Cardiff Case Studies - Afternoon Presentation


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Cardiff Case Studies - Afternoon Presentation

  1. 1. Street vendors in the developing world Dr Peter Mackie [email_address]
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>In developing world countries there are few formal employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>There is also a lack of welfare provision </li></ul><ul><li>The ILO (2002: 11) defines informal employment as employment ‘ without secure contracts, worker benefits or social protection ’ </li></ul><ul><li>The most visible activity in the informal sector is informal vending </li></ul>
  3. 6. Background to the study area <ul><li>Cusco is a medium sized city of around 225 000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Previously the capital of the Inca empire </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism-dominated economy and high levels of poverty and deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 4,358 informal vending units in the city centre </li></ul>
  4. 7. Who are the informal vendors? <ul><li>The vast majority were female (75%) </li></ul><ul><li>Children worked at approximately 13% of all vending units </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 11% of all informal food vendors were from the indigenous population </li></ul><ul><li>Informal vending is mostly populated by marginal groups. </li></ul>
  5. 9. What goods do they sell? <ul><li>Most of the goods sold are perishables (70%) </li></ul><ul><li>Only one-fifth of the goods sold are non-perishable, more profitable items </li></ul><ul><li>10% of all goods sold are targeted at tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Male vendors are likely to sell the more profitable goods </li></ul>
  6. 10. Reasons for working in informal vending <ul><li>Earning money to: i] meet basic needs, pay for schooling and pay for leisure activities </li></ul><ul><li>Many vendors choose to work in the sector because they prefer to work this way – a social and cultural right </li></ul>
  7. 11. Conclusions <ul><li>A significant number of people in Cusco work in the informal sector </li></ul><ul><li>The sector meets the economic needs of many marginalised groups </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors sell a range of low-cost gods and there is a clear hierarchy which further marginalises women and children </li></ul><ul><li>There is evidence to show that people do not just work in the sector because it is a last resort. </li></ul>
  8. 12. Further case studies relating to this research <ul><li>The impacts of international tourism </li></ul><ul><li>The sustainability of food systems in the developing world </li></ul>
  9. 13. Migration and neighbourhoods Please contact Dr Richard Gale for copies of this presentation [email_address]
  10. 14. Sustainable food supply chains Dr. Andrew Flynn [email_address]
  11. 15. Outline <ul><li>Food supply chains </li></ul><ul><li>Food systems </li></ul><ul><li>Application of the food system approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping trolley </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Food supply chains <ul><li>Globalised food supply chains </li></ul><ul><li>Privately regulated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased role for supermarkets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own label </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High profile issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal welfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions in dairying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traceability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficulty for alternative food systems to ‘break through’ </li></ul>
  13. 17. Food chains to food systems <ul><li>Food system includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities from production to consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs and outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on environmental flows –substances/materials (e.g. LCA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But should also consider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial (e.g. grants, subsidy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide more complete sustainability picture </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Breeding Seed production Agricultural growing water air emissions wastewater fertilisers machinery Inputs Supply chain stage Outputs energy waste transport Merchants Final manufacturing Consumers air emissions wastewater water materials equipment energy waste waste water energy equipment water energy equipment transport transport air emissions wastewater waste chemicals wastewater air emissions Packing Processing Wholesalers Food service Green grocers Retailers
  15. 19. Food systems <ul><li>Dominant food system stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to absorb ‘shocks’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. rise in fuel prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns over food safety/obesity/etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to incorporate alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic food production and distribution adopted by large mainstream producers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of diversification strategy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic becomes a branded form of production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Foods have distinctive transition potential </li></ul>
  16. 20. Potatoes <ul><li>Consumption relatively stable but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly consumed in processed form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crisps, chips, part of a ready meal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing and chilling in distribution and retail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration, freezing and microwaves in the home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The changing home chip – deep fried, oven ready, microwave </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 21. The shopping trolley project <ul><li>Manchester Business School and Cardiff University </li></ul><ul><li>Examine environmental impacts of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh and processed foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic and conventionally grown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locally sourced and globally sourced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foods based on 150 top selling items </li></ul><ul><li>Use of LCA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts arising from production, use and disposal of products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links flows of substances in a system to the environment (air, water and land) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Key findings <ul><li>Data is weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limited data beyond the farm gate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Very few studies of the UK food system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have to use data developed for farming systems in other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key knowledge is held by the private sector </li></ul>
  19. 23. Key findings (continued) <ul><li>Organic Vs Conventional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For many foods environmental impacts of organic farming are lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LCA also underestimates environmental impacts such as biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For some foods conventional farming may have lower impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat, milk, meat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Local food trolley Vs global food trolley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence for a lower impact of the local trolley is weak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variation in environmental impacts of food grown in different parts of the world </li></ul></ul>
  20. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>A system perspective shows that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes on the farm, processing, manufacturing and distribution must be accompanied by changes in consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food industry is influenced by greater consumption of processed foods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High UK ownership of fridges, freezers and microwaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual foods have their own internal dynamic and potential for sustainability transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy needs to recognise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variability in foods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics between economic actors in the food system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research needs to recognise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring sustainability need further development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions between food and system transition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 25. An introduction to degrees for the Geographer at Cardiff University
  22. 26. BSc Geography (Human) & BSc Geography (Human) and Planning For copies of this presentation please contact Dr. Jon Anderson [email_address]
  23. 27. BSc City and Regional Planning Dr. Neil Harris
  24. 28. Who are planners and what do they do?
  25. 29. <ul><li>“ Good planning ensures that we get the right development, in the right place, at the right time . It makes a positive difference to people's lives and helps to provide homes, jobs, and better opportunities for everyone . At the same time, it protects and enhances the natural and historic environment , and conserves the countryside and open spaces that are important to everyone.” </li></ul>
  26. 30. <ul><li>addressing the challenge of climate change and sustainable development </li></ul>Planners are concerned about...
  27. 31. <ul><li>ensuring everyone has the opportunity of a decent home. </li></ul>Planners are concerned about...
  28. 32. <ul><li>ensuring people have a chance to comment on how developments might affect them </li></ul>Planners are concerned about...
  29. 33. regeneration and renewal in urban areas Cardiff Bay
  30. 34. rural regeneration and market town renewal Canal Basin, Brecon
  31. 35. addressing the legacy of industrial development: Rhoose Point, Vale of Glamorgan
  32. 36. sustaining our town and city centres Saint David's 2, Cardiff
  33. 37. protecting valued landscapes The Gower
  34. 38. The City and Regional Planning Course explained
  35. 39. Planning as applied geography… <ul><li>Understanding how places work…and how to make them better </li></ul><ul><li>Planning at different scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical, technical and practical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Development of key planning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Professional recognition by the Royal Town Planning Institute and Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. </li></ul>
  36. 40. BSc Degree 3 Years Or 4 years with a placement year in practice Masters Degree 1 Year Graduation Chartered Planning and Development Surveyor (ARICS) Chartered Town Planner (MRTPI) Institute of Logistics and Transport (MILT) Chartered Institute of Transport (MCIT) Chartered Planning and Development Surveyor (ARICS)
  37. 41. Year one Introduction to Spatial Planning Places and Plans Economic Principles for Urban and Regional Studies Statistics and Geographic Information Systems Society, Diversity and Planning Property Development and Planning
  38. 42. Year two Planning Law and Practice Environmental Policies and Planning Site Planning and Development Planning Markets and Land Issues in Local Government Practising Planning Research
  39. 43. Placement destinations Transport for London Pembrokeshire County Council Cardiff County Council Milton Keynes Council Portsmouth City Council Bournemouth Borough Council National Assembly for Wales Edinburgh World Heritage Newport Unlimited Atkins Transport Planning Turley Associates White Young Green RPS Planning Placement year
  40. 44. Final year Contemporary International Planning Planning Theory and Practice Research Project Economic Change and Spatial Policy Rural Society and Planning Housing Policies and Systems Design Development and Control Transport Planning and Travel Behaviour Spatial Strategy Making
  41. 45. Grades A level: ABB-BBB General Studies not included No subjects specified
  42. 46. The benefits of studying planning at Cardiff <ul><li>A natural link from geography to planning </li></ul><ul><li>A high quality undergraduate programme </li></ul><ul><li>Practical experience and employability </li></ul>
  43. 47. Thank you for listening
  44. 48. Cardiff Case Studies: Geographical Research for FE teachers