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  1. 1. Photosynthesis
  2. 2. Photosynthesis
  3. 3. The Photosynthesis Equation 6 CO 2    +   6 H 2 O +  sunlight    C 6 H 12 O 6   +  6 O 2  Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light Energy    sugar + oxygen <ul><li>What is it?  </li></ul><ul><li>Plants use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants use some of the sugar for food. The cells break down the sugar molecules to release the energy they contain. </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it happen? </li></ul><ul><li>In chloroplasts: Some sugar molecules are converted into other compounds like cellulose. Other sugar molecules may be stored for later use. </li></ul><ul><li>When you eat food made by plants, like carrots or potatoes, you are eating the plant's stored energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Which organisms use it? </li></ul><ul><li>Plants (land or water) and phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>What do we call organisms that make their own food? </li></ul><ul><li>Producers or “autotrophs” </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Two Stages of Photosynthesis Stage 1: Capturing the Sun's Energy <ul><li>What happens in stage 1?  </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts are green organelles inside plant cells.  </li></ul><ul><li>The green color comes from pigments, colored chemical compounds that absorb light. </li></ul><ul><li>The main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts is chlorophyll.  </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll captures light energy and uses it to power the second stage of photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Two Stages of Photosynthesis Stage 2: Using Energy to Make Food <ul><li>What happens in stage 2?  </li></ul><ul><li>Roots absorb the water and stomata absorbs the carbon dioxide . </li></ul><ul><li>Stomata are small openings in the underside of leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>water and carbon dioxide in the leaves moves into the chloroplasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts use the water and carbon dioxide and with the energy from the 1st stage, undergo a series of chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>The reactions produce products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sugar that has 6 carbon atoms. Sugars are a type of carbohydrate. Cells can use the energy in sugar to carry out important cell functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen , which leaves the leaf through the stomata. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Almost all the oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is produced through photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cellular Respiration
  7. 7. Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6   +  6 O 2 6 CO 2    +  6 H 2 O + Energy (ATP)   sugar + oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Chemical Energy <ul><li>What is it?  </li></ul><ul><li>cells use oxygen to release energy stored in sugars, like glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it happen? </li></ul><ul><li>in organelles called mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Which organisms use it? </li></ul><ul><li>Plant AND animal cells both have mitochondria </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two Stages of Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Happens where? in the Cytoplasm <ul><li>What happens in stage 1?  </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose in the cytoplasm is broken down into smaller molecules, releasing energy </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller molecules move into the mitochondria </li></ul>
  9. 9. Two Stages of Cellular Respiration Stage 2: Happens where? in the Mitochondria <ul><li>What happens in stage 2?  </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller molecules (glucose break-down products) move into the mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen enters the cell & goes into the mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>As the smaller molecules are broken down even further, hydrogen is released in a way that allows cells to capture energy in a usable form. The hydrogen combines with oxygen to make water . </li></ul><ul><li>Products: energy, carbon dioxide, and water . </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the energy is transferred to other molecules, which carry the energy where it is needed for the activities of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining energy is released as heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide formed during cellular respiration is released by the cell. </li></ul>