Civil service and independent agenciesPresentation Transcript
THE CIVIL SERVICE ANDINDEPENDENTAGENCIESNESTOR ROSA, CHRISTINA PAGAN, ANASTASIYA SERGEYEVA, TENZINSONAMHow does a civil service employee enforce or promoteanimal rights?
The Civil Service Civil Service: civilian employees who perform administrative Vocabulary: work for the government Spoils system A Civil servant is a person in the Patronage public sector employed for a Register government department or bipartisan agency The Constitution says very little when is comes to the staffing of the federal bureaucracy, the only direct reference is in Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 “shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate……in the Heads of Departments.” (Art. II, Sec. 2, Cl. 2)
Development of the CivilService Civil service reformers have worked to reduce corruption and political influence and promote merit in federal employment In the Beginning: George Washington (1789) knew that the success of the new government would mostly depend on those he appointed to office Result he favored members of his own party
Development of the Civil Service(Continued) The Spoils System: the practice of giving offices and other favors of government to political supporters and friends. President Andrew Jackson has been called the father of the spoils system because he dismissed over 200 presidential appointees and 2,000 office holders with Jacksonian Democrats Patronage: also the practice of giving jobs to supporters. Calling Jackson the father of the spoils system seems somewhat unfair because patronage was widely in use at the state and local levels long before Jacksons presidency.
Reforming the Civil Service Many believed that the spoils system was a way to build and hold power, so reform took place Pendleton Act (Civil Service Act of 1883) Had the following: A Civil Service Commission would be formed to administer tests to qualified applicants for government jobs Competitive exams would be used to hire some government workers Government employees would no longer be forced to make campaign contributions to political parties Its main purpose was to make merit and set the basis for hiring, promoting, and other personnel activities in the federal work force The Law set up two categories of employment in the executive branch, the classified and unclassified services
The Civil Service Today Today 90% of all the men and women who work for the executive branch agencies are covered by the merit system Because the goal of eliminating the spoils system was successful in the early years of the last century, a new purpose emerged: recruiting and keeping the best available people in the federal work force Goal has succeeded because: Today most federal employees are hired through a competitive process Employees are paid and promoted on the basis of written evaluations by their superiors Generally protected from disciplinary actions or dismissal for partisan reasons The Office of Personal Management (1978) is now the Federal Government’s central personnel agency, it is an independent agency in the executive branch Registers: lists of those applications who pass its tests and are qualified for employment Merit System Protection Board an independent agency that enforces the merit principle in the federal bureaucracy Bipartisan: includes members from both parties
Independent Agencies Until the 1880s, nearly all that the Vocabulary: Federal Government did was done independent through its cabinet departments. agencies Since then, Congress has created a independent large number of additional agencies executive agencies What are independent agencies? independent An agency in the United States regulatory government that is created by an commissions act of Congress and is independent quasi-legislative of the executive departments quasi-judicial Why are independent agencies government corporation separated from the executive departments? They do no fit well within any cabinet departments. Congress has given some agencies an independent status to protect them from partisan and pressure politics.
Understanding IndependentAgencies There are three groups: independent executive agencies: agencies headed by a single administrator with regional subunits but lacking cabinet status independent regulatory commissions: agencies created by Congress designed to regulate important aspects of the nation’s economy and are largely beyond the reach of presidential control government corporation: corporation within the executive branch subject to the president’s direction and control set by congress to carry out certain business like activities.
Independent ExecutiveAgencies They are organized like Cabinet departments, the difference between a cabinet department and an independent executive agency is that independent agencies do not have Cabinet status Some agencies are not administrative and policy giants but they do important work and attract public notice (examples are: the Civil Rights Commission and Peace Corps)
Independent RegulatoryCommissions There are 10 agencies today and they are beyond the reach of presidential direction and control Each is headed by a board or commission made up of five to seven members appointed by the President with Senate consent. Congress has given them the power to administer the programs for which they were created. Unlike the other independent agencies, the regulatory commissions are also quasi-legislative and quasi- judicial Quasi-legislative: having to do with powers that are to some extent legislative Quasi-judicial: having to do with powers that are to some extent judicial
Independent Regulatory CommissionsAgency Date No. of Members Terms Major Functions Est.Board of Governors, 1913 7 14 Supervises banking system, practices; regulates moneyFederal Reserve years supply, use of credit in economy.SystemFederal Trade 1914 5 7 years Enforces antitrust, other laws prohibiting unfairCommission (FTC) competition, price-fixing, false advertising, other unfair business practicesSecurities and 1934 5 5 years Regulates securities, other financial markets, investmentExchange companies, brokers; enforces laws prohibiting fraud, otherCommission (SEC) dishonest investment practicesFederal 1934 5 5 years Regulates interstate and foreign communications by radio,Communications television, wire, satellite, and cableCommission (FCC)Nation Labor 1935 5 5 years Administers federal labor-management relations laws; holdRelations Board collective bargaining elections; prevents, remedies(NLRB)Federal Maritime 1936 5 5 years Regulates waterborne foreign, domestic off-shoreCommission (FMC) commerce of the United States; supervises rates, services.Consumer Product 1972 5 5 years Sets, enforces safety standards for consumer products;Safety Commission directs recall of unsafe products; conducts safety research,(CPSC) information programs.Nuclear Regulatory 1974 5 5 years Licenses, regulates all civilian nuclear facilities and civilianCommission (NRC) uses of nuclear materials.Commodity Futures 1974 5 5 years Regulates commodity exchanges, brokers, futures tradingTrading Commission in agriculture, metal, other commodities.(CFTC)Federal Energy 1977 5 4 years Regulates, sets rates for transmission, sale of natural gas,Regulatory electricity, oil by pipeline; Licenses hydroelectric power
Government Corporations Government corporations are within the executive branch and subject to the President’s direction and control It is setup much like a corporation in the private sector; it is run by a board of directors with a general manager who directs the corporation’s operations according to the policies established by that board Differences between government and private corporations: Congress decides the purpose for which the public agencies exist and the functions they can perform All who work for these corporations are public employees The President selects most of the top officers of government corporations with Senate confirmation Public agencies are financed by public funds appropriated by Congress and not by private investors Set up by Congress to carry out certain business like activities There are now more than 50 of these corporations. (examples: the U.S. Postal Service, the FDIC)
How does a civil service employees enforceor promote animal rights? How are the civil service, independent agencies, and animal rights related? Jobs in the federal bureaucracy are covered by some part of the civil service system The civil service gives the Civil Service exam to prospective government employees Once they become employees, they work to enforce laws that protect animal’s rights.
USDA APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) Do government agencies help to protect animal rights? Yes they do, APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) is an agency within the USDA. It administers the Animal Welfare Act and carries out wildlife damage management activities. APHIS helped to enact the Animal Welfare Act and the Horse Protection Act. The Animal Welfare Act requires that minimum standards of care and treatment be provided for certain animals bred for commercial sale, used in research, transported commercially, or exhibited to the public. The Horse Protection Act prohibits horses subjected to a process called soring from participating in exhibitions, sales, shows, or auctions.
Migratory Bird Conservation Commission The Migratory Bird Conservation Commission was established in 1929 by the passage of the Migratory Bird Conservation Act, which was created and authorized to consider and approve any areas of land and/or water recommended by the Secretary of the Interior for purchase or rental by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and to fix the price or prices at which such areas may be purchased or rented. North American Wetlands Conservation Act. This Act provides for Federal funding to encourage partnerships to protect, enhance, restore, and manage wetlands and other habitats for migratory birds and other fish and wildlife to carry out the North American Waterfowl Management Plan.
Marine Mammal Commission The Marine Mammal Commission is an independent agency of the U.S. Government, established under Title II of the Marine Mammal Act (1972) The commission helps marine mammals by: undertaking a review and study of the activities existing laws in the United States and participating in international conventions relating to marine mammals. Examples: The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, the Whaling Convention Act of 1949, the Interim Convention on the Conservation
Bibliography Prentice Hall: American Government, William A. McClenaghan "Realty, National Wildlife Refuge System." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Home. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.fws.gov/refuges/realty/mbcc.html>. "Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Home. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/migtrea.html>. "Migratory Bird Treaty Act." Sialis Home - Helping Bluebirds and Other Small Cavity Nesters Survive and Thrive. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.sialis.org/mbta.htm>. Marine Mammal Commission. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://mmc.gov/>. "Marine Mammal Protection Act - Office of Protected Resources - NOAA Fisheries." Home :: NOAA Fisheries. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/laws/mmpa/>. "USA.gov | Independent Agencies and Government Corporations." USA.gov: The U.S. Governments Official Web Portal. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/Federal/Independent.shtml>. Pictures: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/art_symbols/symbols.html http://www.ardlinc.com/image/usda-aphis.gif http://www.oceanlight.com/log/img/mmc_2007.jpg http://www.sheddaquarium.org/images/articles/Shedd-Aquarium-Beluga-Whale-2.jpg http://www.imata.org/uploads/animals/174_DolphinsLook.jpg http://libcom.org/files/animal-rights.jpg http://www.jhsph.edu/bin/v/n/peace_corps.jpg