Microbe talk


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Microbe talk

  1. 1. Germs: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Clara Pelfrey, Ph.D. Cleveland Clinic & Case Western Reserve University
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Microorganisms” are tiny creatures that cannot be seen without a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>They are everywhere – air, water, food, and everything you touch </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa </li></ul>What are germs?
  3. 3. Some common conditions caused by germs Condition Kind of Germ Common Symptoms Athelete’s Foot Fungus Red, scaly, itchy rash on feet Chickenpox Virus Fever; headache; red, pimple-like rash Common Cold Virus Sore throat; runny or stuffed-up nose; coughing; sneezing Ear infection Bacteria Pain and/or swelling in ear; fever Flu Virus Fever; headache; sore throat; coughing; muscle aches Strep Throat Bacteria Fever; sore throat; headache; swollen tonsils or yellow patches at back of throat
  4. 4. <ul><li>Before people knew about viruses and other germs, they had some strange ideas about what caused illnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocrates thought that colds were caused by waste matter in the brain . When the waste overflowed, he said, it ran out the nose. </li></ul>
  5. 5. In the Middle Ages, people thought illnesses were due to demons . <ul><li>They said that sneezing was very dangerous because a person’s soul might be sneezed out, and a demon could sneak in and replace it. </li></ul><ul><li>Saying “God bless you!” when people sneezed was a way to protect them from demons. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Bacteria are single cell organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Their cells are Prokaryotic , meaning that they lack a membrane-bound nucleus and many of the cell parts of Eukaryotes. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of their parts: </li></ul>
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Three general shapes of bacteria: Round (coccus, plr. cocci) Rod (bacillus, plr. bacilli) Spiral (spirillum, plr. spirilla) Example: Staphylococcus epidermidis Example: Escherichia coli Example: Treponema pallidum                                        
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Computer-generated video showing the motions of an E. coli bacterium
  11. 11. Types of bacteria
  12. 12. “ Streak plate” on a petri dish to isolate bacteria
  13. 13. Bacterial colonies on agar
  14. 14. Label agar plates on the BOTTOM … to prevent condensation
  15. 15. Enterotubes help hospitals identify bacteria
  16. 16. “ The Good, the Bad and the Ugly” <ul><li>BAD BACTERIA </li></ul><ul><li>Cause disease </li></ul><ul><li>Bad breath </li></ul><ul><li>Body odor </li></ul><ul><li>Spoiled food </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD BACTERIA </li></ul><ul><li>Make vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Aid digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Make food </li></ul><ul><li>Clean pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Battle bad bacteria </li></ul>
  17. 17. The “Good guys” See if you can figure them out! Game show quiz:
  18. 18. BEER YEAST
  19. 19. Blue cheese Blue mold
  20. 20. Champagne Yeast
  21. 21. Compost Soil Bacteria
  22. 22. Oil spill These &quot;oil-eating&quot; bacteria are shown swimming around large droplets of oil.
  23. 23. Oenococcus Oeni -lactic acid bacterium Wine
  24. 24. Yogurt “ Live active cultures” Lactobacillus acidophilus
  25. 25. Penicillin Penicillium
  26. 26. Penicillium mold inhibiting bacterial growth Mold Bacteria Zone of inhibition
  27. 27. Bread Baker’s yeast
  28. 28. Sausage & Salami Soy sauce Pickles
  29. 29. The “Bad” guys
  30. 30. Click on the picture to go to a web video on proper sneezing technique When you sneeze, air explodes out of your lungs at a speed of 100 miles per hour. The air in a cough travels at 500 mph!
  31. 31. To cover or not cover your mouth? <ul><li>ANSWER : Cover your mouth when you cough </li></ul><ul><li>THEN : wash your hands </li></ul><ul><li>BETTER : cough or sneeze into a tissue or your sleeve </li></ul>
  32. 32. The “Ugly”
  33. 33. Bacteria growing on your teeth can cause tooth decay
  34. 34. Bacterial colonies
  35. 35. Moldy bread!
  36. 36. Relative size of a bacterium, compared to a virus
  37. 37. Play HOW BIG? MOVIE
  38. 38. What are viruses? <ul><li>Extremely small and simple life-forms, made of a chromosome surrounded by a protein shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Live inside the cells of animals, plants and bacteria and often cause disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduces by inserting its genes into the cells of other life-forms. As those cells divide, so does the virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Too small to be seen even with microscopes. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot multiply or produce disease outside of a living cell. </li></ul>
  39. 39.
  40. 40. DNA Viruses
  41. 41. RNA Viruses
  42. 42. AIDS Virus structure
  43. 43. AIDS Virus particles
  44. 44. Louis Pasteur <ul><li>Disproved “Spontaneous Generation” </li></ul><ul><li>Germ theory of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteurization </li></ul><ul><li>Rabies vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Anthrax vaccine </li></ul>
  45. 45. Pasteur gives the first Rabies vaccine
  46. 46. Benjamin Franklin
  47. 47. Conclusions <ul><li>Germs are everywhere! </li></ul><ul><li>Germs include bacteria, viruses and fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Some germs are useful: “The Good Guys” </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid spreading infections by sneezing/coughing into your sleeve </li></ul><ul><li>The most important thing you can do is: WASH YOUR HANDS ! </li></ul>