Rural Extensionists for the Extremely Poor in Peru


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This presentation highlights the joint effort that CARE and Practical Action have undertaken in Peru to reach the extremely poor with extension services. CARE's private sector model for technical assistance provision and Practical Action's Kamayoq model have both been highly successful and offer a strategy for reaching the poorest smallholder farmers with inputs and education to better agricultural and livestock value chains.

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Rural Extensionists for the Extremely Poor in Peru

  1. 1. Rural extensionists for the extremely poor in Peru The PATs and Kamayoq models SEEP Annual Conference 2012 CARE and Practical Action Gianluca Nardi, Alejandro Rojas, and Daniel Rodriguez
  2. 2. Why do CARE Peru and Practical Action work with rural communities in the highland?• While Peru is a middle income country and fastest growing economy in the region• A sample of 200 households in 2006 in Puno reported: – 87% living below the poverty line and – 60% below the extreme poverty line. – 30% of children under 5 in the region suffer chronic malnutrition
  3. 3. Different VCs (and similar problems)• Low Productivity• Limited access to finance,• Poor input supply• Inefficient Commercialization In a middle income country with a vibrant economy:• High potential of local markets• Relatively resourceful Government, with a focus on fighting poverty• Relatively higher cost of interventions
  4. 4. A bit of history of rural extension services in Peru ۩ 70s – offered by the government, supply focus ۩ 90s – structural adjustments, privatizati on. Rural extension only facilitated by the Government ۩ Now – NGOs, associations, is sues around sustainability and technological update
  5. 5. Different possibilities for Rural Extension Services Government rural Companies Producers extension embedded associations / services cooperativesCons Very limited capacity, • Unreliable in the long Sustainability especially in remote term, depending on depends upon areas, and for very contingent market medium term small producers, conditions institutional capacity supply focus building processes, disjoint from tech innovation quality control issuesPros • Access to the newest • Scaling-up potential, Capacity to reach technologies • economic extremely poor and • national outreach, sustainability remote communities • institutional • demand focus sustainability
  6. 6. Different possibilities for Rural Extension Services Government Companies Producers rural extension embedded associations / services cooperativesConsPros • Access to the • Scaling-up Capacity to newest potential, reach extremely technologies • economic poor and remote • national sustainability communities PATs outreach, • demand focus Kamayoq • institutional sustainability
  7. 7. Two complementary approaches successfully collaborate CARE’s PATs (Value Chain / Educational / enterprise development Constructivist approach Approach)
  8. 8. The PATs Model
  9. 9. Who are the PATs? • People from the local communities and chosen by the communities • Speaking local languages, • With or without higher education, • With vocation to provide assistance and with potential to be entrepreneurs, • Trained to provide Technical Assistance services to the small producers either individually or through a micro-enterprise. • With a demand driven, market based approach (fee for services). 9
  10. 10. • Families have access to PAT • Families have access to PAT only for the duration of the in a sustainable manner. project. • PAT are from the same• Culture barriers to the community. provision of PAT. • PAT receive income for• Unsustainable results services rendered. • PAT consolidate supply of• Weak market linkage for small small producers. farmers • PAT diversify services and• Producers wasted provide information to opportunities beyond the life of producers. the project. • Local youth are engaged in• Lack of coordination between profitable activities. technical courses and field needs Before After
  11. 11. Example of PATs selection• Leading producers• 1 to 2 producers from community• Participate actively in meetings and trainings• Competency-based assessment (procedural, attitudinal, knowledge), in the development of training workshops.• Graduation: –Of a total of 120 participants, 82 PAT were able to graduate. 11
  12. 12. The role of the PAT Buyer – Final Market 12
  13. 13. The different roles NGOs role Private Government Sector role • Initial training • The PATs • Enabling • Initial follow-up or themselves are environment incubation entrepreneurs •Additional training • Larger companies opportunities and can contribute to the technical upgrade PATs sustainability • Funding strategy opportunities for • Access to finance entities providing initial training / incubation • Certification of PATs skills
  14. 14. A better life• The analysis shows a statistically significant increase of net incomes of almost 100% compared with the baseline, two years after the project finished.• 64% decrease in poverty incidence from 81% to 29% during the past 5 years (51% difference).• The percentage of people able to make savings is significantly larger in the treatment group (27.8%) than in the control group (7.5%)• The % of people reporting that they are living well or very well is significantly higher in the treatment group (32.4% vs. 16.7%)
  15. 15. Men and Women most important changes Place Women Important changes Men important changes 1. New skills, education 1. Better economic for the children conditions 2. Better family 2. New knowledgeHuayrapata relationships 3. Giving value to the 3. More participation in cattle raising public spaces 1. New learning, education 1. New incomes generation for the children 2. New knowledgeHuancané 2. More equality within 3. Overcoming poverty the family 3. More leadership in the communitySource: Focal groups CARE / IEP
  16. 16. The Kamayoq ModelSince 1997 - extension farmers are being trainned: as a strategy for capacity building for disseminating appropiate technologies and respond to the tehnical assitance demands of small holders farmers.
  17. 17. Farmer extension modelApproach: Inter-cultural and inter- learningapproach. Meeting local knowledge and modernscience. Methodology: Training and certification of extension farmers with demand approach and skills for innovation and technology transfer. Key Actor: The Kamayoq Technology leader in agricultural production and service provider of technical assistance Institutional Support Network: Communities, local authorities. Public institutions, universities. Research centers. Regional Governments. INIA. SENASA. Business. Action Lines: More than 30 validated production technologies for productive chains, food security and natural resource management. -1000 Kamayoq in 100 Andean communities in Cusco, Cajamarca, Apurimac, Puno, Ayacucho and Ancash. -200 Kamayoq with skills certification by official agency -Revenue improved from 30% to 100%, of 10,000 peasant families due to support services complemented by other actions.
  19. 19. KAMAYOQSCERTIFICATION SKILLS CERTIFICATIONas a basis of market access strategy for rural services
  20. 20. SKILLS CERTIFICATION Methodological innovation in the market system Development Conduct of Characterization Performing Coordination the functional and validation competency Skills of occupational for analysis in the of the assessment certification field (productive Occupational production competition chain) field chain rules identification Review and approval of skill standards and assessment tools Monitoring and evaluation of certification entities and assessors To authorize certification entities and certification evaluatorsIPEBA: Peruvian Institute of assessment, accreditationand certification of the quality of basic education andtechnical production.
  21. 21. Main clients attended by Kamayoqs ( in Cusco provinces) 100.0% 100.0%100.0% 90.5%90.0%80.0% 74.1%70.0%60.0%50.0%40.0% 29.6%30.0% 13.5%20.0% 13.6% 14.8% 14.8% 13.5%10.0% 4.5% 5.4% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% Canas Canchis Espinar Total Community Families municipalities institutions enterprises
  22. 22. Relevance given to the certification process by Kamayoqs (survey to Kamayoqs in Cusco provinces)Acknowledges our Allows access to jobs I can help others Community recognitionlearning
  23. 23. KAMAYOQS CERTIFIEDAlternative to value people skills
  24. 24. A new institutional role in the system
  25. 25. Some Learned lessons• Government’s role in scaling up, quality control, technical update• Rigorous impact evaluation as a main advocacy tool• Do not necessarily sell TA. Sell a variety of products and services. TA can be a post-sale benefit.• Possibility of adding pedagogical elements to the service (WE, citizenship, fight discrimination etc.)• Importance of bottom up selection process for sustainability / resilience