Cardiff Case Studies - Morning Presentation
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  • Cardiff has 11 million tourists per year Visitor Footprint (8.67gha/visitor) Resident Footprint (5.59 gha/cap) Tourism is an important part of Cardiff’s development strategy as an ‘events city’. The FA Cup Final is one of Cardiff’s most high profile annual sporting events.
  • We all put pressure on the environment/ use the world’ natural resources to provide for our basic every day needs needs For examepls, the way we travel, the food we eat, the energy we use to heat our homes and the litter and waste we produce. The EF has 6 main components: Carbon-uptake Footprint; Grazing; forest; fishing grounds; crop land; and built-up land Take the example of a Burger: Grazing land – raising cattle for meat Crop land – grow feed for the cattle Built land – transportation of cattle and meat products; industrial structures e.g. slaughter houses, meat processing plants, restaurants Forest land – materials for paper and card packaging Carbon land – processing and cooking
  • Applying the Footprint to a major sport event is valuable for a number reasons: Supporters can begin to appreciate the link between their local consumption activities and their global environmental impacts. supporter travel, food and drink consumed and the litter/waste produced.
  • Environmental impacts of attending this event is almost 8 times greater
  • The most significant area of visitors consumption was their travel patterns. How visitors travelled and the distances travelled – generated an EF 1,670gha. Travel was responsible for 55% total impact. The impact of visitors travel to the event was 15 times greater than at their home location over the same period of time. Car was the most popular mode of travel and accounted for 47% total distances travelled by visitors and as shown in pie chart was responsible for almost 70% total transport EF. Although rail accounted for 34% total distance travelled, it was only responsible for 19% total travel EF. This is because it has a much lower modal impact.
  • Speed and familiarity
  • Cardiff's Millennium Stadium has a seating capacity of 74,500. Stadium also has a number of facilities for the public including restaurants, bars, food and drink outlets, merchandise outlets Despite using some 60,000 tonnes of materials (majority concrete and steel), on an event basis the venue attracts a very low footprint score - one tenth of a hectare. This is because the energy involved in producing the materials used to construct the stadium is consumed over the estimated lifetime of the venue (100 yrs) before materials start to degrade.

Cardiff Case Studies - Morning Presentation Cardiff Case Studies - Morning Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Welcome and introduction to Cardiff Case Studies Dr Peter Mackie
  • The case studies initiative: What are they & how might they be used?
    • Teaching aims
    • A free resource for teachers to use as examples
    • A free resource for students to use as examples in their coursework and exams
    • Improve student awareness of basic university-level skills
  • The case studies initiative: What are they & how might they be used?
    • Broader aims
    • Encourage links between Cardiff university and FE institutions
    • Raise awareness of issues covered at university. This may: i] increase interest amongst widening access students; ii] support the transition of other students
    • Promote undergraduate courses at Cardiff University
  • Innovation and application of Geographical research methods Please contact Dr Jon Anderson for copies of this presentation [email_address]
  • The Planning and Regeneration of Cardiff Dr Neil Harris [email_address]
  • Cardiff’s spatial structure
    • Compact historic centre
    • Coal metropolis
    • Rail and road infrastructure
    • Central pivot point of road and rail
    • River corridors
    • ‘ Hand and fingers’; ‘fan-like’
    • A compact and intimate city
    • Constrained by physical geography and coalescence
  • Strategic options for growth (1966)
    • City of 500,000 by the year 2000
    • City centre redevelopment
    • Different models of growth
    • Close peripheral expansion – a single, unified and growing city
    • An ‘all car’ solution to transport
  • Re-shaping the city – 1977
    • Declining population
    • ‘ Hollowing out’ of the city
    • New roads infrastructure
    • M4 motorway
    • Peripheral distributor road
    • Special employment use
    • Housing in the north and east of the city
  • Capitalising on strategic sites - - 1983
    • Technology parks and business parks
    • Countryside belt to constrain development
    • Inner city decline
    • Peripheral suburban growth
    • Prioritising investment in the ‘waterfront strip’
    • ‘ Losing control’ of the city’s development strategy
    • Over-allocation of land
  • The ‘greening’ of growth - 1995
    • The sustainability agenda
    • A European capital
    • Landscape designations
    • Retail concentration
    • Consolidation of Cardiff Bay
    • The city approaching its ‘limits’
  • Projects – 1990s-present
    • Increasingly dated planning framework
    • Opportunism and project-led schemes
    • Increasing pressure on greenfield sites
    • Major residential allocations
  • Where next for Cardiff?
    • City centre and Cardiff Bay has been focus for development
    • Significant population growth estimated
    • Residential allocations in north and or west of Cardiff
    • Sustainable communities
    • Challenge to Cardiff’s character and existing communities
  • Using the case study
    • Principles of urban growth
    • Historical impacts on city’s form
    • Urban models
    • Population figures and forecasts
    • Place-marketing
    • ‘ Live’ projects in Local Development Plan and community engagement
  • Thank you for listening
  • The environmental impacts of a major sport event: a case study of the FA Cup Final Dr Andrea Collins [email_address]
  • Background to case study
    • Event organisers and policy makers are increasingly interested in the environmental impacts of major events.
    • Increased action amongst organisers of major sport events to reduce their environmental impacts.
    • How might we begin to identify and measure the environmental impacts associated with staging major sport events?
    • One approach is the ‘ Ecological Footprint’.
  • The Case Event: 2004 FA Cup Final
    • Tourism is an important part of Cardiff’s development strategy as an ‘events city’ (11 million tourists per year).
    • Cardiff hosted the FA Cup Final at the Millennium Stadium (2001-2006) while Wembley was being rebuilt.
    • Economic impact 2001 Final - estimated £16.3 million additional expenditure (£11.7m in local economy).
    • But, what might be the environmental impacts associated with hosting such a major sporting event?
  • Measuring Tool: The Ecological Footprint
    • The Ecological Footprint is a spatial indicator.
    • Measures the environmental impact by estimating the land area required to provide the goods and services consumed by a defined population.
      • “ Do we fit onto our planet or are we consuming too much too fast?”
      • The Footprint’s unit of analysis in the ‘global hectare’ (gha).
      • In 2007, the available biocapacity of the planet was 1.8 global hectares (WWF, 2010).
      • However, the average person had a Footprint of 2.87 global hectares - 50% greater.
  • Putting Sport Events in the Picture
    • Good awareness raising tool.
    • Identify and compare the environmental impacts of different types of visitor activities.
    • Could be used to plan and manage events in a more sustainable way and reduce their environmental impacts.
  • Footprinting the 2004 FA Cup Final (Manchester Utd v Millwall FC)
    • Event: 2004 FA Cup Final
    • Geographical Location: Cardiff
    • Venue : Millennium Stadium,
    • Event Duration: 1 day
    • Visitor Numbers: 73,000 (98% ticket holders)
    • Primary data collected for:
      • visitor travel to the event
      • visitor food and drink consumption
      • infrastructure of the event venue
      • event related waste
  • Calculating the Ecological Footprint: Key Data Sources Source of Information Data obtained The FA Ticket sales Millennium Stadium Food and drink sales (Hospitality & Public) Litter and Waste Cardiff Council Litter collected from street sweepings and waste bins Park and Ride (no. of vehicles) Food and Drink Business survey in City centre & Bay area (Permanent & Mobile) No. of customers Amount of food and drink purchased Amount of waste and composition Supporters Survey (1% sample) Visitor travel to the event, food and drink consumption, and length of stay
  • Final Score: Ecological Footprint Results Additional Footprint = Total Footprint minus (-) Home Footprint Consumption Category Total Visitor Ecological Footprint [gha] Visitors Ecological Footprint at home [gha] Visitor Additional Ecological Footprint [gha] Transport 1670 120 1550 Food and drink 1381 268 1113 Stadium Infrastructure 0.10 - - Total 3051 ( 0.04 gha/visitor) 388 ( 0.036 gha/visitor) 2663 ( 0.005gha/visitor)
  • Visitor Travel
    • Travel footprint 1,670 global hectares
      • 55% total event Footprint
      • 15 times greater visitors Footprint at home
    • 43 million passenger kilometres:
      • car (47%)
      • rail (34%)
      • coaches (17%)
      • mini-bus (2%)
  • Visitor Food & drink
    • 1,381 global hectares
    • 45% total event Footprint
    • Almost 5 times greater than visitors footprint at home over the same period (i.e. 1 days)
    • Relates to the scale, type and pattern of visitors food and drink consumption
    • 99% from ‘eating out’ establishments (e.g. restaurants and fast food outlets)
  • Food Facts – Match Day (10 supporters)
    • Alcoholic drinks
    • 41 pints lager
    • 12 measures spirits
    • 9 pints beer
    • 9 bottles alcohol pops
    • 5 pints cider
    • 2 bottles wine
    • Non-alcoholic drinks
    • 30 cans soft drink
    • 4 bottles mineral water
    • 4 cups tea/coffee
    • Food
    • 7 meat dishes
    • 1 vegetarian dish
    • 5 pasties/pies/sausage rolls
    • 4 sandwiches
    • 3 portions chips
    • 3 cakes
    • 3 ice-creams
    • 2 beef burgers
    • 2 hotdogs
    • 2 packets crisps
    • 0 pieces fruit
  • Visitor Waste
    • Estimated 59 tonnes of waste:
      • food & drink businesses (79%)
      • Millennium Stadium (10%)
      • coach and car parks (6%)
      • litter bins & sweepings (5%)
    • Majority sent to landfill:
      • glass (66%)
      • food waste (18%)
      • paper & card packaging (10%)
  • Stadium Infrastructure
    • Seating capacity 74,500
    • Facilities including restaurants, bars, merchandise outlets
    • 60,000 tonnes building materials (majority concrete & steel)
    • Estimated 100 million visitors over 100 yr lifespan
    • Infrastructure Footprint 0.10 global hectares per event
  • Conclusions
    • Within a relatively short period of time a major sport event can generate a large ecological impact.
    • Number of supporters, they way they travel, their food and drink consumption, and litter and waste produced all have significant environmental impacts.
    • The Footprint can identify those consumption activities that have the greatest impact.
    • Assist event organisers and decision makers in managing the environmental impacts of events and assess the effectiveness different policies and strategies.
  • Retail Change in Cardiff Professor Cliff Guy [email_address]
  • Retail Change in Cardiff
    • Focus is on explaining patterns of decentralised retail development
    • ‘ Naïve ’ explanation would emphasise consumer access and requirements of retailers
    • More realistic explanation examines:
      • town planning policy and its application
      • developers’ requirements
      • influence of wider economic and political agendas
    • Cardiff is a good case-study:
      • City of 320,000 pop., plenty of potential for out-of-centre development
      • Benefits from detailed long-term research into retail development and planning policy
  • Decentralised Retailing
    • Large Food Store (Hypermarket, Superstore)
      • usually free-standing
      • typically Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury, Morrison
    • Retail Warehouse
      • usually in clusters (Retail Parks)
      • mainly ‘bulky goods’ (typically B and Q, MFI, Comet, etc.)
      • more recently, ‘high street goods’ (Toys R Us, Boots, Argos, Next, etc.)
  • Cardiff – Out of Centre Retailing Total out-of-centre floor area: 115,000 sq.m. convenience 241,000 sq.m. comparison (City centre 321,000 sq.m.) Three main clusters, all close to major road intersections
  • Cardiff - Food Superstores Asda Asda Morrison Tesco Tesco Asda Tesco Tesco Sainsbury Sainsbury Tesco City Centre Morrison Asda Waitrose
  • Cardiff - Retail Parks Culverhouse Cross Cardiff Bay Newport Road Cardiff Gate City Centre Capital Lifestyle
  • Cardiff County Council: Retail Planning Policy
    • In principle, follows central Government guidance to severely limit out-of-centre development
    • But unable in 1980s/90s to withstand development pressure in key locations
    • Some retailing encouraged by Council in order to finance other development:
      • Cardiff Gate (residential, new road)
      • Leckwith (new football stadium)
      • International Sports Village
    • Has managed to restrict nature of goods sold out-of-centre, to protect city centre
  • Example of Retail-Led Regeneration: Leckwith Development
    • On the site of previous athletics stadium
    • Includes:
      • Cardiff City stadium
      • athletics stadium on new site
      • retail park (42,000 sq.m.)
        • Costco, Asda, and smaller units
      • hotel & health club
    • Retail park and hotel required to help finance the new stadia
  • Conclusions
    • Case-studies such as Cardiff can throw light on processes of retail growth and change
    • Over 100 out-of-centre stores, which together exceed the city centre retail area
    • Clear that Cardiff Council’s policy of restricting off-centre development hasn’t worked properly
    • Shows that planning policy can be subordinated to other objectives (more important politically)
  • Cardiff Case Studies: Geographical Research for FE teachers