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Microbe talk


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  • 1. Germs: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Clara Pelfrey, Ph.D. Cleveland Clinic & Case Western Reserve University
  • 2.
    • “ Microorganisms” are tiny creatures that cannot be seen without a microscope
    • They are everywhere – air, water, food, and everything you touch
    • Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa
    What are germs?
  • 3. Some common conditions caused by germs Condition Kind of Germ Common Symptoms Athelete’s Foot Fungus Red, scaly, itchy rash on feet Chickenpox Virus Fever; headache; red, pimple-like rash Common Cold Virus Sore throat; runny or stuffed-up nose; coughing; sneezing Ear infection Bacteria Pain and/or swelling in ear; fever Flu Virus Fever; headache; sore throat; coughing; muscle aches Strep Throat Bacteria Fever; sore throat; headache; swollen tonsils or yellow patches at back of throat
  • 4.
    • Before people knew about viruses and other germs, they had some strange ideas about what caused illnesses.
    • Hippocrates thought that colds were caused by waste matter in the brain . When the waste overflowed, he said, it ran out the nose.
  • 5. In the Middle Ages, people thought illnesses were due to demons .
    • They said that sneezing was very dangerous because a person’s soul might be sneezed out, and a demon could sneak in and replace it.
    • Saying “God bless you!” when people sneezed was a way to protect them from demons.
  • 6.
    • Bacteria are single cell organisms.
    • Their cells are Prokaryotic , meaning that they lack a membrane-bound nucleus and many of the cell parts of Eukaryotes.
    • Some of their parts:
  • 7.
  • 8. Three general shapes of bacteria: Round (coccus, plr. cocci) Rod (bacillus, plr. bacilli) Spiral (spirillum, plr. spirilla) Example: Staphylococcus epidermidis Example: Escherichia coli Example: Treponema pallidum                                        
  • 9.
  • 10. Computer-generated video showing the motions of an E. coli bacterium
  • 11. Types of bacteria
  • 12. “ Streak plate” on a petri dish to isolate bacteria
  • 13. Bacterial colonies on agar
  • 14. Label agar plates on the BOTTOM … to prevent condensation
  • 15. Enterotubes help hospitals identify bacteria
  • 16. “ The Good, the Bad and the Ugly”
    • Cause disease
    • Bad breath
    • Body odor
    • Spoiled food
    • Make vitamins
    • Aid digestion
    • Make food
    • Clean pollution
    • Battle bad bacteria
  • 17. The “Good guys” See if you can figure them out! Game show quiz:
  • 18. BEER YEAST
  • 19. Blue cheese Blue mold
  • 20. Champagne Yeast
  • 21. Compost Soil Bacteria
  • 22. Oil spill These "oil-eating" bacteria are shown swimming around large droplets of oil.
  • 23. Oenococcus Oeni -lactic acid bacterium Wine
  • 24. Yogurt “ Live active cultures” Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • 25. Penicillin Penicillium
  • 26. Penicillium mold inhibiting bacterial growth Mold Bacteria Zone of inhibition
  • 27. Bread Baker’s yeast
  • 28. Sausage & Salami Soy sauce Pickles
  • 29. The “Bad” guys
  • 30. Click on the picture to go to a web video on proper sneezing technique When you sneeze, air explodes out of your lungs at a speed of 100 miles per hour. The air in a cough travels at 500 mph!
  • 31. To cover or not cover your mouth?
    • ANSWER : Cover your mouth when you cough
    • THEN : wash your hands
    • BETTER : cough or sneeze into a tissue or your sleeve
  • 32. The “Ugly”
  • 33. Bacteria growing on your teeth can cause tooth decay
  • 34. Bacterial colonies
  • 35. Moldy bread!
  • 36. Relative size of a bacterium, compared to a virus
  • 37. Play HOW BIG? MOVIE
  • 38. What are viruses?
    • Extremely small and simple life-forms, made of a chromosome surrounded by a protein shell.
    • Live inside the cells of animals, plants and bacteria and often cause disease.
    • Reproduces by inserting its genes into the cells of other life-forms. As those cells divide, so does the virus.
    • Too small to be seen even with microscopes.
    • Cannot multiply or produce disease outside of a living cell.
  • 39.
  • 40. DNA Viruses
  • 41. RNA Viruses
  • 42. AIDS Virus structure
  • 43. AIDS Virus particles
  • 44. Louis Pasteur
    • Disproved “Spontaneous Generation”
    • Germ theory of disease
    • Pasteurization
    • Rabies vaccine
    • Anthrax vaccine
  • 45. Pasteur gives the first Rabies vaccine
  • 46. Benjamin Franklin
  • 47. Conclusions
    • Germs are everywhere!
    • Germs include bacteria, viruses and fungi
    • Some germs are useful: “The Good Guys”
    • Avoid spreading infections by sneezing/coughing into your sleeve
    • The most important thing you can do is: WASH YOUR HANDS !