For, With, Through Design
Creative Meeting
November 10, 2010
For, With, Through Design 2
Introduction
Proposing a new way to think about contextual
inquiry, participatory design and t...
For, With, Through Design 3
Why does this matter?
Introduction
Callto Action
1
For, With, Through Design 5
Framing the problem
1.	 In the design phase of a project, we often say we do
“participatory de...
For, With, Through Design 6
Design has evolved
Genius design to iterative design. Problems are becoming
more complex.
Phys...
For, With, Through Design 7
Research has evolved too
As design changes, so does the techniques for designing.
Industrial D...
For, With, Through Design 8
Research criteria has changed
Used to be rigor, then inspiration. Now a catalyst.
Physical, Si...
For, With, Through Design 9
Research criteria has changed
These are the two areas that need the more definition.
Industria...
For, With, Through Design 10
What we are doing now
At frog, we currently say,“PDS” but we often mean…
Define hypotheses, c...
For, With, Through Design 11
Why we need to think about the future
A paradigm shift in design and research is occurring. W...
For, With, Through Design 15
“The best way to predict the future is to invent it.”
~ Alan Kay, PARC, 1971
Callto Action
USING IMPROVAS A METAPHOR
1
2
Often we see research like
theater.
When it’s more like improv.
Improv can be difficult to
perform if you don’t know
the rules…
…or don’t know the theory
behind it.
We need to set the stage.
Callto Action
USING IMPROVAS A METAPHOR
THE STAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE THEORY
1
2
3
For, With, Through Design 23
What’s on the stage now
The foundation for choosing methods is often through the
Evaluative o...
For, With, Through Design 24
What’s on the stage now
Do we need to evolve our thinking?
Evaluative + Generative = By evalu...
For, With, Through Design 25
What’s on the stage now
Do we need to evolve our thinking?
Evaluative + Generative = By evalu...
For, With, Through Design 26
Understanding past and
current behaviors for a
specific design project.
For Design
The stage ...
For, With, Through Design 27
Co-creating a designed object with
the end-user. Using design assets to
stimulate thinking ab...
For, With, Through Design 28
Viewing the designed object as a way to extend knowledge
beyond the specific project. Inventi...
CAse STudies
Project M
Project Goals
Using mobile technology to tackle the worst HIV
epidemic in the world in KwaZulu Natal, South Afri...
For, With, Through Design 31
Goal: work collaboratively with a
team of local experts in South
Africa to do extensive resea...
Intel Digital Signage
Project Goals
Create a concept for the next generation retail signage
for retailers. This concept is...
For, With, Through Design 33
Goal: Research was conducted
in retail environments to inform
the development of a concept
th...
Mobile Money
Project Goals
Enable legions of micro-entrepreneurs in Afghanistan
to do business more effectively. Improve t...
For, With, Through Design 35
Goal: to learn what happens to
existing money practices when
a mobile operator introduces
mob...
METHOD TO OUR MADNESS
People project onto
ambiguous stimuli.
Stimuli are inspired by
design hypothesis – not
concrete user needs.
Nor is it about the user’s
ideal “what.” It’s about
the why…we are still the
designers.
This is a form of synthesizing
ideas sooner and more
regularly.
Utilizing hypotheses means
we can get more out of the
research and inform our
point of view.
And think through the
implications of our designs.
What transformations will
occur?
Callto Action
USING IMPROVAS A METAPHOR
THE STAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE THEORY
Take Aways
1
2
3
4
Be informed about the
rules of improv.
Develop hypotheses before
going into research.
Structure research activities
around explicit hypotheses.
It’s about the why not the
what.
Think generalizable not just
situational.
Think about the larger
implications of our work.
Callto Action
USING IMPROVAS A METAPHOR
THE STAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE THEORY
Take Aways
Summary
1
2
3
4
5
For, With, Through Design 51
Summary
In research with and through design, the core skills of
design, and the act of design...
For, With, Through Design
For, With, Through Design
For, With, Through Design
For, With, Through Design
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For, With, Through Design

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Presented to the internal creative group at frog design in SF as a way to inform and inspire the team. This deck presents a new way to think about contextual inquiry, participatory design and the future of design research. For, With, and Through Design is a new lens from which to understand the design work that is being conducted at frog and elsewhere.

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For, With, Through Design

  1. 1. For, With, Through Design Creative Meeting November 10, 2010
  2. 2. For, With, Through Design 2 Introduction Proposing a new way to think about contextual inquiry, participatory design and the future of design research. For, With, and Through design is a new lens from which to understand the design work that we do.
  3. 3. For, With, Through Design 3 Why does this matter? Introduction
  4. 4. Callto Action 1
  5. 5. For, With, Through Design 5 Framing the problem 1. In the design phase of a project, we often say we do “participatory design,” but we mean many different things. 2. Participatory Design Sessions (PDS) are becoming perfunctory and not well understood. 3. Doing without naming means the activities can’t be done well. If you can’t name it, you can’t really do it well. 4. New methods are evolving and the goals are changing. 5. This deck proposes a new lens to look at these methods.
  6. 6. For, With, Through Design 6 Design has evolved Genius design to iterative design. Problems are becoming more complex. Physical, Singular Products Social, System Thinking Genius Design (Philip Stark, Hartmut) Product Design (Smart Design) Design Thinking (d.school) Social Innovation (Large scale social problems) 1950 Future1980 1990 2005 Industrial Design (Henry Dreyfuss) Scandinavian Design (Metalworkers Union)
  7. 7. For, With, Through Design 7 Research has evolved too As design changes, so does the techniques for designing. Industrial Design (Henry Dreyfuss) Physical, Singular Products Ergonomics & Human Factors Participant Observation Contextual Inquiries Co-creation PDS Design Research Participatory Design New Methods Remote Research Crowdsourcing Scandinavian Design (Metalworkers Union) Genius Design (Philip Stark, Hartmut) Product Design (Smart Design) Design Thinking (d.school) Social Innovation (Large scale social problems) 1950 Future1980 1990 2005 Usability Concept Testing Social, System Thinking
  8. 8. For, With, Through Design 8 Research criteria has changed Used to be rigor, then inspiration. Now a catalyst. Physical, Singular Products Ergonomics & Human Factors Participant Observation Contextual Inquiries Usability Co-creation PDS Design Research Participatory Design New Methods Remote Research Crowdsourcing Global Inspiration Continuous Learning Inventing Future Behavior Change Genius Design (Philip Stark, Hartmut) Product Design (Smart Design) Design Thinking (d.school) Social Innovation (Large scale social problems) 1950 Future1980 1990 2005 Inform & Inspire Rigor, Reliability,Validity User needsProvacative empathyUnderstand Generative & Evaluative Idea GenerationShared decision making with all stakeholders Industrial Design (Henry Dreyfuss) Scandinavian Design (Metalworkers Union) Concept Testing Evaluative Social, System Thinking
  9. 9. For, With, Through Design 9 Research criteria has changed These are the two areas that need the more definition. Industrial Design Physical, Singular Products Ergonomics & Human Factors Participant Observation Contextual Inquiries Co-creation PDS Design Research Participatory Design New Methods Remote Research Crowdsourcing Global Inspiration Continuous Learning Inventing Future Behavior Change Scandinavian Design Genius Design (Philip Stark, Hartmut) Product Design (Smart Design) Design Thinking (d.school) Social Innovation (Large scale social problems) 1950 Future1980 1990 2005 Information & Inspiiration User needsProvacative empathyProvacative empathy Generative & Evaluative Idea GenerationShared decision making with all stakeholders Usability Rigor, Reliability,Validity Concept Testing Evaluative Social, System Thinking
  10. 10. For, With, Through Design 10 What we are doing now At frog, we currently say,“PDS” but we often mean… Define hypotheses, create design assets, develop activities, gather feedback on the concepts, prioritize features, re-combine parts, vet our mental and interaction models. This is different than… Participatory Design Brings all design stakeholders directly contribute to the design process and share responsibility for the outcome. (Ehn, 1992) Participatory activities using tools to make things and generate ideas. (Sanders 1990) Co-Creation Start with three versions of the same concept, compare apples to apples and pick one using a consistent process, structured process a la Focus Groups. Concept Testing Usability testing of a single prototype.Simulation Testing Theory
  11. 11. For, With, Through Design 11 Why we need to think about the future A paradigm shift in design and research is occurring. We are shifting our techniques, goals, aspirations, including: • Using digital and social technologies to its advantage to get intimacy at scale. • Doesn’t feel beholden to ethnographic practice/rules. • Putting hypotheses and stimuli in front of users, by having design and prototyping run parallel with research. • Focusing on inventing the future and studying behavior change rather than studying past behaviors as though they are static and realistic indicators of the future. • Looking beyond user research to competitive research and analogous examples. • Iterating over research that happens in integrated waves before and after the development cycle (continuous learning), not in isolated “big pushes” only before development begins.
  12. 12. For, With, Through Design 15 “The best way to predict the future is to invent it.” ~ Alan Kay, PARC, 1971
  13. 13. Callto Action USING IMPROVAS A METAPHOR 1 2
  14. 14. Often we see research like theater.
  15. 15. When it’s more like improv.
  16. 16. Improv can be difficult to perform if you don’t know the rules…
  17. 17. …or don’t know the theory behind it.
  18. 18. We need to set the stage.
  19. 19. Callto Action USING IMPROVAS A METAPHOR THE STAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE THEORY 1 2 3
  20. 20. For, With, Through Design 23 What’s on the stage now The foundation for choosing methods is often through the Evaluative or Generative lens… Generative = Generate new ideas. Evaluative = Evaluate those ideas.
  21. 21. For, With, Through Design 24 What’s on the stage now Do we need to evolve our thinking? Evaluative + Generative = By evaluating hypotheses, generate new ideas.
  22. 22. For, With, Through Design 25 What’s on the stage now Do we need to evolve our thinking? Evaluative + Generative = By evaluating hypotheses, generate new ideas. Evaluative + Generative ++ = Through the impact of our design, generate new ideas + catalyze change beyond the project.
  23. 23. For, With, Through Design 26 Understanding past and current behaviors for a specific design project. For Design The stage is changing
  24. 24. For, With, Through Design 27 Co-creating a designed object with the end-user. Using design assets to stimulate thinking about the future possibilities of this specific design product. Understand past and current behaviors for a specific design project. With Design For Design The stage is changing
  25. 25. For, With, Through Design 28 Viewing the designed object as a way to extend knowledge beyond the specific project. Inventing the future by aiming to transform behavior of participants or future design projects. Co-creating a designed object with the end-user. Uses design assets to stimulate thinking about the future possibilities of this specific design product. Understand past and current behaviors for a specific design project. Through Design With Design For Design The stage is changing
  26. 26. CAse STudies
  27. 27. Project M Project Goals Using mobile technology to tackle the worst HIV epidemic in the world in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, Develop an OOBE packing experience to increase adoption and ultimately reduce HIV infection.
  28. 28. For, With, Through Design 31 Goal: work collaboratively with a team of local experts in South Africa to do extensive research on the ground with local experts. Goal: conduct concept testing to evaluate the packaging, instructions, and testing process in context. Goal: to show how mobile technology can positively impact health care issues in Africa. Implications: Based on Project M, we are building a series of alliances that bring together mobile operators and distributed diagnostics on a global scale. Project M For Design With Design Through Design
  29. 29. Intel Digital Signage Project Goals Create a concept for the next generation retail signage for retailers. This concept is not a product, but a future vision to inspire others to develop the infrastructure and product to make this future happen.
  30. 30. For, With, Through Design 33 Goal: Research was conducted in retail environments to inform the development of a concept that meets the needs of multiple stakeholders. Goal: prototypes were sent to various retailers around the country. Each interaction with the vision inspires a response and brings the future closer. Goal: Inspire the future to happen. Implication: Put a foot forward, can’t go to market with half of the ecosystem (mobile or touchscreen). Socializing the vision so that the pieces can be put in place. Intel Digital Signage For Design With Design Through Design
  31. 31. Mobile Money Project Goals Enable legions of micro-entrepreneurs in Afghanistan to do business more effectively. Improve the day to day quality of life for those at the base of the pyramid.
  32. 32. For, With, Through Design 35 Goal: to learn what happens to existing money practices when a mobile operator introduces mobile banking services into this environment? How is it used? What innovations does it enable? Challenge: Afganistan is a logistically challenging place to go, so they were only able to make one trip. As a result, they won’t be able to return to iterate through the design process. How could they design with participants? Goal: to understand the nuances of introducing new technology into a culture. The extent to which you have the moral and legal obligation to protect your study participant’s privacy? Implications: priming the ecosystem more readily available. Raising the standard for other people. Mobile Money For Design With Design Through Design ?
  33. 33. METHOD TO OUR MADNESS
  34. 34. People project onto ambiguous stimuli.
  35. 35. Stimuli are inspired by design hypothesis – not concrete user needs.
  36. 36. Nor is it about the user’s ideal “what.” It’s about the why…we are still the designers.
  37. 37. This is a form of synthesizing ideas sooner and more regularly.
  38. 38. Utilizing hypotheses means we can get more out of the research and inform our point of view.
  39. 39. And think through the implications of our designs. What transformations will occur?
  40. 40. Callto Action USING IMPROVAS A METAPHOR THE STAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE THEORY Take Aways 1 2 3 4
  41. 41. Be informed about the rules of improv.
  42. 42. Develop hypotheses before going into research.
  43. 43. Structure research activities around explicit hypotheses.
  44. 44. It’s about the why not the what.
  45. 45. Think generalizable not just situational.
  46. 46. Think about the larger implications of our work.
  47. 47. Callto Action USING IMPROVAS A METAPHOR THE STAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE THEORY Take Aways Summary 1 2 3 4 5
  48. 48. For, With, Through Design 51 Summary In research with and through design, the core skills of design, and the act of designing, plays a central role. To lead, we need to: • Be interdisciplinary yet conduct disciplined research. • Translate design thinking into design hypotheses. • Know the difference between generative, evaluative, concurrent generative + evaluative, for, with, through. • Capture design learning at the end of projects and incorporating them into POVs that can be reused by future design teams.

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