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Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW
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Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer using FEFLOW

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  • 1. Modelling of a Coastal Aquifer Using FEFLOW
  • 2. Seawater Intrusion In coastal regions, overexploitation of groundwater has caused the encroachment of seawater into freshwater aquifers. Saltwater is heavier, hence tends to move underneath the freshwater layer. The freshwater, however, has a hydraulic gradient downward towards the coast, hence will flow to the sea. This outflow momentum force can counter balance the density-driven seawater. Without it, seawater will continue to move inland until the entire aquifer below sea level is occupied by it. Since such a hydraulic gradient always exists due to the precipitation recharge inland, an equilibrium position will establish. The toe then marks the maximum extent of intrusion.
  • 3. Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Area of North Goa Coastal tracts of Goa (India) are rapidly being transformed into settlement areas. The poor water supply facilities have encouraged people to have their own source of water by digging or boring a well. During the last decade, there have been large-scale withdrawals of groundwater by builders, hotels and other tourist establishments. Though the seawater intrusion has not yet assumed serious magnitude, but in the coming years it may turn to be a major problem if corrective measures are not initiated at this stage. It is necessary to understand how fresh and salt water move under various realistic pumping and recharge scenarios.
  • 4. Objectives of the Study • Simulation of seawater intrusion in a region along Goa coast. • Evaluation of the impact on seawater intrusion due to various groundwater pumping scenarios. • Sensitivity analysis to find the most sensitive parameters affecting the simulation. • Suggestions for remedial measures.
  • 5. Study Group: Mr. C. P. Kumar (NIH, Roorkee) Dr. Sudhir Kumar (NIH, Roorkee) Dr. B. K. Purandara (NIH, Belgaum) Dr. A. G. Chachadi (Goa University) Duration: 3 Years (April 2004 to March 2007) Budget: NIH Funding
  • 6. Study Area • The study area is bound by rivers Chapora and Mandovi in north and south directions respectively, besides Arabian sea in the west. • Bardez Taluk of North Goa (catchments of Baga & Nerul rivers = 74 km2) • Coastal tract from Fort Aguada to Fort Chapora (15 km) • One third tourists visit Bardez coastal areas (Anjuna, Baga, Calangute beaches) • Area of interest = 30 km2
  • 7. Work Plan: • Establishment of technical collaboration with participating agency (Goa University) and identification of a part of the coastal area in Bardez taluk of North Goa for the present study. • Collection of relevant data, literature and maps. • Field investigations: Identification of 20 observation wells. Measurement of monthly groundwater level data in observation wells (September 2004 to August 2005). Collection of groundwater samples in September, November 2004, January, March, April, June 2005.
  • 8. Laboratory analysis: Measurement of salinity for collected groundwater samples in the laboratory. Based upon the bi-monthly measurements of salinity, groundwater quality in all the observation wells was found to be reasonably fresh, both in pre- and post-monsoon periods. It can be attributed to the fact that the transition zone of fresh water-saline water lies below the shallow open wells, as evidenced by vertical electrical soundings.
  • 9. Resistivity Profiling and Sounding: To know the distribution of salt-water/fresh-water interface - Resistivity profiling: Apparent electrical resistivity measured along four profiles (Anjuna, Baga, Calangute and Candolim) from sea coast to 525 meters inland. Vertical electrical sounding: Carried out at 7 monitoring well locations upto a depth of 20 metres. Results of resistivity profiling and vertical electrical sounding have been presented in forthcoming slides.
  • 10. Resistivity Profiling (Apparent electrical resistivity in Ohm-metres – observed at 10 m depth plane) P1 P2 P3 P4S. No. Distance from coast (m) Anjuna Baga Calangute Candolim 1 15 30 70 150 700 2 45 40 46 820 555 3 75 45 35 612 142 4 105 32 25 360 421 5 135 26 28 110 281 6 165 24 22 75 153 7 195 20 30 125 184 8 225 15 32 242 255 9 255 14 24 410 431 10 285 12 20 623 236 11 315 13 31 531 165 12 345 13 32 415 242 13 375 14 20 324 281 14 405 16 30 470 641 15 435 20 20 684 531 16 465 21 10 650 426 17 495 24 5 835 186 18 525 18 4 900 200 Result: The seawater mixed zone is witnessed along Anjuna and Baga beach sections. Very close to the sea relatively higher apparent resistivity values are due to dry sand dunes. However along Calangute and Candolim beaches, there is no indication of seawater mixing at 10m depth.
  • 11. Vertical Electrical Sounding Apparent resistivity values in Ohm-metres at monitoring well numbersDepth (m) 1 3 6 7 8 15 17 3 410 448 80 102 231 1988 333 4 436 446 65 84 277 665 356 5 467 521 63 72 202 900 373 6 505 595 68 62 180 256 393 7 536 613 82 58 138 850 383 8 541 521 74 51 120 156 381 9 533 482 47 45 102 780 381 10 544 389 62 42 62 194 327 11 528 339 56 40 61 125 339 12 539 314 23 25 45 128 314 13 581 264 24 22 41 158 290 14 582 245 19 18 31 165 276 15 563 246 20 16 32 164 246 16 561 240 21 17 33 215 240 17 543 226 13 15 25 265 226 18 609 233 16 12 10 315 203 19 566 215 12 18 3 452 226 20 520 214 9 17 2 351 202 Result: Well numbers 6, 7 and 8 show low values of resistivity below about 12 m depth indicating the presence of seawater or mixed zone below this depths. However, at other sites there is no indication of the seawater mixing up to 20 m depth.
  • 12. Modelling Software Package A sophisticated finite-element package for simulating 3D fluid density-coupled flow and contaminant mass (salinity) in the subsurface.
  • 13. Model Setup Digitization of the study area map Creation of finite element mesh Design of slices and layers (3D model) Flow data (initials, boundaries, materials) Transport data (initials, boundaries, materials)
  • 14. Digitized Map & Observation Wells
  • 15. Finite Element Mesh Nodes = 32053 Elements = 52656 Total Area = 73.796 km2 (Initially, the model was setup with 734 nodes and 607 elements)
  • 16. Topography Reference zero elevation (datum) = 50 m below MSL
  • 17. Initial Head Distribution Reference zero elevation (datum) = 50 m below MSL
  • 18. Hydraulic Conductivity Measured at 6 locations in the study area (3.3 to 31.6 m/d or 0.381e-4 to 3.657 e-4 m/s) - Data regionalization through Akima inter/extra-polation.
  • 19. Groundwater Draft & Recharge Density = 25 wells / km2 Average annual gw draft per structure = 0.65 ha-m Rainfall Recharge: Laterite = 7% Alluvium = 10%
  • 20. Initially, the model was setup with 734 nodes and 607 elements and trial simulation run was made. However, it caused numerical oscillations. Therefore, the entire mesh was re-created with 32053 nodes and 52656 elements and all the subsequent steps were repeated.
  • 21. FEFLOW Problem Summary Dimension : Three-Dimensional Type : Saturated media (groundwater) Number of Layers : 6 Number of Slices : 7 Projection : None (3D with free surface) Problem Class : Combined flow and mass transport Time Class : Unsteady flow – Unsteady mass transport Upwinding : Full upwinding Element Type : 6-noded triangular prism Mesh Elements : 52656 Mesh Nodes : 32053 Incorporate fluid viscosity dependencies Extended Boussinesq approximation applied to density coupling Time Stepping Scheme : Automatic time step control via predictor-corrector schemes - Forward Adams-Bashforth/backward trapezoid (AB/TR time integration scheme) Initial time step length : 0.001 d Final time : 3650 d Unconfined (phreatic) aquifer(s) Slice No. Status 1 Free & movable 2 Unspecified 3 Unspecified 4 Unspecified 5 Unspecified 6 Fixed 7 Fixed
  • 22. Three-dimensional Fringes for Hydraulic Head at the End of Simulation Period
  • 23. Three-dimensional Plot for Mass Distribution
  • 24. Mass at Top Section
  • 25. Mass at Middle Section
  • 26. Mass at Bottom Section
  • 27. Simulated Extent of Seawater Intrusion
  • 28. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Simulated Results S.No. Parameter Scenario Maximum Salinity near the Coast (mg/l) Distance from the Coast (m) with Salinity 500 mg/l 1. Original Calibrated Parameters (middle section) 9,600 290 10 % increase 9,900 295 20 % increase 10,300 300 2. Groundwater Draft 30 % increase 10,700 300 30 m and 3 m 10,100 2753. Longitudinal and Transverse Dispersivity 70 m and 7 m 9,000 305 3.657 x 10-4 m/s 7,300 2954. Uniform Hydraulic Conductivity 0.381 x 10-4 m/s 12,900 145 1723 mm 11,800 2955. Rainfall 3554 mm 7,800 290
  • 29. Presently, seawater intrusion in Bardez taluk of North Goa is confined only upto 290 m from the coast under normal rainfall conditions and present draft pattern. It may slightly extend farther for low rainfall years. Seawater intrusion may further advance inland if withdrawals of groundwater by builders, hotels and other tourist establishments continue to increase in the coming years. Groundwater salinity needs to be continuously monitored near the coastal area, especially within 2 km from the coast. Corrective measures with proper planning and management of groundwater resources in the area need to be initiated so that it may not turn to be a major water quality problem in the coming times.

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