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Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012
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Access Africa Impact: Brown-bag Atlanta June 2012

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  • 1. Access Africa Impact of VSLA Evidence fromGhana, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Malawi Brownbag presentation Atlanta June 2012 By Abdoul Karim Coulibaly
  • 2. Access Africa : GoalLift 30 million people (70% of whom arewomen) and their families out of poverty byensuring equitable access to a suiteof basic financial services (savings,loan, insurance, remittances) over the nextdecade in sub-Saharan Africa
  • 3. Access Africa: Logic model IMPACT:IMPACT Well-being of VSL members’ householdEFFECT ECONOMIC SOCIAL/POLITICAL ADOPTION/CHANGE EMPOWERMENT EMPOWERMENT OF POLICYOUTPUT VSL Quality Policy & Advocacy Linkage and quantity campaign
  • 4. The Projects Projects Year Target Countries DonorSustainable Access Master Cardto Financial 108 200 Foundation 2008 - 2011 Rwandaservices for members CIDAInvestment (SAFI) Tanzania, Bill and Melinda 300 000 Gates FoundationSAVE-UP 2008 - 2011 members Malawi, Uganda 5 400ESCAPE 2007 - 2010 members Ghana
  • 5. Experimental model: Cluster RCT Time Intervention Group X 1 2 RANDOM Control Group 3 4Used in Uganda, Malawi and Ghana in Limitations:partnership with Innovation for PovertyAction (IPA) 1. The data from intervention and control communities are compared.This is a Cluster RCT. Instead of Risk of dilution of VSLA effect if theRandomizing the Individual, randomized the take-up rate is lowcommunity (cluster) 2. Ethical: control community areTake-up rate: Sample: excluded from intervention during1. Malawi: 22% 1. Malawi: 4000 the time of study. Limit the2. Uganda: 36% 2. Uganda: 4200 possibility for a long term impact3. Ghana: 36% 3. Ghana: 6800 analysis
  • 6. Non-experimental model: Pre and Post-test Panel study Time Intervention Group X 2 1Used in Rwanda and Tanzania. Internal Limitations: Measure VSLA contributionCARE surveys to the change. The change could be due to other factors. We can claim aEssentially based on quantitative methods, contribution to the change, but notbut once combined with qualitative attribute the change only to VSLAapproach, this methods appears to bestrong. Sample: 1. Rwanda: 614 2. Tanzania: 375
  • 7. Age of the Panel study (cont.) groups33 months Survival groups of the first cohort. During the data collection, the oldest30 months groups will be 2 years and 9 months old (groups created during the first quarter of the project 1st year) and the27 months youngest group will be 1 year and 9 months old (groups created during the last quarter).24 months21 months Survival groups of the 2nd cohort. During the data collection, the oldest18 months groups will be 1 year and 9 months old (groups created during the first quarter of the project 2nd year) and the15 months youngest group will be 9 months old (groups created during the last quarter).12 months9 months6 months3 months0 month Year of project Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 implementation Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 End of project 2009 First baseline Final baseline 2011 data collection for data collection for the cohort 1. the cohort 1. Data Final data collection organized 3 Data are are collected on months before the end of the collected on groups created project. The same groups group created during the 4th surveyed during the baseline are during the first quarter considered in the sample. quarter
  • 8. Data Collection Tools• Household level data  Demographic of HH members  Habitat  Assets ownership  Food Security• Individual data  Socio-demographic characteristics of the VSL members  Investment and expenses of members  Civil society and political participation  Self-image and confidence  Household decision making and violence against women
  • 9. Part 1: Comparative Impactacross the 5 countries
  • 10. Area of impact RCT RCT RCT Member survey Member survey Source and period of the study 2009-2011 2009 - 2011 2008 - 2011 2009 - 2011 2009-2011 Level Domain Malawi Uganda Ghana Tanzania Rwanda Assets ownership EducationImpact Habitat Food security Health Access to loan More productive use of the loan BusinessEffect Women decision making Women community influence Strong impact Perceptible change Slight change No impact
  • 11. Description of the Impact Malawi Uganda Ghana TanzaniaAsset ownership: Food security: Adults are Education: A small Asset ownership: it isHouseholds in treatment 4 percentage points less increase in evident that householdsvillages own an average of 6.2 likely to have had to reduce investment. Slight acquired more assetsfowls, a 12 percentage point their daily food increase in between 2009 andincrease when compared to consumption. enrollment. 2011.The proportion ofthe control group. Other household possessing atlivestock categories are not least one asset hasaffected by the program. slightly increased.Habitat: More expenditure to Education: The averageimprove housing condition. amount spent in educationBut no impact on housing by the VSLA membersindicators. increased from about $55 to $97. There is a slight but not significant increase in enrollment. Habitat: Increase investment but no evidence of habitat quality improvement
  • 12. Description of the effect Malawi Uganda Ghana TanzaniaAccess to loan: 67% of Access to loan: The Access to loan: The Access to loan: In 2009members stated that they took program increases access program increases less than 1/3 of thea loan from the group at least to and usage of financial access to and usage members could access aonce. Respondents in services. 84% of members of financial services. loan. Today we have thetreatment groups are 9 stated that they took a loan Half the members majority of the memberspercentage points more likely from the group at least stated that they took (78%) who took a loan into receive a loan. once. respondents in a loan from the group the year preceding theMore productive use of the treatment groups being 10 at least once. survey. It appears thatloan: Loans are primarily percentage points more Respondents in almost the totality of theused to finance business likely to receive a loan. treatment groups are loan (95%) taken, wereinvestments (40%) and food Business: There is 12 percentage points from VSLA followed byconsumption (20%) evidence of improvements more likely to receive Bank (3%) and MFIWomen Empowerment: a 5 in business outcomes for a loan. (0.6%).percentage point increase in women. The percentage of More productive Community leadership:the number of women that women that take credit for use of the loan: VSLA seems to havereport having a strong business purposes Loans are primarily contributed to improve theinfluence on business increases from 8% in the used to finance members’ public speakingdecisions within the control group to 14% in business investments ability: from 32% ofhousehold. We also find program areas yearly (42%) and food con. members who spoke up inevidence of an increase in the business profits increase Business: The public meeting to 37% inshare of women with a high by $12 in treatment areas. number of women 2011. The membershipability to influence other areas Women Empowerment: that took a loan to into communityof intra-household decision- we find suggestive fund a business organizations has stronglymaking, such as food evidence of a 4 percentage increases evolved between 2009consumption and schooling point impact on the same substantially in and 2011: from 27% to
  • 13. Part 2:Impact of CARE Rwanda SAFI project
  • 14. 2.a. Description of the study population
  • 15. VSL Members: Gender Female Male 23% 77%
  • 16. Average age of VSL members by gender Average age of female and male VSL members 43 45 41 40 35Average age in years 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Female Male
  • 17. VSL Members: Socio-Demographic characteristics Male Female Total Single 12% 6% 8% Widow 6% 41% 33%Marital status Divorced/Separated 4% 17% 14% Married 78% 36% 46% Yes 61% 42% 46% Literate No 39% 58% 54% No education 36% 55% 51% Level of Primary 59% 42% 46% education O level 4% 3% 3% Secondary 1% 0% 0% Total 100% 100% 100%
  • 18. % of member who have abandoned the group per gender100%90%80%70% 6860% 7850%40%30%20% 3210% 22 0% Male Female Have abandoned Still member
  • 19. % of member who have abandoned the group per district100%90%80% 5170% 62 6760% 82 76 87 83 89 95 9350% 10040%30% 4920% 38 3310% 17 18 24 13 11 7 0% 0 5 Rulindo Gatsibo Gicumbi Rubavu Nyabihu Kirehe Bugesera Kayonza Gakenke Nyagatare Rwamagana No longer member Still member
  • 20. Reasons for leaving the VSLA group provided by the members who left the group60% 53%50%40%30% 24%20% 18% 12% 11% 11%10% 8% 2% 2% 1%0% Unable to Group Could not The group Conflict in Sick Did not see Not Difficult to Other save leadership participate expelled me the group concrete satisfied pay back problem to meetings results with the the loan group
  • 21. 2.b. VSLA impact onHousehold Livelihood Conditions
  • 22. With their own words…. “I have benefited a loan “We were of $1333 from the marginalized such SACCO because of my that we could not membership into VSLA, even sit with this allowed me to build others…” my house” “I was in the list of the most vulnerable. Now I can’t even accept being in such list” “Now everyone “No more food from our groupproblem at home” have a house, cloths, health insurance…”
  • 23. Evolution of the Poverty level of the VSL members’ household120%100% 97% 97% 90%80% 77% 76% 70% 63% 62%60% 54%40%20% 0% % of People below national % of people below $1 a day % of People below $2 a day poverty line Baseline 2009 Final 2011 Rwanda national - 2006
  • 24. Change in Quantity and Quality of the meal: Perception of the households on the change on the quality and quantity of their meal during the last 2 years and the contribution of the VSLA to the change50%45% 44%40% 37%35%30% 27%25% 20% 19%20%15%10% 5% 5%5% 0% 0%0% Sig. increased Slightly Stayed the Slightly Significantly increased same diminished diminished % who declared the change % who attribute the change to VSLA
  • 25. Change in the revenue of the household: Perception of the households on the change on the revenue of their household during the last 2 years and the contribution of the VSLA to the change60%50% 48% 43%40%30% 23% 22% 23%20%10% 3% 3% 0% 0%0% Sig. increased Slightly Stayed the Slightly Significantly increased same diminished diminished % who declared the change % who attribute the change to VSLA
  • 26. Change in access to education for the HH children: Perception of the households on the change on their children’s access to education during the last 2 years and the contribution of the VSLA to the change60% 51%50%40% 33%30% 28%20% 15% 13%10% 1% 0% 1% 1%0% Sig. increased Slightly Stayed the Slightly Significantly increased same diminished diminished % who declared the change % who attribute the change to VSLA
  • 27. Change in access to health care by the HH members: Perception of the households on the change in access to healthcare by their members and the contribution of the VSLA to the change40% 35%35% 32%30% 29% 25%25% 23%20%15%10%5% 4% 1% 1% 0%0% Sig. increased Slightly Stayed the Slightly Significantly increased same diminished diminished % who declared the change % who attribute the change to VSLA
  • 28. Change in households’ assets over the past 2 years Baseline Final adjusted 2011 2009% who have purchased assetduring the last 12 months 31% 63%Average amount spent (inUSD) to purchase assets $11 $41 Legend for this table and the following ones Significant and positive trend Significant but negative trend Not significant
  • 29. Evolution of the % of households possessing each asset over the past 2 years45% 41%40%35%30%25% 21%20% 18% 15%15% 13% 11%10% 9% 9% 7%5% 4% 4% 4% 2% 1%0% Cow Sheep Goat Pork Poultry Rabit Bee hive 2009 2011
  • 30. Evolution of the % of households possessing each asset over the past 2 years45%40% 38% 36%35%30% 27%25% 24%20% 19% 18%15% 10%10% 7%5% 3% 2% 3% 0%0% Bicycle Radio Television Cell-phone Matress Bed 2009 2011
  • 31. Change in the quality of housing over the past 2 years Baseline Final adjusted 2011 2009% of VSLA members who did houseimprovement 15% 39%Average amount (in USD) spent forhouse improvement $7 $56
  • 32. Change in Food Security over the past 2 years Baseline adjusted Final 2009 2011% of HH without food for 1 dayduring the last 3 months 57% 29%Number of meal in 2 days 2.1 3.2Food quality index 37.1 46.0
  • 33. Change in children’s education over the past 2 years 2009 2011% of VSLA members who haveinvested in their children education 60% 54%during the last 12 monthsAverage amount spent intoeducation (in USD) during the $8.9 $9.5last 12 months
  • 34. Change in access to health over the past 2 years 2009 2011% of VSLA members who mademedical expenses for their HH 75% 61%during the last 12 monthsAverage amount spent (in USD)into Medicare $5.9 $10.7
  • 35. 2.c. Economic impact on the members
  • 36. With their own words…. “Before we thought “Now I can even that when you are challenge money poor you can only …” women work for others. Now many women are conducting IGA.” women Gicumbi “VSLA has awakened us, it gave us a light, “ helped us to save. WeWe were wasting have benefited from money without advises on how to saving” women move out of ignorance …” women of Kayonza “My entire life I could not imagine possessing $17, but now I am capable of asking a loan of $17 and even more being able to reimburse it” women in Gicumbi
  • 37. Change in access to loan over the past 2 years 2009 2011% of VSL members who haveaccessed a loan during the last 12 20% 83%monthsAverage number of loan contractedduring the last 12 months 1.5 2.6Average amount of loan taken (in USD) $4.4 $43.8
  • 38. Source of loan taken by the VSL members in 2009 and 2011100%90%80%70%60% 56%50% 93%40%30%20%10% 25% 0% 2009 2011 VSLA MFI Family/relatives SACCO Bank Local associations Cooperatives Church Government Other
  • 39. Main use of the loan in 2009 and 2011 % of loan contracted during the last 12 months, mainly used for …40%35%30%25%20%15%10% 20095% 20110%
  • 40. Change in Income generating activities over the past 2 years 2009 2011% of VSL members who 19% 43%are conducting IGAAmount of money $5.7 $25.1invested into IGA (in USD)
  • 41. Relationship with formal financial institutions: saving and loan services 2009 2011% who have benefited from saving serviceswith formal financial institution (individually 1.5% 46.0%or through their group) (***)% who have benefited from loan serviceswith formal financial institution (individually 0.2% 17.8%or through their group) (***)
  • 42. 2.d. Social effect of VSLA:Gender and Community Leadership
  • 43. With their own words…. “There is a change in women “At the baseline in 2009, the involvement into decision VSLA members from Gicumbi making. Some husbands was even afraid to approach us discuss household and talk, they were visibly very expenditure decisions with vulnerable and lacking their wife, because they know confidence. I cannot imaginethat it’s her who take the loan” they are the same people I have Women met 2 years ago” Beata enumerator at baseline and Final “Today I can express survey myself freely and being understand by my “Our husbands arehusband, while before he happy because the used to hit me” charges of the Woman of Rubavu “At the first share-out we household are now bought goat, at the second shared” share-out we bought a Women of Gicumbi mattress; it was the first time we slept on mattresses. Our husband appreciated it, and realized that we women are capable” Women of Rubavu
  • 44. VSL and community leadership over the past 2 years 2009 2011% who are member of any other 17% 15%community based associations% occupying leadership position 5% 4%in the community% who plan to run for office 15% 11%during the next local election% who spoke at a publicmeeting during the last 12 39% 38%months
  • 45. Change in women self-esteem over the past 2 years% of female VSL members reporting a “full agreement” with the following statements : 2009 2011 I can always resolve problems if I try hard enough 31% 41% If somebody opposes me, usually I can find a way to get what I want 19% 22% I always find some way to deal with problems that confront me 27% 42% I can influence my husband’s decision making 30% 37% I can take action to improve my life 37% 51% I can influence important decisions in my community 15% 16%
  • 46. Change in women’s decision making over the past 2 years% of female VSL members reporting a “high contribution” in decision making 2009 2011Children’s schooling 30% 44%Health 36% 42%Food 38% 48%Housing 13% 27%Equipment 33% 31%
  • 47. Change in women’s contribution to household expenditures over the past 2 years% of female VSL members reporting a “high contribution” to HH expenditure 2009 2011Children’s schooling 25% 33%Health 32% 33%Food 33% 36%Housing 15% 27%Equipment 31% 32%
  • 48. Where else are we currently doing similar survey ? TUNISIA ASIA MOROCCO WESTERN ALGERIA LIBYA •Vietnam EGYPT SAHARA •India MAURITANIA MALI •Indonesia NIGER ERITREA CHAD SENEGAL THE GAMBIA BURKINA DJIBOUTI GUINEA BISSAU GUINEA BENIN NIGERIA SUDAN COTE TOGO D’VOIRE CENTRAL SIERRA LEONE AFRICAN ETHIOPIA CAMEROON REPUBLIC LIBERIA GHANA UGANDA SOMALIA EQUATORIAL REP OF GUINEA THE DEMOCRATIC CONGO REPUBLIC KENYA GABON OF THE CONGO RWANDA (ZAIRE) BURUDI ANGOLA Zanzibar TANZANIA MALAWI ANGOLA ZAMBIA NAMIBIA ZIMBABWE Countries with an ongoing VSL BOTSWANA member survey initiative LESOTHO SWAZILAND © Copyright Bruce Jones Design Inc. 2004 SOUTH AFRICA 0 500 1000 Nautical Miles

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