may: i] increase interest amongst widening access students; ii] support the transition of other students
Promote undergraduate courses at Cardiff University
Innovation and application of Geographical research methods Please contact Dr Jon Anderson for copies of this presentation [email_address]
The Planning and Regeneration of Cardiff Dr Neil Harris [email_address]
Cardiff’s spatial structure
Compact historic centre
Rail and road infrastructure
Central pivot point of road and rail
‘ Hand and fingers’; ‘fan-like’
A compact and intimate city
Constrained by physical geography and coalescence
Strategic options for growth (1966)
City of 500,000 by the year 2000
City centre redevelopment
Different models of growth
Close peripheral expansion – a single, unified and growing city
An ‘all car’ solution to transport
Re-shaping the city – 1977
‘ Hollowing out’ of the city
New roads infrastructure
Peripheral distributor road
Special employment use
Housing in the north and east of the city
Capitalising on strategic sites - - 1983
Technology parks and business parks
Countryside belt to constrain development
Inner city decline
Peripheral suburban growth
Prioritising investment in the ‘waterfront strip’
‘ Losing control’ of the city’s development strategy
Over-allocation of land
The ‘greening’ of growth - 1995
The sustainability agenda
A European capital
Consolidation of Cardiff Bay
The city approaching its ‘limits’
Projects – 1990s-present
Increasingly dated planning framework
Opportunism and project-led schemes
Increasing pressure on greenfield sites
Major residential allocations
Where next for Cardiff?
City centre and Cardiff Bay has been focus for development
Significant population growth estimated
Residential allocations in north and or west of Cardiff
Challenge to Cardiff’s character and existing communities
Using the case study
Principles of urban growth
Historical impacts on city’s form
Population figures and forecasts
‘ Live’ projects in Local Development Plan and community engagement
Thank you for listening
The environmental impacts of a major sport event: a case study of the FA Cup Final Dr Andrea Collins [email_address]
Background to case study
Event organisers and policy makers are increasingly interested in the environmental impacts of major events.
Increased action amongst organisers of major sport events to reduce their environmental impacts.
How might we begin to identify and measure the environmental impacts associated with staging major sport events?
One approach is the ‘ Ecological Footprint’.
The Case Event: 2004 FA Cup Final
Tourism is an important part of Cardiff’s development strategy as an ‘events city’ (11 million tourists per year).
Cardiff hosted the FA Cup Final at the Millennium Stadium (2001-2006) while Wembley was being rebuilt.
Economic impact 2001 Final - estimated £16.3 million additional expenditure (£11.7m in local economy).
But, what might be the environmental impacts associated with hosting such a major sporting event?
Measuring Tool: The Ecological Footprint
The Ecological Footprint is a spatial indicator.
Measures the environmental impact by estimating the land area required to provide the goods and services consumed by a defined population.
“ Do we fit onto our planet or are we consuming too much too fast?”
The Footprint’s unit of analysis in the ‘global hectare’ (gha).
In 2007, the available biocapacity of the planet was 1.8 global hectares (WWF, 2010).
However, the average person had a Footprint of 2.87 global hectares - 50% greater.
Putting Sport Events in the Picture
Good awareness raising tool.
Identify and compare the environmental impacts of different types of visitor activities.
Could be used to plan and manage events in a more sustainable way and reduce their environmental impacts.
Footprinting the 2004 FA Cup Final (Manchester Utd v Millwall FC)
Event: 2004 FA Cup Final
Geographical Location: Cardiff
Venue : Millennium Stadium,
Event Duration: 1 day
Visitor Numbers: 73,000 (98% ticket holders)
Primary data collected for:
visitor travel to the event
visitor food and drink consumption
infrastructure of the event venue
event related waste
Calculating the Ecological Footprint: Key Data Sources Source of Information Data obtained The FA Ticket sales Millennium Stadium Food and drink sales (Hospitality & Public) Litter and Waste Cardiff Council Litter collected from street sweepings and waste bins Park and Ride (no. of vehicles) Food and Drink Business survey in City centre & Bay area (Permanent & Mobile) No. of customers Amount of food and drink purchased Amount of waste and composition Supporters Survey (1% sample) Visitor travel to the event, food and drink consumption, and length of stay
Final Score: Ecological Footprint Results Additional Footprint = Total Footprint minus (-) Home Footprint Consumption Category Total Visitor Ecological Footprint [gha] Visitors Ecological Footprint at home [gha] Visitor Additional Ecological Footprint [gha] Transport 1670 120 1550 Food and drink 1381 268 1113 Stadium Infrastructure 0.10 - - Total 3051 ( 0.04 gha/visitor) 388 ( 0.036 gha/visitor) 2663 ( 0.005gha/visitor)
Travel footprint 1,670 global hectares
55% total event Footprint
15 times greater visitors Footprint at home
43 million passenger kilometres:
Visitor Food & drink
1,381 global hectares
45% total event Footprint
Almost 5 times greater than visitors footprint at home over the same period (i.e. 1 days)
Relates to the scale, type and pattern of visitors food and drink consumption
99% from ‘eating out’ establishments (e.g. restaurants and fast food outlets)
Food Facts – Match Day (10 supporters)
41 pints lager
12 measures spirits
9 pints beer
9 bottles alcohol pops
5 pints cider
2 bottles wine
30 cans soft drink
4 bottles mineral water
4 cups tea/coffee
7 meat dishes
1 vegetarian dish
5 pasties/pies/sausage rolls
3 portions chips
2 beef burgers
2 packets crisps
0 pieces fruit
Estimated 59 tonnes of waste:
food & drink businesses (79%)
Millennium Stadium (10%)
coach and car parks (6%)
litter bins & sweepings (5%)
Majority sent to landfill:
food waste (18%)
paper & card packaging (10%)
Seating capacity 74,500
Facilities including restaurants, bars, merchandise outlets
60,000 tonnes building materials (majority concrete & steel)
Estimated 100 million visitors over 100 yr lifespan
Infrastructure Footprint 0.10 global hectares per event
Within a relatively short period of time a major sport event can generate a large ecological impact.
Number of supporters, they way they travel, their food and drink consumption, and litter and waste produced all have significant environmental impacts.
The Footprint can identify those consumption activities that have the greatest impact.
Assist event organisers and decision makers in managing the environmental impacts of events and assess the effectiveness different policies and strategies.
Retail Change in Cardiff Professor Cliff Guy [email_address]
Retail Change in Cardiff
Focus is on explaining patterns of decentralised retail development
‘ Naïve ’ explanation would emphasise consumer access and requirements of retailers
More realistic explanation examines:
town planning policy and its application
influence of wider economic and political agendas
Cardiff is a good case-study:
City of 320,000 pop., plenty of potential for out-of-centre development
Benefits from detailed long-term research into retail development and planning policy
Large Food Store (Hypermarket, Superstore)
typically Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury, Morrison
usually in clusters (Retail Parks)
mainly ‘bulky goods’ (typically B and Q, MFI, Comet, etc.)
more recently, ‘high street goods’ (Toys R Us, Boots, Argos, Next, etc.)
Cardiff – Out of Centre Retailing Total out-of-centre floor area: 115,000 sq.m. convenience 241,000 sq.m. comparison (City centre 321,000 sq.m.) Three main clusters, all close to major road intersections
Cardiff - Food Superstores Asda Asda Morrison Tesco Tesco Asda Tesco Tesco Sainsbury Sainsbury Tesco City Centre Morrison Asda Waitrose
Cardiff - Retail Parks Culverhouse Cross Cardiff Bay Newport Road Cardiff Gate City Centre Capital Lifestyle
Cardiff County Council: Retail Planning Policy
In principle, follows central Government guidance to severely limit out-of-centre development
But unable in 1980s/90s to withstand development pressure in key locations
Some retailing encouraged by Council in order to finance other development:
Cardiff Gate (residential, new road)
Leckwith (new football stadium)
International Sports Village
Has managed to restrict nature of goods sold out-of-centre, to protect city centre
Example of Retail-Led Regeneration: Leckwith Development
On the site of previous athletics stadium
Cardiff City stadium
athletics stadium on new site
retail park (42,000 sq.m.)
Costco, Asda, and smaller units
hotel & health club
Retail park and hotel required to help finance the new stadia
Case-studies such as Cardiff can throw light on processes of retail growth and change
Over 100 out-of-centre stores, which together exceed the city centre retail area
Clear that Cardiff Council’s policy of restricting off-centre development hasn’t worked properly
Shows that planning policy can be subordinated to other objectives (more important politically)
Cardiff Case Studies: Geographical Research for FE teachers