Christa Japel, UQAM presentation to DfA Summit

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  • While the research on early learning is strong, the public investment is not. The RAND Corporation, known for its work on defense and its level approach to research and analysis, has produced this chart comparing brain growth to public spending in the country. While most of the core structure of the brain develops in the first few years of life, only 5% of public investments in children happens then. A 12-state study by the Child and Family Policy Center and Voices for America's Children showed the disparity in children's education and development investment. For every dollar invested in school-aged children in these states, only 13.7 cents was invested in the earliest learning years. That’s only one-fifth the amount invested in college-aged youth. We are behind the proverbial curve in developing an early education system to meet young children's needs. Yet we continue to put a Band-Aid on the system we’ve created for older children, as we continue to see spiraling costs in areas like remedial education. (Note to Speaker: If your community or state has cost figures for expenditures like this, use them here!) Source: C. Bruner, with S. Floyd & A. Copeman. (January 2005) Seven Things Policy Makers Need to Know about School Readiness: Revised & Expanded Toolkit. State Early Childhood Policy Technical Assistance Network (SECPTAN) Available online at http://www.cfpciowa.org/pdf/7%20Things.pdf .
  • Christa Japel, UQAM presentation to DfA Summit

    1. 1. THE QUEBEC CHILD CARE SYSTEM – LESSONS TO BE LEARED CHRISTA JAPEL Université du Québec à Montréal Dignity for All Campaign Summit Ottawa March 4 th 2011
    2. 2. UNICEF-Innocenti report in 2008: Canada ranked second to last – met only one of the ten important benchmarks for ECEC Canada lags behind many of its counterparts in the OECD with regard to early childhood development programs
    3. 3. What about Québec ? <ul><li>Met about 4 benchmarks for ECEC </li></ul><ul><li>Parental leave; </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial plan with priority for the disadvantages (tax credit and tax reduction, housing, minimum wage); </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidized and regulated child care services for 25% of children under 3; </li></ul><ul><li>Child poverty rate less than 10%. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Québec <ul><li>1997 – Implementation of a new family policy </li></ul><ul><li>integrated child allowance for young children and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>designed to gradually replace existing family allowance; </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced maternity and parental leave provisions through a </li></ul><ul><li>new parenal insurance plan (effective as of January 1st 2006); </li></ul><ul><li>development of early childhood education and child care </li></ul><ul><li>services to provide universally accessible programs to foster </li></ul><ul><li>child development, and to gradually introduce skills that </li></ul><ul><li>children need to succeed at school. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Québec’s family policy <ul><li>The governement restructered existing programs and </li></ul><ul><li>reoriented the delivery of public support to families : </li></ul><ul><li>monetary assistance was reduced and the focus shifted to </li></ul><ul><li>in-kind services; </li></ul><ul><li>2009/2010 – 37% of the provincial budget for families </li></ul><ul><li>direct grants to child care services (2,4 billion) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Ministère de la Famille et des Aînés Ministère de la Famille, des Aînés et de la Condition féminine <ul><li>Centres de la petite enfance (CPE) – Early Childhood Centres </li></ul><ul><li>Centre-based and home-based care </li></ul><ul><li>Available at a fee of $5/day ($7 since 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Objective : available to all children age 0 to 4 in 2000 </li></ul>Source : Ministère de la Famille et des Aînés, 2010 et Institut de la statistique du Québec, 2010 * Includest 6 954 places in for-profit daycares that are regulated but not subsidized CPE Centre-based CPE Home-based For-profit daycares Total spaces Children (age 0-4) 1997-98 36 606 21 761 23 935 82 302 428 297 1998-99 38 918 32 816 24 964 96 698 412 161 1999-00 44 735 44 882 24 936 114 553 397 971 2000-01 51 570 55 979 25 701 133 250 382 727 2001-02 58 525 62 193 25 882 146 600 373 191 2002-03 67 163 71 365 25 882 164 410 366 619 2003-04 69 672 83 970 30 613 184 255 371 028 2006 75 660 88 545 33 799 202 487 379 658 2007 76 213 88 645 34 095 203 721 389 661 2008 77 405 91 253 35 340 209 827 400 605 2009 77 864 91 582 36 377 212 777* 416 043
    7. 7. <ul><li>What do we know about Quebec’s child care system with respect to </li></ul><ul><li>the QUAD principles? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Three surveys <ul><li>You Bet I Care! (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>234 centre-based groups – 48 in Québec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>231 family child care settings – 42 in Québec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (2000 - 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>728 centre-based CPEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>337 home-based CPEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>296 for-profit daycares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>179 unregulated home-based settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grandir en qualité (2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>356 centre-based CPEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 home-based CPEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>349 for-profit daycares </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>ITERS-R </li></ul><ul><li>467 descriptors </li></ul><ul><li>39 items </li></ul><ul><li>7 subscales </li></ul><ul><li>for children 0 to 2 1/2 years </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>ECERS-R </li></ul><ul><li>470 descriptors </li></ul><ul><li>43 items </li></ul><ul><li>7 subscales </li></ul><ul><li>for children 2 ½ to 5 years </li></ul>
    11. 11. Scoring Continuous or by category: 1 - 2.9 = inadequate quality: safety and health risks and no educational component 3 - 4.9 = minimal quality: basic safety and health measures are respected –but educational component is minimal – custodial care 5 - 7 = good to excellent quality: safety and health measures are respected – developmentally appropriate educational component that fosters children’s global development
    12. 12. Quality scores YBIC and QLSCD – ITERS, ECERS-R, FDCRS (score 1 -7) Grandir en qualité – different instrument (score 1- 4) Survey Total score YBIC – ITERS (N=16) 3.6 YBIC – ECERS-R (N=32) 4.7 QLSCD – ECERS-R CPE (N=728) 4.6 QLSCD – ECERS-R For-profit (N=296) 3.7 YBIC – FDCRS (N=42) 4.5 QLSCD – FDCRS Home-based CPE (N=337) 4.4 QLSCD – FDCRS Unregulated home-based (N=179) 3.6 Grandir en qualité CPE (0 to 18 months) (N=128) 3.05 Grandir en qualité CPE (18 monts- 5 years) (N=228) 2.93 Grandir en qualité For-profit daycares (0 to 18 months) (N=124) 2.62 Grandir en qualité For-profit daycares (18 monts- 5 years) (N=225) 2.58 Grandir en qualité Home-based CPE (N=200) 2.75
    13. 13. <ul><li>ÉLDEQ - QLSCD </li></ul><ul><li>Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development </li></ul><ul><li>2 223 children born in 1997/98 </li></ul><ul><li>representative provincial sample </li></ul><ul><li>annual evaluations since 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>first evaluation at age 5 months </li></ul><ul><li>daycare visits started at age 2 ½ </li></ul><ul><li>presently in secondary 1 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Quality of child care settings evaluated from 2000 to 2003 (N = 1574) Inadequate 1 à 2,9 Minimal 3 à 4,9 Good 5,0 and up
    15. 15. Quality of child care services (N = 1538) Total score ECERS and FDCRS NP FP Reg. Non reg. NP FP Reg. Non reg. Centre Family Centre Family Good to excellent Poor
    16. 16. Has overall quality improved since 2003? <ul><li>More than 200 observations of infant and toddler groups (0 to 2 ½ years) </li></ul><ul><li>About 300 observation of preschool age children (2 ½ - 5 years) </li></ul>Data from ongoing quality improvement projets in CPEs (Japel, 2004)
    17. 17. <ul><li>UNIVERSALITY </li></ul><ul><li>AND ACCESSIBILITY </li></ul>
    18. 18. Québec’s Family Policy implemented in 1997 : Early Childhood Centres <ul><li>« These services designed for children age 5 and younger should permit all children, independant of their parents’ status, to acquire and to develop the skills and abilities which are necessary to succeed in school » </li></ul>
    19. 19. Mean socioeconomic status of parents and regular use of child care Age
    20. 20. Children in settings of poor quality according to family SES Low High Socioeconomic status (Quartiles)
    21. 21. Does quality vary according to the family’s socioeconomic status and the type of service? Type of service Quartile 1 Quartile 4 Sign. Centre-based non profit 4.54 4.61 n.s. Family-based regulated 4.11 4.60 p <0.01 Centre-based for profit 3.42 3.94 p <0.01 Family-based non regulated 3.05 4.02 p <0.001
    22. 22. Conclusions : <ul><li>Quebec has the highest number of regulated child care spaces in Canada (37 % of all regulated spaces in 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past ten years – sharp rise in the number of children in regulated care </li></ul><ul><li>Some evidence of child care attendance having beneficial effects on children’s behavior and cognitive development (Côté et al., 2007; Japel, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on demographic profile - increase in birth rate over the past five years </li></ul><ul><li>Labour force participation of mothers increased significantly – surpassed ROC </li></ul>
    23. 23. Lessons to be learned : <ul><li>Child care quality is minimal overall </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to funding and structure of the child care network – fee increase, budgetary restrictions, claw-back of surplus, restructuring of home-based sector have led to overall decrease in quality </li></ul><ul><li>Non profit centre-based and regulated family-based child care services are generally of higher quality than for profit or unregulated services </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the children attending child care in Quebec are in home-based settings with minimal staff qualifications </li></ul>
    24. 24. Lessons to be learned - continued: <ul><li>Only about half of pre-school age children have access to regulated and subsidized care (more than 75% of mothers in labour force) - long waiting lists </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable children (socioeconomically disadvantaged and more at risk of school failure) are less likely to attend child care services </li></ul><ul><li>If they attend child care services, they are more likely to attend services of poor quality </li></ul>
    25. 25. Recommandations… with the best interest of children in mind <ul><li>Limit expansion of for-profit and home-based sector </li></ul><ul><li>Set aside more spaces for vulnerable children </li></ul><ul><li>Offer flexible part-time attendance; accomodate parents with atypical work schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Government leadership in improving quality (regulations that promote child development - staff training, ratios, space, curriculum) </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing evaluation and assessment </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Quebec has laid the groundwork for an important social structure that is beneficial to children and their families. </li></ul><ul><li>Work in progress </li></ul><ul><li>The development and maintenance of a network of high-quality child care services requires: </li></ul><ul><li>a large investment of public funds </li></ul><ul><li>policies that promote a global and long-term perspective on human development </li></ul>
    27. 27. Public Spending & Brain Research: The Disconnect Source : The RAND Corporation Brain Development Public Spending*
    28. 28. <ul><li>Helping the next generation break the cycle of poverty starts by giving young children </li></ul><ul><li>a better start in life. </li></ul>Quality Early Learning INCREASES Success in School Graduation Rates Workforce Readiness Job Productivity Community Engagement Quality Early Learning REDUCES Crime Rates Teenage Pregnancy Welfare Dependency Job Training Costs Special Education Cost Grade Repetition High/Scope Perry Preschool Research
    29. 29. Investments in children bring a higher rate of return than investments in low-skill adults (James Heckman)
    30. 30. MERCI BEAUCOUP

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