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  • 1. COPENHAGEN CLEANTECH Issue #2 JOURNAL 2012The most promising smart Buildingcity project in Europe? tomorrow’s city:industrial symbiosis Strong visions andwith intelligent smart alliancesenergy solutions Page 4Page 14The crucialquestion:What’sstoppingcities fromgettingsmarter?Page 34Smart cities:The only intelligentanswer for anurbanised world
  • 2. editorial contents Towards a green future together! t is becoming more and more evident The city can only play its role in the green The obstacle race towards smart cities I that smart cities are the key to com- transformation if all of its stakeholders The world’s cities are growing and the potential to make them smarter isbining a sustainable future with continued across organisational and industrial bound- enormous. But even the smartest cities in the world don’t exploit the pos-economic growth and job creation. This is aries focus on cooperation. We need new sibilities to the fullest, according to leading experts. Page 4the conclusion that many leading experts, solutions, new ways of combining existingcompanies, researchers and city managers solutions and new types of partnerships to The world’s smartest metropolises? Five global snapshots Page 10express in this edition of the Copenhagen get there, and ultimately we need to involve Marianna LubanskiCleantech Journal. every citizen in co-creation processes in or- der to reach the full potential of a liveable Executive director, Copenhagen Cleantech The path to a smart city Cluster The Danish Municipality of Kalundborg is highlighted as one of the mostBut what exactly is a smart city? What does and smart city of the future. promising smart city projects in Europe. The main ingredients are intelligentit take to create a smart city? And what ex- energy solutions and industrial symbiosis. Page 14pectations can we have to the city as a key In Copenhagen we have embarked on thisto solving climate issues and creating jobs? journey with the set target of becoming CO2 Bridging world-leading cleantech clusters neutral by 2025. We invite you to join us for The International Cleantech Network Page 18The Copenhagen Cleantech Journal is an cross-city inspiration and innovation.initiative of key players in the Copenhagen A system of systemsCleantech Cluster and, as such, is an exam- In the meantime we hope that this edition How smart is the smart city? Page 20ple of how companies, knowledge institu- of the Copenhagen Cleantech Journal willtions and public-sector organisations can join give you inspiration and food for thought. Make climate adaptation smart and socialforces to address a specific issue. The same An open invitation to smart urban development Page 22type of cooperation which is the foundation Enjoy!for a smart city. Green consensus strengthens long-term investments A perfect framework for smarter cities Page 25 Heine Pedersen An ambitious cleantech region Five Copenhagen-based innovators Page 28 New business model for complex cleantech solutions Danish foundation supports pioneering project Page 32Copenhagen Cleantech JournalPublisher editorial team Translation The fledgling years of the smart cityCopenhagen Cleantech Cluster Ola Jørgensen CLS Communication We need a sharper focus on vision and value creation as well as better busi- Søren Schultz JørgensenAddress Rune Rasmussen Print ness, finance and management models. But first and foremost, we need toCopenhagen Cleantech Cluster Hans Peder Wagner 5000 copies Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (CCC) engage politicians and citizens at a human level. Accenture’s Simon Giles onNørregade 7 B is at the core of the cleantech eco the potentials and obstacles on the path to smarter cities. Page 34DK – 1165 Copenhagen K Contributors Printing house system in Denmark with a missionDenmark Sune Aagaard Clausen Grafisk to foster cooperation between Signe Tonsberg Clausen Grafisk holds the Nordic cleantech companies, research Additional reading+45 3322 0222 Christian Mohr Boisen Ecolabel institutions and public Jesper Andersen worldwide. Join us for a green future Smart city websites and publications Page 38 Nina Vinther Andersen Paper – together!Executive Director CCJ is printed on 100% recycled 170gMarianna Lubanski Special thanks to Cyclus Offset paper. The cover is printed Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster Simon Giles, Accenture on Chromolux 700. RD IC ECOL A B Mission, methods and partners Page 40 NO ELConcept and editingKontrabande and Klartekst Graphic design ISSN Mattias Wohlert 2245-120X Issue #2 · 2012 | 3
  • 3. Focus big cities growing Number of cities with more than 1 mio citizens The obstacle +500 race towards to take action if we want to do something about being taken seriously enough – even though it is smart cities many of the key global challenges. Economic, the only option that consistently addresses the living conditions, health, resource, environmen- problems we are facing,” says Mark Watts. tal and climate issues – they are all inextricably linked to the ever-increasing urbanisation pro- Smart investment during a crisis cess. But this should not only be viewed as some- Mark Watts is Director of Climate Change and thing negative. Energy at Arup, a UK consultancy firm. He is The high population density in cities is actu- in charge of Arup’s partnership with the C40, a In order for the cities of the future to handle the monumental ally an important prerequisite for the ability to group of 40 of the world’s largest cities. He has social, environmental and economic pressures they are facing, it is develop many of the intelligent sustainable so- also served as advisor to former-Mayor of Lon- imperative to make them smart. The potential for smart cities is lutions that sort under the concept of smart cit- don Ken Livingstone on climate change and sus- enormous, but without a strong political vision and close cooperation ies. For example, the dense populations in cities tainable transport. So he knows what he is talk- among the business community, researchers and decision-makers, make mass transit possible, and multi-storey ing about when he emphasises the logic of the it will be nothing but empty words, according to a number of leading housing consumes less energy per occupant than political system as perhaps the biggest obstacle a single-family dwelling does. to accelerating the development of smart cities. experts and players in the field. But even the world’s smartest cities are far “Superficially, it seems logical during a reces- from smart enough. sion for politicians to resist the investments that Illustration by There are still a number of obstacles to tap- can make smart cities a reality. They feel pres- Stuart Campbell ping into the enormous potential in developing sured to prioritise welfare in a traditional sense. really smart cities. One reason for this is that But by investing in smart cities, they would be the players who could and should be driving the able to achieve much greater savings and even transformation to smart cities are in practice in- boost efficiency. In fact, it’s in times of crisis, like clined to prioritise more traditional initiatives. what we’re experiencing today, that smart cities “On the surface, there is keen interest among make most sense,” explains Mark Watts. the world’s leading cities in smart cities, and when asked directly, most would probably claim The quicksand of pilot projects Simon Giles heads the consultancy firm Accen- that they have a strategy for this kind of devel- The compounding effects of climate change, ture’s global Intelligent Cities Strategy team, opment. But when I look at the seniority of the lack of sustainability, inefficient and obsolete which specialises in the development of smart people working in the area and at the funding infrastructure and continued population growth cities. He is one of the experts who points to levels, I have to conclude that this agenda is not represent the complex of challenges cities all the lack of political com- 83 over the world are facing, and to which many see mitment as one of the only one effective response: smart cities. main reasons why smart The cities are the indisputable epicentres of city thinking has still not globalisation: more than 5 billion people will live “Smart city has become a buzz­ ord w evolved from pilot pro- in cities by 2020. In 1900, only 13 per cent of the that’s thrown about freely. THERE’S jects to the large scale. global population lived in cities, by 2050 that fig- AN AWFUL LOT OF PAPER-PUSHING AS He compares it to invest- 12 ure will be 70 per cent. And as expressed in the CITIES ARE STILL TRYING TO FIGURE ments in cleaner technol- report Information Marketplaces – The New ogy and fears that projects Economics of Cities: “Cities now represent the OUT WHAT THE TERM SMART CITY may stall at pilot stage and 1900 1950 2011 core hubs of the global economy, acting as hives MEANS FOR THEM AND WHAT SPECIFIC never progress to full scale of innovation in technical, financial and other ACTIONS TO TAKE.” implementation – despite services.” all the good intentions. Source: UN: World Ur- banization Prospects, the Cities are therefore also the essential place Kurt Othendal Nielsen, Siemens “If the words are not 2009 revision.4 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 5
  • 4. The obstacle race towards smart cities third world urbanization Urban population in developing countries 2009-2050 backed up by investments, both the people and several fronts. He uses parking as an example expect that pressure on the cities to become so the political stakeholders will be disappointed: to illustrate the essential role data plays in the heavy, that change will be inevitable: Every week 5.2 bio. Were smart cities just a fad? It’s imperative that development of smart cities, pointing out the 1.3 million people move to cities, and while there they articulate a strong and coherent vision and environmental strain and inefficiency of drivers were only 83 cities with over a million inhabit- demonstrate the value proposition in terms the circling around the city in search of an empty ants in 1950, today there are more than 500.Smart cities in brief average citizen can understand,” says Simon parking space. If parking spaces could be distrib- The economic motives will also be decisive, Giles. uted efficiently among the drivers, there would according to Kurt Othendal Nielsen. The needThe basic premise for the development See also Simon Giles’ contribution “The fledg- be less traffic and pollution. for smart solutions within areas such as energy,of smart cities is understanding the ling years of the smart city transformation” on “Basically, parking is just another form of in- tranportation, waste and healthcare will becomecity as “a system of systems”: data, page 34. ventory control. We know from cities like San so overwhelming, that they cannot be ignored. Inenergy supply, waste management, Francisco that by placing sensors in parking the old economies in the West, the pressure oninfrastructure, transport etc. The Data is the new oil… spaces and inserting certain logarithms in the welfare will also be a driving force for change. Inindividual systems can be more or less Despite the obstacles to the spread of smart city parking ticket machines, it’s possible to distrib- the healthcare sector, for instance, the possibil-smart or intelligent – and more or less solutions, the players and experts whom Copen- ute the spaces more efficiently and reap more ity of cutting costs by working smarter is a veryintelligently integrated. hagen Cleantech Journal has spoken to are unan- benefits. But who should pay for the establish- strong incentive. But as things now stand, he imously optimistic about the future of smart cit- ment of this kind of infrastructure? Should the shares Mark Watt’s view: too many words, and ies – at least in the somewhat longer term. city own, collect and manage the data or should limited action.Smart city thinking is currently top- One of the biggest sources of optimism is the they flow freely? Some car parks are privatelyping agendas for several reasons: rapid technological development that opens up owned, so what is their motivation to share data? Evolution like that of the Internet a continuous flow of new possibilities for intel- What is the business model?” asks Kurt Othen- “Smart City has become a buzzword that’s• Our cities are growing, and all these ligent solutions. And there can be no question- dal Nielsen. thrown about freely. There’s an awful lot of pa- 2.5 bio. people are straining the existing infra- ing the fact that the smart city of the future is per-pushing, but not very many genuine changes structure. technologically founded on data as the new, es- Climate targets and economic incentives along the way,” says Kurt Othendal Nielsen.• Larger cities result in larger problems, sential raw material. A number of cities have set ambitious climate While the 40 largest cities in the organisation for instance, with waste management, As Mark Watts puts it: “Either the city of the targets for the next few decades. Consequently, do represent 18 per cent of the world’s GNP, they consequently increasing the need for future will run on information or it won’t run at they will have a strong incentive to drive the are only responsible for 10 per cent of global car- sustainable solutions on a larger scale. all.” transformation process. Kurt Othendal Nielsen bon emissions. Still, as the 2011 report Informa-• The high population density of our It is first and foremost the spread of technol- tion Marketplaces – The New cities also opens up for new opportu- ogy that will play the most crucial role. In a few Economics of Cities concludes: nities for more efficient solutions and years, even the poorest people in the world will “The connected, technology- synergies within, among other areas, have mobile phones, and today more than 2 bil- enabled ‘smart city’ is today transport and energy. lion phones are already “smart”, that is, linked more vision than reality”.• The combination of climate change to the Internet. At the same time we are seeing “We can’t get out of and economic crisis has called the “Superficially, it seems logical enormous growth in the number of sensors that adressing the challenges. I re- world’s attention to how we create can send data to other systems via what is known during a recession for politi- alise that at the moment, it’s more growth and prosperity while re- as the Internet of Things (IoT). Digital real-time cians to resist the investments extremely difficult to progress ducing our impact on the climate and data on how the city’s inhabitants act is a vital beyond the project level, but environment. that can make smart cities a prerequisite for many of the solutions people re- reality. but In fact, it’s in times I predict an evolution similar fer to when they talk about smart cities. to that of the Internet. Twenty of crisis, like what we’re experi- years ago, it hardly existed, but ... but where is the business model? encing today, that smart cities one advance led to the next 2009 2050 Data can’t do it alone, however. Kurt Othen- make most sense.” and now it’s infinite. If we take dal Nielsen who is City Account Manager at all the small steps we can, I be- Source: WHO: Urban Siemens, is involved in smart city thinking on Mark Watts, Arup lieve that in 20 years we will population growth.6 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 7
  • 5. The obstacle race towards smart cities have leapt to a smart city,” concludes Kurt Oth- cause they have come to realise that the eco- ence a month on smart cities – often organised A century of cities endal Nielsen. nomic benefits of succeeding as a smart city are by a major technology supplier. But of the 40 cit- Like many others, David Overton Chabre Holm enormous. Perhaps the complex of problems the ies in the C40, only four have installed smart me- emphasises that the urbanisation which triggers The vanguard of new urbanism cities are facing represents a threat so serious ters in their own buildings,” says Mark Watts. the pressing need for smart, sustainable cities is There are, of course, frontrunners among the that smart city thinking is in fact the only possi- actually a good thing, partly because the cities world’s big cities. Some cities have taken huge ble path to future economic growth. The eye of the world on Copenhagen can lift a lot of people out of poverty. steps towards realising the concept of the smart “Certain cities already are, or soon will be, the The cities that are farthest along generally have And there is every indication that cities will city, either out of bitter necessity or driven by vanguard of new urbanism. They will develop the an efficient cooperation among the many play- play an even bigger role in addressing many glob- visionary leaders, or both. Cities like San Fran- methods that inspire others to develop differ- ers who are able to see beyond their own vested al challenges. Or as the former mayor of Denver, cisco, Singapore, Barcelona and Copenhagen are ently. The message of fiscal austerity has limited interests. In the energy sector, Greater Copen- Wellington Webb, puts it: spotlighted by experts. See selected examples in political longevity, at some point the discourse hagen including more than 20 local authorities “The 19th century was a century of empires, Global Snapshots on page 10. has to change to sustainable growth. There is is a pioneering metropol thanks to a unique co- the 20th century was a century of nation states The cities that are leading the way do so be- a need to tell a compelling story about growth, operation among authorities at all levels, sectors and the 21st century will be a century of cities.” but in many cities the demands placed on the lo- and across the political spectrum in parliament. A great deal depends on whether it is also a cal ecosystem is so onerous that the only growth The integration of power, gas, district heating century of smart cities. possible is resource efficient, green growth. The and waste management is unique. This is why smart city will enable the 21st century’s new sus- Copenhagen regularly receives visits from all tainable urban growth paradigm,” concludes Si- over the world, explains Anders Dyrelund, chief mon Giles from Accenture. advisor at the engineering and consultancy firm Ramboll.the end of the Waiting for the first to move “Since 1985 Copenhagen has been the place to rural era In many ways, however, the cities are pushing go if you wanted to learn how to heat cities. BackPercentage of world and vying at the starting line as they wait for then, they came from Beijing, and now they havepopulation: Urban vs. someone to make the first move. This is a well- developed a heat supply based on the Copenha- rural known mechanism – as seen in the efforts to gen model. Most recently, Milan, Seoul and Lon- Five obstacles reduce traffic in city centres. Mark Watts from don have come to visit, and last week we started The experts whom Copenhagen 80% Arup has closely observed this development. new activities in Moscow where they also need Cleantech Journal has spoken to all “Ten years ago, doing something about traffic help,” says Anders Dyrelund. paint the same picture of the ob- 70% in major cities topped the agenda at every con- David Overton Chabre Holm, business de- stacles to accelerating the develop- 60% ference, but no one did anything. Then London veloper at the Technical University of Denmark ment of smarter cities: Rural Urban took the first step, and it turned out that was all (DTU), confirms that silo thinking is poison to 50% that was needed. Then came Stockholm and af- smart city ambitions. Smart thinking is about • Political short-sightedness: Politicians are much too focused on ter that the other cities followed suit in a kind of thinking across slios – a prime example, in his the immediate future. 40% knock-on effect,” he explains. view, is the public tender system. In his view ten- • Silo thinking: Each sector, administration and industry knows 30% For Mark Watts there is, however, one factor ders are generally written so restrictively that too little about what the others are doing, making it difficult to that is decisive for whether a city will be a front- they preclude any possibility of thinking smart. realise the necessary cross-sectoral cooperation. 20% • Lack of management: The development process is primarily driven runner or will throw on the brakes. “If the tender requirements defined the func- by commercial players – without a coherent and guiding political 10% “It might sound a bit boring, but what really tions to be performed, however, it would be possi- vision. matters is whether they are tackling it at a stra- ble to overcome the problem that each building or • High complexity: Especially in established cities, the number of 0% tegic level. Those cities that have formulated each project is planned separately. If the tender is stakeholders is overwhelming, and the existing infrastructure 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 binding strategies and appointed someone to be for a super hospital and a childcare centre is to be often represents an effective defence against change. strategically responsible are streets ahead of the located next door, a number of smart gains could • Organisational inertia: Complex, interdisciplinary solutions requireSource: UN: World Urbanization Prospects, the 2007 revision. others. But unfortunately, it’s also easy to stand be realised by planning the two projects together, organisational versatility – including more flexible partnership out. At the moment there is typically a confer- but this is very often not the case,” he says. models between the public and private sectors.8 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 9
  • 6. global snapshots other awards. This new “eco-precinct” The greenest housing comprises seven blocks of flats with blocks in Singapore 712 units and is designed to promote energy conservation, reduce mainte- nance costs and ensure efficient re- source consumption. Singapore has made a virtue of ne- The buildings make use of passive cessity. With no traditional energy strategies. For instance, the housingThe world’s resources to draw on, the country has blocks are strategically placed so the always had to import all of the energy glass facades face the prevailing windsmartest it consumes from other countries. direction: northwest. This ensures themetropolises? Add to this Singapore’s limited size and constantly rising urbanisation, flats maximum benefit from natural light and ventilation. and you have a country that is forced to look for alternative solutions and To cool down the surrounding air tem-All over the world, the new directions. Consequently, it is no perature in the humid heat, each hous-concept of the smart city coincidence that Singapore is one of ing block has a green roof and verticalis gaining ground. And the top global leaders in the cleantech greening three stories up along theit is not only big, newly area. facade. This reduces the need for pow- Richard Davies er-guzzling air conditioning systems.established cities that are A perfect example of Singapore’s focus The buildings also have low-energythinking in terms of large- on cleantech is Treelodge@Punggol – lighting fixtures in common areas, so-scale intelligent solutions. the first public housing complex in the lar panels over the car park, improvedJourney with us to five Holistic changes in Bilbao The stations along the city’s metro world to earn the Green Mark Plati- heat insulation, outdoor clothes lines Surbanaclassic metropolises that system, Metro de Bilbao, are famed num Award – as well as a number of and energy-optimised lifts. for being designed by the architect Sirare now using innovative Norman Foster. Like the rest of thecleantech solutions on city centre, the entire approach hastheir path to a sustainable been holistic in nature: the architec- ing pillar for sustainability. It consists Amsterdam – A spot infuture. ture, engineering and even construc- of a table surrounded by little bench- tion are all integrated in a holistic vi- the sun es, and above them rises a five-metre- sion. What the locals call Fosteritos high metal pole mounted with solar – the dramatically shaped, futuristic panels on large plates. These “roof street-level entrances to the metro – Amsterdam’s position as a global plates” also provide shelter from the Bilbao has undergone a dramatic are made from glass and have become leader within cleantech and smart city elements to the people sitting on the change in recent decades. The worn- just as much an icon for Bilbao as the thinking is well established. The city’s benches. In this way, residents are in- down Basque metropolis has been famous art nouveau metro entrances brand is often associated with the vited and encouraged to move out into reborn as a city with the Guggenheim are for Paris. green future. But the value of the city’s the daylight and fresh air to relax – or museum at its heart and innovation sustainable projects is not necessarily work, as it is also possible to link up to as a driving force and brand. By virtue The holistic approach embodies more apparent to all residents of the city be- the Zonspot’s wireless Internet con- of comprehensive urban renewal and than architecture and aesthetics, cause many of the projects are not yet nection for free. brand new buildings, the area has be- however. As an example of Bilbao’s visible in street life. come the hub of the Spanish cleantech comprehensive cleantech-thinking, The aim is for this bright idea to spread ZonSpot industry and green growth movement. the Metro de Bilbao only uses sustain- Amsterdam’s Zonspots, however, are to other cities in the Netherlands, and Bilbao’s positive image as a place able energy supplied by a local com- a big exception. The word means sun- over time to the rest of Europe. And where new and comprehensive urban pany. This saves the atmosphere from spot, and these very striking, flower- even though the Zonspot project seeks aim is to increase people’s awareness thinking has reinforced the trend, and 46,000 cubic tonnes of CO2 emissions like sculptures are popping up all over to provide residents of the city with of energy consumption and alterna- the area has done a good job attracting every year. The Metro de Bilbao is also the Dutch capital. Zonspots is a pub- good opportunities to log onto the In- tive energy sources. Zonspot is one of international top names within archi- equipped with efficient braking sys- lic-sector project that focuses on sus- ternet out of doors, its primary objec- many green initiatives that have been tecture and design, further contribut- tems that use one-third less energy. tainable solutions and green thinking. tive is to call attention to sustainabil- realised with the support of the Ams- ing to the positive development. A Zonspot in itself is a giant advertis- ity and green solutions in general. The marterdam City Project.10 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 11
  • 7. global snapshots Photos courtesy of Ryan Burke, City of Fort CollinsColorado’s zero energy on energy sources like wind or FortZED uses a variety of renewable energy technologies, including solar photovoltaics, rechargeable hybrid vehicles and micro-wind turbines. Active participation by everyone in- volved is key to the success of theDowntown Fort Collins, Colorado, project. This especially applies to José Fuste RagaUSA, will be the largest area in the the residents who will be consum-world to run solely on the energy it ing and co-producing the energy. Theis able to produce itself – known as a FortZED team has therefore joinedzero energy zone. FortZED, as the vi- forces with local media to call atten-sion has been dubbed, is the result of tion to the relatively radical changes Vancouver’s sustainable One of Vancouver’s most notable buildings of the highest quality anda collaboration between researchers, in energy consumption habits which green projects is Southeast False easy access to public transport. AlongColorado State University, local busi- the new initiatives will entail. For super-community Creek, a new community under de- the waterfront there are wide cyclingnesses and authorities, as well as the example, a TV campaign was carried velopment on the waterfront close to and pedestrian paths, and the “vil-local government. To achieve its goal, out to encourage the 6,200 residents the city centre. Southeast False Creek, lage” also has its own island and urbanFortZED is counting on smart grid, re- within the zone to reduce their energy once the site of the Olympic Village sanctuary with a rich native marinenewable energy technology, as well as consumption and increase the num- during the 2010 Winter Olympics, is habitat.on the active involvement of the resi- ber of renewable energy installations. now being transformed into a residen-dents of the city. tial area to house up to 16,000 people. By collecting and recycling rainwa- The project is financed by local pri- Over the years, Vancouver has been The flats are affordable and the neigh- ter, Southeast False Creek has halvedThe development of smart grid tech- vate and public-sector grants in the an extremely active and growing base bourhood will feature child care cen- water consumption compared tonology is a vital part of the FortZED order of USD 5 million in addition to for the cleantech industry – thanks to tres, a park, a public plaza and much traditional neighbourhoods. And anproject. With traditional power grids, a grant of USD 6.3 million from the US a great extent to the region’s targeted more. environmentally friendly energy sys-electricity always moves in the same Department of Energy. In exchange, investment in sustainability and green tem running through every flat pro-direction, for example from a coal- the Department of Energy’s nation- growth. Vancouver is currently home Southeast False Creek has become a vides heating and hot water to thefired power plant to businesses and wide programme, Renewable and to a quarter of all cleantech companies role model for sustainable urban plan- entire area. The neighbourhood evenhomes. Smart grids, on the other hand, Distributed Systems Integration, ben- in Canada, and the cleantech sector is ning for all of North America. The dis- features an area devoted to urban ag-allow power to flow in more than one efits from FortZED’s experience and a vital economic driver for the entire trict is designed with a visionary in- riculture and, of course, the housingdirection, making it possible to draw research findings. province of British Columbia. frastructure, strategic energy savings, blocks have grassy rooftop gardens.12 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 13
  • 8. solutions The Danish Municipality of Kalundborg is highlighted as one of the most promising smart city projects in Europe. The main ingredient in smart city Kalundborg is the three-way commit- ment to intelligent energy solutions from the local authority, residents and the private sector. The path to a smart city goes via intelligent energy Meet Kalundborg – a large Danish are planned efficiently with renew- provincial municipality situated 100 able, fossil-free energy solutions and kilometres from Copenhagen. Its the end user in focus. For the same population of around 50,000 lives in funding, we could choose to invest in close proximity to the blue sea, green the future rather than renovate the woods and Denmark’s second-largest past,” explains Martin Andersen, the industrial estate with a sustainable driving force behind the smart city Heine Pedersen environmental and energy profile. To Kalundborg concept and head of the all these excellent qualities, they are Municipality of Kalundborg’s EU of- now adding the ambitious vision of fice in Brussels. becoming Denmark’s – and perhaps Kalundborg has developed its Europe’s – smartest city. unique interpretation of the Europe- creating intelligent electricity grids. Industrial symbiosis over 40 years In a few years, what seems at the an Commission’s overall aspiration to The idea is to create a sustainable moment like a wild idea from a futur- concentrate on cities and focus on the district where the residents are flex- Kalundborg Symbiosis is a unique cooperation between public and istic urban vision should be a reality in intelligent end consumer. ible “prosumers”. This means they private-sector enterprises in Kalundborg. The stakeholders buy and Kalundborg. The ingredients include: “Living in a smart city should be fun act both as consumers who can “ad- sell each others’ waste products from industrial production – in- and enriching. Partly because you’re just their electricity consumption” cluding steam, dust, gases, heat and slurry. One company’s waste 1. Intelligent buildings that care for part of a green solution and partly be- and as suppliers of electricity back to products represent a (cheaper) raw material for production for their occupants. cause you find that your good energy the grid. For example, it is possible another. For instance, a plasterboard manufacturer uses a residual 2. Intelligent, remote-controlled behaviour is rewarded with a bonus to intelligently control the charging plaster product from the desulphurisation system at the local power energy solutions, e.g. heatpumps check at the end of the year,” says of electrical appliances such as heat plant. Another example is agriculture, which can replace costly adjusting room temperatures to Martin K. Andersen. pumps and electric cars with surplus fertiliser with a waste product from the sewage treatment plant at grid peak loads or electric cars act- electricity from wind farms, usually Novozymes, a biotech company. ing as energy storage and peak load The intelligent consumer at night when pressure on the grid is A total of 30 different residual product flows are exchanged in this buffers. The Municipality of Kalundborg has lowest – and electricity is therefore way between the companies in the symbiosis and the results speak for themselves. The environment is spared hundreds of thousands 3. Intelligent planning of energy formed an ambitious alliance with cheaper. of tonnes of carbon emissions and the companies’ industrial water systems that help the end users to three players for development of the Another scenario will allow the and a wide range of other materials are reused, thus reducing total be “intelligent consumers”. smart city Kalundborg concept. The utility companies to pay the end-users consumption significantly. partners are the commercial and pro- in order to apply intelligent manage- The symbiosis has existed as a business model since 1972 and “Smart city Kalundborg is not a pro- fessional organisation Dansk Energi, ment and turn down the ventilation or can thus celebrate its 40th anniversary this year. ject. It’s a long-term concept designed the energy company SEAS-NVE and heating system, e.g. in a sports centre to ensure that our cities and society Spirae, which supplies solutions for or a house. This eases pressure on the Source: www.symbiosis.dk14 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 15
  • 9. solutionspower grid without being a problem power from wind, sun and biomass, “We want to show that smart grid is It doesn’t have to cost the earth in order to find the smartest and mostfor the end users because the suppli- possible in practice. not just about energy and electricity, but Everyone should have the incentive sustainable solutions. For many years,ers guarantee that the temperature Spirae has developed a technology about creating entire ecosystems and to invest in these solutions, and in the city has been renowned for havingwill remain within a specified range. that can easily be hooked up to the dif- sustainable business models around Kalundborg smart city, “commercial” the world’s first industrial symbiosisThis can reduce the need to invest in ferent services on the electricity grid. sustainable energy – also for the con- is not a bad word. where the municipality and a numberincreased grid capacity, which the end For instance, a service provider can sumer. We want to inspire people to do “If we think as a municipality in of industrial companies have joinedusers would ultimately have to pay for help consumers control their elec- this on a variety of fronts. For smart city new and unconventional ways, we forces on reusing industrial wasteout of their own pockets. tricity consumption. An electric car Kalundborg, it’s not just about meet- don’t have to go cap in hand asking for products. Basically one industry’s “The municipality is a catalyst for company can use electricity prices to ing an energy need but about creating money,” explains Martin K. Andersen, waste becomes another industry’s re-creating a market directed at the in- advise consumers on when it is least growth and new jobs,” he says. who goes on to emphasise that public- source. See box. The collaboration istelligent and sensible user. At the expensive to charge their vehicles. sector operation, procurement and financed and driven by the stakehold-same time, as a municipality we want And solar energy companies can make Energy can do a lot facilities have a value for many stake- ers themselves without public-sector sure that the consumers are – but not everything holders which could be worked to far subsidies. compensated by the electri- In smart city Kalundborg the initial better advantage. From this day cal company when their so- focus is on the energy solutions of He gives the following example: If a on, residents lar energy systems produce the future. But the results are about grid operator finds that the power grid and companies Spirae – experts in smart gridsDid you know more electricity than they so much more than just electricity in one area of the city is so overloaded in Kalundborg Spirae is a research-based company that supplies use. These are just a few of consumption and electricity bills, em- that new cables need to be laid to in- will gradually infrastructure for the energy solutions of the future.… that Denmark is the European leader in the concept’s many potential phasises Martin K. Andersen from the crease capacity, then the company has feel the change The company was founded in Colorado, USA andintelligent electricity grids? A survey con- applications. Municipality of Kalundborg – time a huge financial interest in reducing towards the has been in Denmark for five years. Spirae has beenducted by the European Commission shows Renewable energy, energy- and again. electricity consumption and avoiding smart city vi- involved in, among other things, the leading Danishthat 22 per cent of all development projects efficient buildings and heat “By creating intelligent buildings, the costly process of digging trenches sion. Among smart grid project in Holsted, near Billund, in associa-within smart grids are located in Denmark. pumps already exist, as we it’s possible to imagine, for instance, and laying cables. If, at the same time, other things, tion with, which owns the transmissionIn second place is Germany with 11 per cent, know, and electric cars are that the municipality’s home care pro- the municipality has plans to, say, Kalundborg will networks in Denmark.followed by the Netherlands with 8.8 per just around the corner. Un- fessionals receive a message if there is make the town’s schools more energy in coming yearscent of projects. fortunately, they are all used an ‘irregularity’ in a client’s electric- efficient, then the grid operator clear- be participating independently of each other ity consumption. For example, if Mrs ly has an interest in making sure this in a large number of commercial pro- and without coordination Smith doesn’t turn on her coffee mak- process begins with the reduction of jects involving sustainable and intel-our industries and private citizens to with power grid operation. Conse- er one morning as usual, this could electricity consumption at the school ligent energy solutions. Much of thesave money with this concept. In the quently, the individual elements are mean she has fallen and the home care located in the overloaded area. focus will be on ensuring that energylong term, it ought to be cheaper for not yet exploited optimally. In smart professional can give her a call or send “The service that we as a munici- and grid-friendly behaviour results inthe intelligent consumer or business city Kalundborg, Spirae’s technical someone right away to check up on pality provide by making strategic lower prices for the “intelligent con-to live or establish operations in smart solutions create the necessary con- her,” explains Martin K. Andersen. energy changes in relation to grid ca- sumer”.cities like Kalundborg rather than in ditions that allow a wide range of One of the watchwords when im- pacity has an exact value for the grid “But this is about much more thanthe next town over,” explains Martin sustainable energy services to work plementing the smart city concept is operator in money terms, because just energy. In other areas as well, it’sAndersen. together and react to the electricity cooperation. It requires cooperation they can avoid having to spend huge important to have a significant driv- grid’s needs and limitations – benefit- across professional boundaries at city sums digging trenches for new cables. ing force for the business community,Common IT platform ting both end users and suppliers. hall, but also between the public and In a smart city context, this kind of the municipality and citizens to findThe specific solutions and ideas are “We have the technical platform private sectors and with the power grid-friendly behaviour is rewarded in smarter ways to solve the municipaldiverse. In order to implement them, that makes these ideas possible,” ex- companies. The synergies will be cash,” he says. operations tasks,” points out MartinKalundborg has joined forces with plains Spirae’s Director of Business readily visible in the form of financial K. Andersen.Spirae, a company that supplies the Development in Denmark Peter Kel- incentives for everyone, according to Inspiration isn’t far awaysoftware and hardware that makes ler-Larsen, who has high expectations Martin K. Andersen. Kalundborg doesn’t have to look far fora smart electricity grid, comprising of the cooperation with Kalundborg. inspiration on alternative approaches16 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 17
  • 10. networkBridging world-leading ing part of ICN is a valuable asset to the Danish cluster: “The strength of cies from abroad,” Marianna Lubanski explains. Cluster to connect the company with key players in the Danish smart grid The International Clean- tech Network (ICN)cleantech clusters ICN is that all ten partner clusters are so deeply committed to utilising this CCC got in touch with Colorado Clean Energy Cluster based in Fort industry. This valuable information about potential partners and the Dan- … was founded in 2009 by Co- exclusive partnership. To CCC this Collins, USA, and the North American ish market resulted in the company penhagen Cleantech Cluster means that we can provide our mem- cluster was immediately keen on the deciding on choosing Denmark as and Colorado Clean EnergyBeing the first network of its kind, the International bers with contact to over 2,000 clean- idea of a global network of cleantech their European hub. Cluster. As of March 2012,Cleantech Network (ICN) is connecting selected clean- tech stakeholders within all sectors in clusters. As founding partners, Colo- Apart from the concrete activities the network’s partners are:tech clusters around the world and creating a whole ten of the world’s leading cleantech rado Clean Energy Cluster and CCC conducted by the network, ICN is alsonew way for companies and knowledge institutions to clusters. Let’s say, for example, that started mapping cleantech clusters becoming a great branding tool for • Renewable Energy Ham- a Danish company is looking to ex- around the world and welcoming se- the partner clusters. Lee Anne Nance, burg (Germany)go international. • Lombardy Energy Cluster pand to North America. Then we can lected new clusters. The first official Senior Vice President, Strategic Initi- (Italy) instantly put them in touch with the ICN meeting was held in Copenhagen atives at Research Triangle, explains: • Tenerrdis (France) right people in two of the economi- in 2010, and as of March 2012 the net- “The advantages in terms of market- • ACLIMA (Spain) cally strongest regions in the US – and work now comprises ten clusters from ing resulting from being part of ICN • Eco World Styria (Austria) the same goes for companies from the North America, Europe and Asia. were shown recently when we heard • OREEC (Norway) USA, Spain, Singapore or Austria who The aim for ICN is to reach 15 clus- North Carolina’s Senator Hagan men- • Singapore Sustainability want to set up in Denmark. In fact, ters, especially leading clusters from tion the Research Triangle Region Alliance (Singapore) there have already been cases of com- emerging markets – i.e. Brazil, China Cleantech Cluster by name at the ICN • Research Triangle Region panies internationalising between and Russia – where it can be difficult conference in North Carolina. This Cleantech Cluster (North ICN regions. Using ICN as a doorway for foreign companies to gain a foot- means that people are realising that Carolina, US) • Colorado Clean Energywhen hundreds of Danish and inter- first initiative to link cleantech clus- simply makes international collabo- hold, explains Stephan Skare Nielsen the cluster is very important to the Cluster (Colorado, US) andnational companies, researchers and ter organisations around the world ration, investments and export easier explains. And ICN provides the per- region and that we are beginning to • Copenhagen Cleantechpolicymakers meet in mid-March to and is, as such, quite unique,” says and expands our companies’ reach.” fect foundation for this. The network’s attract the attention of governments Cluster (Denmark).discuss smart city solutions at the Stephan Skare Nielsen, head of the services for its member companies and companies.”Open Smart City Conference in Co- International Cleantech Network. He Rethinking global partnerships and knowledge institutions span from To ICN, the next big challenge is More information is availablepenhagen, it will be the result of ten explains that ICN is challenging the The idea for ICN first came about in initial market insights and opportuni- to help even more of the local cluster at www.internationalclean-cleantech clusters’ ongoing commit- assumption that cleantech commer- 2009, when the recently founded Co- ty spotting in each cluster through ed- stakeholders see what a useful tool technetwork.comment to sharing business opportuni- cialisation and internationalisation is penhagen Cleantech Cluster – born to ucation, research, exchange programs the network can be for them. To Runeties among the 2000+ ICN stakehold- a tedious and time-consuming task: strengthen the local cleantech indus- and entrepreneurship and incubation Rasmussen, the advantages are clear:ers. the network works according to the try – saw great potential in creating an collaboration to tailor-made partner- “Even though CCC is one of Europe’s ICN was founded in Copenhagen philosophy that success in the global international platform. “We figured ship building. largest cleantech clusters, it is essen-in 2009 as a collaboration between business environment is “all about that by being a young triple helix or- tial that we internationalise, and weCCC and the Colorado Clean Energy who can grant you access to the right ganisation linking over 500 cleantech A branding tool for clusters believe that ICN really helps us doCluster with the mission to connect people, projects or local expert knowl- players in Denmark, we had an oppor- A recent example of how these ser- this. When our partner clusters arethe world’s leading cleantech clusters edge. We call it face-to-face interna- tunity to rethink the traditional bi- vices have been used by stakehold- strengthened, so are we.”and exchange competencies so as to tionalisation.” lateral export/import campaigns. We ers is the Colorado-based smart grid The next ICN conference takesadd value and knowledge to the com- wanted to find a way to help our stake- company Spirae Inc., which was look- place in November 2012 and will bepanies and research institutions in the A doorway to international holders get entry points to a whole ar- ing to establish activities in Northern hosted by Singapore Sustainability Al-partner clusters. However, as obvious collaboration ray of the strongest cleantech regions Europe. Through ICN, the Colorado this idea might seem, it has never Marianna Lubanski, Copenhagen in the world, and simultaneously at- Clean Energy Cluster was able tobeen attempted before: “ICN is the Cleantech Cluster, explains why be- tract cleantech talent and competen- work with the Copenhagen Cleantech18 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 19
  • 11. renewable energy Waste management and district heating Wind turbines, solar collectors etc. – are integrated in the city’s spaces Collection, sorting, incineration and on the city’s buildings. and recycling of waste reduces the amount of waste that ends up in the landfill, producing in the process wa- ter and heat as well as by-products that can be reused in new products. Green roofs d Green roofs on the city’s The data-linked cityA system of systems buildings help divert water locally.– how smart is the smart city? Sensors – transmitters and receivers – wherever you find people or traffic.The smart city concept is based on a Intelligent charging stations Transmit, receive and exchange information.number of guiding principles that per-vade all of its systems and circuits: All the Electric cars report available capacity tosolutions are integrated, they have several electric car owners via apps. Heatingfunctions at once – and they are basedon collaboration between companies, Heating of domestic water in housesauthorities, knowledge institutions and during the day from surplus productioncitizens. of electricity ensures flexible utilisation of electricity production around the clock. outdoor areasIntelligent parking ticket machines Smart city grafik Smart city grafik Outdoor areas such as football pitches are multifunctional and can serve asSensors – transmitters and receivers – wherever important reservoirs during times ofyou find people or traffic. Transmit, receive and information.Smart grid permeates theentire cityThe basic supply and distributionsystems for electricity, water, heat,waste, data etc. are interconnected inintelligent ways, can serve as buffers toeach other and, in many cases, make it Electric carspossible to send the flows in both direc-tions. Centralised supply stations linked Serve as buffers that can add andto the grid connect every building and absorb electricity in relation to overinfrastructure hub, which supply power and under-consumption, rechargingto trains, cars, trams, buses etc. Dis- Linked recycling systems at night, consuming and emitting Mobile sensors electricity during the day.tricts serve as decentralised clusters ofconsumers and production units – called In which all waste in the city is Register and measure importantcombined prosumers – which in the recycled or upcycled and used over elements of the city’s infrastruc-districts can even out peaks, thereby and over again within the city’s ture, such as pollution and trafficminimising the total input of heat, cool- closed circuit – from businesses to congestion. They may by mounteding, electricity etc. households and back again. on bicycles, trams etc. Illustration Jens-Andreas Dolberg Elkjær 20 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 21
  • 12. challenge Make climate adaptation smart and social 2.5 billion litres of rain water in one hour – that is how heavy the torrential down- pours in two Copenhagen suburbs were in August 2010. Local and national sta- keholders are now joining forces in the search for innovative new ways to protect people from flooding and improve their quality of life. The solution is to be found through an international competition. On 14 August 2010, when the town of an innovative project with the aim of Kokkedal, situated north of Copenha- uniting smart climate adaptation with gen, was hit by torrential downpours, green and social urban development it soon became clear that the low-lying in the same process. The project will suburb had a serious problem. Hun- not only have local advantages, but dreds of the town’s inhabitants could also point the way forward for “Inte- do nothing but watch as the river that grated climate adaptation” as a Dan- flows through the town burst its banks ish cutting-edge competence. and quickly flooded their homes. The “Instead of viewing rainwater as damage was so extensive that it can a threat to be removed as quickly as still be seen and felt today. possible, we have chosen to embrace The situation prompted Mayor water as a valuable resource. In our Thomas Lykke Pedersen to promise town, the river flows through an area to protect the town from similar situ- that has a genuine need for more func- ations in future. The initial response tional urban spaces and recreational was to widen the river and build a new opportunities. So it makes perfect dyke. But the ambitions stretch much sense to link climate adaptation with farther than that. The rainwater is quality of life for the community” says not just to be controlled but actually Christian Peter Ibsen, head of plan- exploited to make the town a better ning and climate in the Municipality place to live, for instance by having of Fredensborg. excess rainwater flow into canals or Technologically, there are many ponds and thereby improving the rec- similar projects to look to for inspi- reational opportunities in the town. ration. However, coupling the tech- nology with all the social and recrea- suburbs face the same challenge tional aspects of developing an entire Many suburban areas in Europe face surburban district is a trailblazing the same situation as this Copenha- project, according to Christian Peter gen suburb: an ageing building stock Ibsen. in need of comprehensive renovation. And many of these urban spaces need technical solutions already exist developing so that they better meet No two towns are alike, and the same modern demands – including showing holds true for climate adaptation ef- more consideration for the diversity forts. Even though the solutions are of needs of the many ethnic groups developed using the same sub-com- that often reside in suburban districts. ponents, each town requires its ownSøren Svendsen This has inspired a group of local and unique combination, according to national stakeholders to join forces on Director Jacob Høst-Madsen from 22 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 23
  • 13. challenge Decision making RESOURCE OR THREAT? Flooding in the outskirts of Copenhagen August 2010.Brian Berg Green consensus strengthens the international consultancy and the river for recreational purposes. It research institution, DHI, which pro- is already of good quality, and the right vides global consulting services on solution would have to ensure that the water in urban areas. “There are all kinds of reasons for preparing our cities for more torren- river does not become polluted with sewage water anyway. long-term investments tial downpours in future. The good The task requires an interdisci- news is that it doesn’t have to be par- plinary solution Involving all relevant stakeholders in the political decision-making process ticularly expensive or complicated. In order to bring brand new thoughts There is already a large catalogue of and ideas to the table, the municipality and achieving broad support for long-term solutions – this is the essence of viable solutions, so it’s mainly a ques- north of Copenhagen decided to hold a long political tradition in Denmark that has also spread to Danish climate tion of finding the right combination,” a competition for the project. Within policy. The benefits are clear for cleantech companies and investors who rely explains Jacob Høst-Madsen. With the given framework, the project team on stable framework conditions far into the future. regard to Kokkedal, he highlights, behind the competition is prepared to among other things, the following op- give free creative reign across profes- The Kokkedal Project tions: sional groups and competencies. The Kokkedal climate adaptation Over more than 100 years, an extremely strong and like the major agreements in 2004 and 2008, “Because our ambition is to estab- project targets the urban area situ- tradition has developed in Denmark for continu- there are strong indications that this agree- • Delay the water – e.g. farther up the lish brand new synergies, we need ated closest to the low-lying river. ously involving NGOs, politicians and trade or- ment will have the backing of a relatively broad river. More green roofs and local di- alternative perspectives on the issue The affected district includes a ganisations in the democratic decision-making political majority. Time and again, broad politi- version of rainwater can also have a besides our own. It’s one thing to man- school, shopping centre and 1,300 process, thereby establishing a foundation for cal agreements have been achieved after many public housing units. Today, the dif- delaying effect. age pumps and water movements. stable framework conditions and coherent, long- stakeholders with opposing interests have been ferent areas stand as isolated and • Intelligent real-time management It’s something else entirely to create term solutions. In the labour market, this “Dan- consulted during the decision-making processes. disconnected elements. The orange and monitoring of the water’s move- functional urban spaces and improve colour marks the area covered by ish model” is recognised throughout the world. “Our climate policy is distinguished by a high ment in rivers, sewers and overflow quality of life,” says Christian Peter the competition. Now it is also becoming known in the climate and degree of consensus,” says Professor Ove K. systems. Ibsen. cleantech sector as well. Pedersen from Co- • Diverting rainwater to natural de- Against this background, the par- Denmark’s goal is to be independent of fossil penhagen Business in order to survive as a small pressions in the landscape or over- ties behind the project believe that fuels by 2050. Last year, the Danish government School, who is one of country, we need to adapt. we flow systems. the best model is to be found at the published its strategy for achieving this goal, the leading observ- do so by constantly involving • Utilising different elements in the convergence of a variety of knowledge and since then the negotiations have picked up ers of the political as many parties as possible in urban space, e.g. roads, football areas: urban planning, technology and speed. All major organisations, from NGOs like culture in Denmark. our political decisions. pitches, wide river sections, green- architecture, culture and daily life. SustainableEnergy through Local Government He is supported Ove K. Pedersen, ways etc. to divert and store water “We want to gather this breadth Denmark to the Danish Wind Industry Asso- in this assessment Professor, Copenhagen Business School during torrential downpours. of competencies around the table, so ciation, were consulted and involved prior to the by Professor Asb- our brief for the competition is very negotiations. jørn Sonne Nørgaard, Department of Political Jacob Høst-Madsen sees no real prob- focused on interdisciplinarity,” con- In spring 2012, major political agreements are Science and Public Management at the Univer- lem with using the surplus water from cludes Christian Peter Ibsen. on the way in a variety of areas, including energy, sity of Southern Denmark. 24 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 25
  • 14. Decision making “It’s difficult to imagine a Danish politician say- ticians, while its members range from private dent when it comes to the climate, where there is already exist to suit a new reality,” says Ove K. ing that he or she doesn’t want a sustainable so- individuals to trade unions, cyclist associations, broad acceptance that we have to do something Pedersen. ciety or doesn’t support green growth. Even the researchers and businesses. about the problems,” he says. politicians who don’t believe in the greenhouse “Obviously they can’t agree on how much and Denmark has made cleantech attractive effect think that energy conservation is a good how fast carbon emissions should be reduced. Adaptation is essential His colleague Professor Asbjørn Sonne Nørgaard idea, if for no other reason than to save money. And that’s where their cooperation could end. One of the advantages of this kind of neo-corpo- also has an idea about why it would be especially So overall, it’s a political area characterised by But when we ask them: “Since we have to re- ratist society is the certainty of stable framework rewarding for a cleantech company to establish stability,” he explains. duce carbon emissions, how can we go about conditions far into the future. Over the years, the operations in Denmark. it?” – then the discussion can continue from a players grow to feel certain that all the key stake- “Danish politicians have directly and indi- Continuity: attracts investments more constructive point of departure,” explains holders, such as the industrial organisations that rectly invested a lot of money in the green sec- The high degree of consensus is an advantage for Thomas Færgeman. are involved, are capable of disciplining their tor over the years. For instance, we have given businesses, according to Anders Eldrup, former Concito’s international advisory board con- members, which ensures that they actually can wind energy and Vestas a great deal of support. If CEO of DONG Energy. sists of high-ranking representatives from inter- deliver on the pledges they make during the po- people know that a country has supported a sec- “Energy policy is national think tanks and foundations. litical negotiations. tor for a long time even countries like norway characterised by “One of the reasons they even bother spend- The process of involving many parties in the and with relatively energy policy is characterised and sweden, which resemble broad political agree- ing time on such a little think tank in such a little decision-making process is also seen in other large investments, by broad political agreements. us in so many ways, have major ments. This ensures country is because we have a reputation for es- countries. But what makes the Danish approach they will also view this ensures continuity and conflicts in the green area. continuity and sta- tablishing broad consensus across many stake- unique is the number of parties who are involved Denmark as a good stability. Thomas Færgeman, Director, Concito bility. For a company holders. And they can clearly see it working in in the democratic decisions, and that it takes place to set up Anders Eldrup, former CEO, DONG Energy like us, with signifi- practice. Even countries like Norway and Swe- place so continuously, explains Professor Ove K. shop. Or at least cant investments in Denmark, it’s important that den, which resemble us in so many ways, have Pedersen. And in his opinion, there is a good ex- less risky than, say, the USA where the oil lobby we know the framework conditions pretty far major conflicts in the green area,” says Thomas planation for this: has a very powerful voice. So the willingness of into the future. That we know that a new constel- Færgeman. “Denmark is a small, open economy. In order many green companies to establish operations lation in parliament won’t upset processes that “Until recently, we have concentrated on the to survive as a small country, we need to adapt. in Denmark is, to a great extent, due to the fact have already been decided upon. I see, both po- story of how we have, in Denmark, seen 30 years Geopolitically, we are flanked by powerful coun- that we are a rich country with good framework litically and outside parliament, a higher degree of economic growth with no increase in energy tries like Germany and Russia, and historically, conditions and a tradition for supporting green of consensus here than in other countries, and I consumption. Now we are telling the story about this has forced us to learn to adapt. We do so by growth,” says Asbjørn Sonne Nørgaard. consider that one of the strengths of investing in how Denmark, as the first nation in the world, constantly involving as many parties as possible But even though the cleantech, energy and cli- Denmark”, says Anders Eldrup. will be independent of fossil fuels by 2050. A lot in our political decisions,” says Ove K. Pedersen. mate sectors are generally characterised by sta- of people from abroad are curious to hear more In his view, the historical tradition for adapta- bility, you don’t have to dig too deep to find areas Danish consensus is an international about that,” says Finn Mortensen, who heads the tion is also evident in our approach to technolog- where not everyone agrees on everything, says inspiration dansih State of Green Secretariat. ical developments. the Professor. At the green think tank Concito, Director Thom- Politically in Region Zealand, Regional Chair- “We are very experimental in the climate area “Vestas would like Denmark to invest more as Færgeman sees the think tank as a manifesta- man Steen Bach Nielsen (Social Democrat) en- in Denmark, but it takes place against a back- in wind energy. Danfoss does a lot to bring wave tion of the fact that the special Danish decision- joys strong support from all players to take ac- ground of prior knowledge. In Denmark, we energy into play, and other companies support making model also applies to cleantech. Its board tion on climate solutions. don’t build our solutions based on fundamental solar energy as the right way to go. There is, of comprises representatives from the business “The Danish political culture is generally research and we won’t see huge leaps in tech- course, a lot of vying for political and financial at- community, consumer organisations and poli- characterised by consensus. And this is also evi- nological advances. We adapt the solutions that tention,” concludes Asbjørn Sonne Nørgaard.26 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 27
  • 15. Copenhagen Cleantech A smart building block city? How can sustainability ambitions be balanced with commercially viable solutions? This is a challenge that most policy makers, planners and developers face when planning cities and business estates. For the ambitious Vinge development, international metropolis, the natural assets tive impact on job creation and retention, as northwest of Copenhagen, the vision has of the fjord landscape and the business and well as attracting new investors and skilled been to activate the collective brain trust employment opportunities in the adjacent green-collar workers to the greater Copen- of the Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster, pool- Copenhagen Cleantech Park area, is build- hagen region. ing advisory board resources and members ing the expectations of inhabitants and from local authorities, national agencies, business communities. The Vinge/CCPark For more information: specialist cleantech professionals, indus- development is expected to have a posi- try leaders and research institutions. This combination of competences has proven to be efficient in driving and stimulating new Torben Nielsen business partnerships and promoting viable cleantech solutions. The Vinge area is being developed as a full-scale case of symbiotic co-existencePowerLabDK – world-class experimental platform for between urban and business estate de-power and energy is now open velopments. The adjacent business estate areas, including the Copenhagen Cleantech Park, are well underway. Here the globalPowerLabDK is an internationally unique collection of facilities that will play cleantech player, Topsil Semiconductor Ma-a crucial role in the development of technologies for the energy sector and terials Plc., will be inaugurating their newan energy system with a large amount of renewable energy, says Professor silicon wafer production plant in CCP in mid-Jacob Østergaard, chairman of the partners’ coordination group. 2012. The vision has been to plan and imple- ment a future-proof structure based on Danish building block principles. The imple- mentation plans encompass flexible solu-On 15 March 2012 PowerLabDK was inau- large-scale power systems, as well as one and demonstration of new electric compo- tions based on modular processes, com-gurated and declared officially open and ac- of Europe’s most powerful real-time power nents and apparatus performance, smart ponents and implementation regarding:cessible to researchers from universities, re- system simulators coupled with a state- grids based on information and communica- energy supply and end-use, water – preser-search institutions and private companies. of-the-art fully-equipped research power tion technology (ICT), electric vehicle (EV) vation & recycling, traffic patterns and foot-With a long invite list and a great turnout, system control room. It includes the world’s integration, demand response technologies print considerations.the inauguration was a big day for the Pow- only full-scale, sustainable electric power and power system monitoring and control Vinge is one of Denmark’s largest urbanerLabDK consortium partners, Østkraft, Co- system laboratory with more than 25,000 solutions. & business developments, designed to ac-penhagen University College of Engineering, consumers and more than 33 per cent wind commodate 12,000 new inhabitants andIntelligent Energy system – DTU, Risø Cam- power penetration. For more information, please visit hold 6,000 jobs. Major infrastructural invest-pus and the Centre for Electric Technology – PowerLabDK’s strength lies in the fact ments made by the local municipal authori-DTU, Lyngby Campus. PowerLabDK has been that tests and experiments can be per- ties have catalysed the development of thisestablished based on an EUR 18-million up- formed on different scales, ranging from To learn more about the possibilities area, located a 30-minute Metro ride fromgrade and extension of existing facilities. flexible fundamental research laboratories available at PowerLabDK, please contact the Capital and close to the Scandinavia’s Vinge/CCP illustration PowerLabDK is one of Europe’s most to the unique feature of full-scale tests at Professor Jacob Østergaard or Innovation largest international airport, only 40 min-advanced research sites for experiments the power distribution system at Bornholm. Coordinator Lea Lohse. utes away. The combination of close prox-with distributed control architectures for This makes PowerLabDK ideal for testing imity to the many attractive offerings of an28 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 29
  • 16. Copenhagen Cleantech Copenhagen as a carbon-neutral smart city By 2025, Copenhagen aims to be the world’s first carbon- neutral capital. Political ap- proval for the 2015-25 action plan is expected this autumn, paving the way for coopera- tion on implementation. Scion Copenhagen aims to become the world’s first carbon-neutral capital by 2025 while at Scion DTU establishes Denmark’s the same time increasing employment and spurring growth. In the action plan for 2005- newest hotspot for cleantech 2015, 50 projects were initiated and the city development is well on the way to reaching the sub-goal of a 20 per cent reduction in CO2 from 2005 A new science park exclusively for cleantech to 2015.Darrell Lecorre Taking transport as an example, the aim companies and research is now a reality in Den- Since the 1973 oil crisis, Denmark has almost doubled its GDP towards 2025 is for the majority of growth in mark, located outside Roskilde on the DTU Risø while energy consumption has remained at the same level. This is an total traffic (at least two thirds) to be in the Campus. Residents from Denmark and abroad impressive achievement, built on a visionary energy policy, an inven- form of green modes of transport, i.e. walk- will be neighbours to the Technical UniversityAmbitious Danes Take Further tive private sector and the commitment of the Danish public. ing, cycling and public transport, in order to of Denmark and be able to draw upon their Nevertheless – in Denmark we think we can do even better. gradually develop more sustainable trafficSteps to Combine Growth and world-class know-how. Denmark has decided to lead the transition to a green growth econ- patterns. Compared to 2011, the numberSustainability omy and, as the first country in the world, to develop an energy sys- of passengers on public transport in Copen- tem that is entirely independent of fossil fuels by 2050. hagen should increase by 2 percent in 2015 Scion DTU has very high ambitions for their newest science park, This transformation means significant investments in renewable and by 20 per cent in 2023. For cycling, the which is going to be situated on the DTU Risø Campus. This locationThe Danish Government has launched an energy, with strong involvement by energy companies and the pri- target is for half of all trips to and from work will provide a unique environment for the companies that join the sci-energy plan to make Denmark independent of vate sector – through both innovation and production but also pri- or educational institutions to be by bike in ence park to test and develop their cleantech technology and drawfossil fuels by 2050. An important part of the vate investors. 2015. Finally, the aim for pedestrians is an upon the highly skilled research expertise at the DTU departmentsplan is to create economic growth and green Danish companies are in the global elite in many areas within cli- increase of 20 per cent by 2015. already located on in the private sector, which foresees huge mate adaption, energy efficiency, water and environment and are In autumn 2012, the new 2015-2025 In addition, DTU’s reputation continues to improve internationally,opportunities in the transformation to a green therefore also well-equipped to deliver state-of-the-art solutions to action plan will likely be approved by policy which means that more and more international companies will get the processes ahead. makers at Copenhagen City Hall. While the wise to the competences DTU possesses. Scion DTU wants to ex-economy. An important aspect of the Danish vision is to inspire the world details are being discussed, the current plan ploit this by attracting research and development departments from and show that it is possible to create a low-energy society a coun- comprises 15 projects within the following major international companies. try’s energy consumption is based on renewable energy and that it is four themes: The objective is to establish a science park that focuses on clean- possible – with relative limited means – to increase energy efficiency 1. Green energy consumption tech, especially wind, energy conversion and other areas in which in buildings considerably. 2. Green energy production DTU has world-class competences. Development of the park will State of Green, founded by Climate Consortium Denmark, gathers 3. Green mobility be carried out proportionally to the demand; however, in a long- all leading players in the fields of energy, climate, water and envi- 4. Adaptation term perspective, our ambition is to reach a capacity of no less than ronment in Denmark. It is a public-private partnership that supports 50,000 square metres. The project is being developed in associa- the vision and encourages political and commercial decision-makers For more information, please see tion with DTU, the Municipality of Roskilde and Region Zealand and worldwide to ‘Join the Future. Think Denmark’. There should be every or Roskilde University. reason to do that. We expect to cut the first turf in spring 2013.30 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 31
  • 17. innovation Complex challenges Complex Cleantech Solutions seeks to promote new solutions to complex challenges facing en- tire cities, countries or segments, such as waste handling.Industry foundation seeks tocreate new business model forcomplex cleantech solutionsDanish companies usually develop and supply products that meet existing demand. With Mads Nissena large-scale investment in the Complex Cleantech Solutions initiative, the Danish IndustryFoundation is seeking to develop a brand new model for how Danish players can work to-gether to solve the world’s complex challenges.Danish companies generally develop companies in other clusters, such as a specific segment. What they have in “So far, we have visited a number of novating solutions,” says Neelabh Sin- and challenges often manifest them-and sell their own products to their medico and IT, ” explains Mads Leb- common is that they face a challenge areas, cities, companies and universi- gh. selves in very different ways, are on aown clients in competition with other ech. that can’t be solved by, say, buying a ties – all potential partners facing a At the same time, it is perfectly different scale and exist in a differentplayers in the market. This is a stand- “The Danish Industry Foundation couple of wind turbines or a thousand variety of challenges, such as increas- clear that these cities and potential political climate. It is our experience,ard and thoroughly tried and tested does not need to turn a profit, but we litter bins. However, the investment ing waste-management problems as a partners from other countries are not even at this early stage, that interna-approach. do need to see GNP strengthened. does not seek to motivate Danish play- consequence of the huge migration of interested in simply buying or copying tional cities and potential partners With a large-scale investment, the That’s the criterion. So when the first ers to team up and each supply their people to the cities. The response has an existing solution. are interested in using experiencesDanish Industry Foundation, a pri- companies – via the CCS – sit down own contribution to a solution that been extremely positive, and many “The people we have spoken to all from Denmark to find their own solu-vate-sector, non-profit organisation, with clients, that’s where the founda- already exists. Complex Cleantech have expressed an interest in using say the same thing; they don’t want to tions or develop their own system, foris seeking to find new ways to promote tion’s involvement ends,” says Mads Solutions is about exploring the busi- what Denmark has learnt over the copy a Danish model, a Danish solu- example in cooperation with Com-development and growth for Danish Lebech. ness opportunities inherent in more years when it comes to complex so- tion or a Danish product. Because it plex Cleantech Solutions,” concludescompanies. complex challenges which require the cietal solutions,” says Neelabh Singh, simply can’t be done. Their problems Neelabh Singh. “We have invested EUR 1.5 million Business opportunities in development of brand new products head of CCS and responsible for es-to identify the potential and create complex challenges and services in brand new contexts.” tablishing the right international con-a model for generating business for CCS is a project under the Copenha- tacts.Danish companies. This is the goal of gen Cleantech Cluster and Copen- Global market researchour investment in Complex Cleantech hagen Capacity, the Danish Capital CCS has existed since 1 October 2011. Putting Denmark’s substantialSolutions,” says Mads Lebech, CEO of Region’s official inward investment The preliminary knowledge gather- experience to good usethe Danish Industry Foundation. agency. The initial objective of the ing has been carried out and the initial Neelabh Singh refers specifically to The foundation has chosen to make investment in CCS is to explore the contacts have been established. In au- Danish experience with what is knownsuch a significant investment in Com- opportunities for establishing a new tumn 2012, the findings of the market as the Triple Helix model, in whichplex Cleantech Solutions (CCS) be- model for how Danish companies, research on potential collaborative universities, industry and the public The Danish Industry Foundationcause it makes good sense to home public-sector authorities and educa- partners from cities, institutions and sector cooperate on innovation. [See The Danish Industry Foundation is a private-sector, non-profit founda-in on international challenges which tional institutions can work together projects, both national and global, will also the article on page xx.] tion. Its purpose is to develop and support innovative, inspirational andDanish players in a cluster can then and engage in dialogue with stake- be available. The first formalised and “Denmark is a small, homogeneous economically sustainable projects and initiatives that strengthen the Sofie Amalie Klougartwork to solve. holders and clients from all over the established contacts will also have geographical area with a strong tradi- competitiveness of Danish business and industry. “We need to establish a platform, world. The aim of this dialogue is to been formed by them. tion for Triple Helix cooperation. We The foundation develops its own strategic initiatives while simultane-which is why we are financing a basic join forces and couple challenges with CCS has deliberately taken a step have many valuable experiences, and ously supporting applicant-driven initiatives and projects within threeelement which would normally be fi- existing products and, in so doing, in- back in order better to see who might with Complex Cleantech Solutions, main areas:nanced by the companies themselves. novate and develop user-oriented so- be promising to partner with on a we are currently in the process of de-Doing so enables us to document that lutions and products that are not yet global scale. The project is already in termining whether there is an interest • Knowledge and competencethere is the potential to develop com- available on the market. Mads Lebech contact with a number of cities and in and the potential for players from • Entrepreneurship and innovation • Internationalisation and opennessplex solutions to complex challenges explains: projects in Brazil, China, East Africa, all over the world to work together– and to create a model that can also “The client or user might, in this India, Malaysia and the United Arab with Danish companies, universities The Danish Industry Foundation is headed by Mads Lebech, CEO andbe used by and generate growth for context, be an entire city, a country or Emirates. and public-sector institutions on in- former Mayor of the metropolitan local authority, City of Frederiksberg.32 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 33
  • 18. essay Simon Giles Accenture hen historians look back on the first Business model innovation and ‘soft’ factors that suggest greater or lesser W half of the 21st Century they will ei- ther tell the tale of how we innovated How will we deliver the service? maturity. While it is easiest to describe the com- mon elements in levels or stages as shown in the to maintain sustainable urban communities or Finance model framework set out in Figure 1, in practice, imple- how we failed to do so and in the process created How will we finance the delivery of the service mentation may not necessarily be a linear pro- a social and environmental maelstrom. The chal- given constrained public-sector balance sheets? cess. For instance, infrastructure development lenge is clear: we face the unprecedented chal- may progress before the management is in place. lenge of maintaining or raising living standards Governance model Alternatively, the management and leadership for a growing population with only one-tenth Who will be responsible for delivering the ne­ capabilities may be more advanced than the the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions we emit to- cessary outcomes? technological infrastructure. day. As one million rural people resettle in cities every week, cities will become home to almost While the technology integration challenges HAT’S STOPPING CITIES FROM GETTING 5 billion people by 2020, with more than 3 bil- lion people moving into the burgeoning middle are significant, much of the technology already exists. The technology challenges relate to en- W SMARTER? Many cities are keen to articulate their class. Such explosive growth will require massive gineering challenges such as scalability, inter- Smartness to the world, and yet few cities have investments in infrastructure and a paradigm operability, security and resilience. The primary moved beyond the pilot scale to widespreadThe fledgling years shift in the way services are delivered to citizens and businesses. Furthermore, this will somehow barrier to more rapid adoption of smart techno­ logies is political and can be overcome by focus- adoption, and those that have are struggling to integrate solutions at platform level. Singaporeof the smart city need to be achieved within a risk-averse funding environment. ing on addressing the challenges outlined above. My team’s work with cities around the world is leading the way in relation to city-wide sens- ing and control platforms with LIVE Singapore,transformation In recent years we have seen the emergence of the smart city as a response to this challenge. Technology and infrastructure companies have seeks to deal with these challenges head on and to answer the key questions on the lips of every city leader: What is a smart city? Why is it valua- but it is still in the early stages of maturity. In our experience working with cities around the world, we see a number of recurring issues: been active in developing and marketing ‘Smart’ ble? How do we fund it? When we have answered responses to the sustainable urbanisation para- these questions we will have earned the right to 1 · Clarity of vision dox. We have seen the development of Smart design and deliver the technological solution. It is not always clear to administrators how Transport, Smart Grid, Smart Water and Smart smart technologies will resolve the issues faced Buildings to name but a few. In some cases they OW SMART IS YOUR CITY? by the population on a day-to-day basis. TheMuch time and money has been invested indeveloping a market for smart city products are new technologies; however, often they are existing products that are simply repackaged in H The reality is that there is no “one size fits all” definition. Different cities have technology descriptions can be quite abstract (cloud computing, data analytics etc.) and canand services, and yet we are still a long way a new ‘smart city’ marketing wrapper – a new different legacies driven by their historic eco- often obscure the true impact of the technol- channel to market. nomic and political development, geographical ogy. The challenge is to explain to stakeholdersfrom the utopian vision of the smart city. Are Much time and money has been invested in form, energy mix, demographic structure etc. A in the city how an average day in their lives willindustries as well as city administrations ap- developing a market for these products and ser- city’s legacy will drive the type of frustrations change with the adoption of smart solutions.proaching the problem from the wrong angle? vices, and yet we are still a long way from the uto- that average citizens and businesses experi-Simon Giles asks just that. pian vision of the smart city. Why are city admin- ence, and which a smart city project should at- 2 · Inability to articulate value istrations reticent to invest in this new wave of tempt to mitigate. Even cities with similar lega- Many cities adopt a myopic view of value inHe recommends a clearer focus on vision Smart Technologies? cies will differ as their political administrations economic terms. While this may simplify invest- In my view we are approaching the problem have differing political priorities. For example, ment decision-making, it lacks the richnessand value creation as well as better business, from the wrong angle. We have missed a number Copenhagen has the ambition to become carbon and diversity of life in the city. Economic valuefinance and management models. There is a of critical steps in the formulation of the solu- neutral by 2025 and to create a world-class hub is only one of the many ways public invest-risk of over-hyping the potential and failing tion by jumping straight to the technology. Most for clean technology. This is something that will ments create value. The challenge is to establishto engage politicians and citizens at a human importantly, as an industry, we have not placed be prioritised to a greater or lesser extent and a framework for measuring and expressinglevel, he states. enough emphasis on articulating the: will therefore define the nature of the smart city value that resonates with citizens and enables strategy. In a city like Madrid, on the other hand, politicians to articulate how they are enriching Vision the emphasis may be on water conservation and everyday life in many ways. What problems are we addressing and how will therefore the smart solutions will see a bias to- life be different in the future? wards water conservation. Cities are constantly 3 · Developing economies of scope and scale trading off priorities and addressing legacy chal- Cities tend to focus their technology invest- Value proposition lenges; as such, they will define their smart city ments on optimising a single infrastructure What are the measurable outcomes that will be agenda in necessarily differing terms. layer like energy management, transport or delivered as a consequence? Given the inherent diversity in the definition water supply, for instance by implementing a of the smart city, we have tried to define rela- smart traffic management system to reduce tive maturity by looking at a number of ‘hard’ congestion or a smart energy grid to reduce loss34 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 35
  • 19. from the network. However, tackling infrastruc- dren etc.). This common vision will help unite A culture of citizen engagement redress the balance, the discourse needs to shift ture in isolated silos keeps cities from achieving multiple government departments, the public As the citizens are the primary reason for the from being technology-driven to outcome-driven. the resource efficiency potential that ICT can and private sectors and civil society around a existence of city policy, engagement can sup- We believe that the steps presented here would offer. A truly smart city would use technology to common view of the art of the possible. The vi- port cities to define and achieve their goals. This form a solid foundation for this transition. integrate across infrastructure silos, enabling sion will also be grounded in a detailed suite of is particularly relevant in a world where citi- the city to operate as a single system. metrics that will form a performance framework zens have become ‘prosumers’ (producers and to aid capital allocation decisions, maintain in- consumers) rather than passive consumers of 4 · Business model and finance innovation tegrity to the core vision over time and demon- services. The idea that the city vision should be In an era of austerity, especially in European strate the added value of investments. Most im- co-designed by government and citizens is par- simon giles and US cities, investment funds are scarce. In portantly, this multifaceted view of value should ticularly pertinent to the smart city ideology, Accenture’s global lead for Intelligent Cities Strategy. order to invest in the new technologies that will resonate directly with citizens, enabling politi- which holds transparency and inclusivity as cen- His expertise spans sustainable economic development strate- make the urban information economy possible, cians to articulate the value of public sector in- tral tenets. gies, governance, finance strategy, citizen engagement and digital master planning. cities will need to take an innovative approach vestments in terms that matter. to how they deliver services (operating model), We are still in the fledgling years of the smart Simon Giles works with city governments and developers in how they charge for them (business model) and A strategic and entrepreneurial approach to ICT city transformation, but we run the risk of over- Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the Americas, as well as advis- ing the World Economic Forum on smart grids and green growth how they finance it all. The first step is for city leaders to recognise the hyping the potential and failing to engage politi- strategies. He has recently completed a study of Copenhagen as potential of ICT to drive value for their citizens cians and citizens at a human level. In order to a smart city. 5 · Governance & coordination of multiple stake- and businesses. It is important that city leaders holders take a more integrated approach to city planning Cities are complex organisations and decisions that shifts focus away from the physical real estate that involve multiple departments tend to take and re-balances the strategic planning process to smart city Project Implementation time and are often at odds with the sales cycles focus on the economic, social and digital aspects of companies. Procurement cycles for cities can of city development. The most progressive cities take up to three years from initiation to sale, cultivate business model innovation in their cit- which can prevent innovative, under-resourced ies – helping the public and private sectors gener- companies from participating in smart city de- ate value from their data sets and putting in place velopment opportunities. Coordination within the foundational infrastructure (both hard assets, the city’s operational silos can be challenging; such as physical data stores, and softer aspects, Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 introducing the private sector to that equation such as legislation on data privacy issues) to en- Soft Infrastructure compounds the complexity. able the digital economy to flourish. Value assessment Individual project business Some non-financial value Holistic value assessment Holistic value assessment cases added (social/environmental/ supporting diversification of HAT NEEDS TO BE IN PLACE TO ACCEL­ Innovation in business and governance models W ERATE SMART CITIES? In order to address the challenges out- Perhaps the most important ingredient to a smart city is an innovative approach to govern- Governance Departmental governance Some cross-departmental financial) Cross-departmental ’smart funding sources City-wide governance lined above we see a number of responses emerg- ance. Smart city projects have enormous poten- structures collaboration city’ management positions structures and shared in place performance targets ing which, when coordinated in a broader strat- tial, but it can only be realised if the programme combined with international egy, can significantly change a city’s ability to is set up to succeed with the right capabilities in collaboration implement a smart city strategy. place and sufficient authority to be able to man- age a complex ecosystem. We expect to see sig- Strategic ICT focus Limited ICT capability Some strategic focus on ICT ICT vision for the city ICT vision and strategy overseen by dedicated City A clear vision supported by metrics nificant innovation in operating models, busi- CIO One of the first steps in a successful smart city ness models and governance structures. One programme is the development and communi- particularly exciting development is in the use Citizen engagement Limited citizen engagement Project-level, basic needs Citizen feedback loops Citizen participation in cation of a “smart city vision”. This vision will of non-traditional enterprise structures (co- with service design analysis, pilots established integrated service design concisely articulate the ambition, intention and operatives, mutuals and social enterprises) to Hard Infrastructure imperatives of the programme. It will depict the bridge the gap between public and private. These IT project focus Little or no ICT projects Targeted ICT project (e.g. Integrated ICT investments Real-time city operations type of value which the city is aiming to create entities could be supported by the city but kept Smart Grid) (including embedded optimisation through its smart city investments, whether it be free from the institutional bureaucracy of gov- sensing, control and human, environmental, intellectual or financial ernment and nurtured as entrepreneurial start- actuation) capital. The vision will depict how the smart city ups. Such an entity could attract funding from Integration of data No data integration Small-scale data integration Creative data mash-ups Open data and crowd- will look and feel – what a day in the life of the multiple sources, and operate as a not-for-profit streams pulling data to a common sourcing initiatives average citizen will be like. In the most advanced enterprise, reinvesting any revenue generated platform cases, it will segment the citizen base and articu- through its provision of data services back into Digital service Little or no digital service Handful of digital services Integrated digital services Variety of cloud-based late how different behavioural segments will ex- its core mission of creating socio-economic and provision provision around the city environment citizen services perience change (pensioners, family units, chil- environmental benefits for the city region.36 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 37
  • 20. Additional readingCopenhagen Cleantech Cluster’s recommendations forfurther reading on smart citiesTo find this page with active, deep links visit our website: Or the QR-tag Citizens WasteTechnology is an important element of smart cities. Today, many nations face a looming waste manage-The main goal however is to create better and more ment crisis as their landfills reach capacity and continueliveable cities for people. Politicians, city planners, archi- to degrade the environment. But smart and innovativetects and researchers are joining forces to create better waste-collection and construction techniques can helpcities for the people who live in them:• MIT SENSEable City Lab to reduce waste volumes and minimise environmental and health impacts: Cleantech is all about collaboration• Sustainable Cities Collective • Talking Trash: The World’s Waste Management Problem • Sustainable Cities: Waste Data So let’s mind each other’s businessData forms the core of the smart city. However, col- Transportlecting and using data often presents a challenge dueto the numerous physical, political and legal barriers. For A very tangible challenge associated with urbanisationa more in-depth exploration of these challenges and is congestion due to increased transport. Smart citiesexamples of solutions, please see: utilise a number of different solutions to this problem,• Information Marketplaces: including modern mass rapid transit systems, conges- The new economics of cities tion control, electronic road pricing, parking guidance• The Battle for Control of smart cities and increased Smart public transport. • Sustainable Cities: Transport • IBM: Transportation EnergyCities are responsible for 80 per cent of global energy Buildingsconsumption and over half of the world’s greenhousegas emissions. With the emergence of technologies that By thinking outside the box and using architectural &make Smart Grids possible, Smart cities have many dif- technological innovation as well as integrated solutions,ferent ways to vastly reduce energy consumption: it is possible to ensure that new and existing buildings• Case: Amsterdam in smart cities keep their energy consumption to a mini-• Smart cities have Smart Backyards mum. See these sites to learn more about green con-• Case: Smart Grid Market Report Denmark struction: • Smart Buildings • Sustainable Cities: Buildings WaterWater demand already exceeds supply in many partsof the world and as the global population continues togrow, so too does the demand for water. Water man-agement in smart cities is about planning, developing,distributing and managing the optimum use of waterresources:• Sustainable Cities: Water• Smarter Water Management38 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal
  • 21. Denmark has a long tradition for producing and yses, support internationalisation activities anddeveloping clean energy and environmental tech- much more to underpin our goal of becoming thenologies, solutions and businesses. Alongside this most innovative cleantech cluster in the world.tradition a robust ecosystem around sustainabil- ity has emerged. Danish universities have a strong From the outset, CCC has sought a strong inter-focus on environmental, climate and energy re- national outreach. As the initiator of the Interna-search, our businesses produce many strong tional Cleantech Network, we work closely withglobal brands within cleantech and the regulatory like-minded clusters in Germany, Austria, Singa-framework in Denmark is supportive of green and pore, the USA, Italy, Norway, France, Spain andsustainable ways of thinking and doing. many other international partners. As a result the Danish cleantech industry gen- Through our international network, we can in-erates just over EUR 40 billion in revenue a year troduce Danish cleantech stakeholders to com-and employs 120,000 people. No other country in panies and universities outside the region. We canthe world exports more cleantech relative to GDP also bring you closer to the cleantech players inthan Denmark. the greater Copenhagen region and beyond. The Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (CCC) is at Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster is looking for-the heart of the cleantech ecosystem in Denmark ward to introducing you to our unique cleantechwith a mission to foster cooperation between community!cleantech companies, research institutions andpublic-sector organisations. We facilitate partner- For more information, please visitships, build test & demo facilities, boost innovation www.cphcleantech.comand entrepreneurship, host events, conduct anal- copenhagen cleantech cluster nørregade 7b dk-1165 copenhagen v denmark t: +45 33220222