• Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,847
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Solubility rules-usually soluble
    Apply rules in order
    Acids (except long chain organics)
    SA: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
    SA completely dissociate
    All Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, C2H3O2-
    Most Cl-, Br-, I- (some exceptions)
    Most SO4-2 (some exceptions)
  • 2. Solublity rules –mostly insoluble
    5. Most S-
    6. Most OH- CO3-2 SO3-2 PO4-3
    Strong Bases: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs OH
    Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra (OH)2
    strong bases completely dissociate
    7. Gases
    Elemental gases very slightly soluble
    CO2 H2S SO2 slightly soluble
    (bubble out of solution)
    H2SO3 and H2CO3 break down in acidic soln
    See more detailed rule
    Handouts
    Book chart
  • 3. Another way to look at the rules follows
    These are only for the most common compounds – there are obviously more rules (and exceptions!!!)
  • 4. General Solubility rulesusually soluble
    Soluble Compounds
    Salts of Na+ K+ NH4+
    Salts of Cl- Br- I-
    Salt of F-
    Salts of NO3- ClO3- ClO4- and C2H3O2-
    Salts of SO4-2
    Exceptions
    Ag+ Hg2+2 Pb+2
    Mg+2 Ca+2 Sr+2 Ba+2 Pb+2
    Sr+2 Ba+2 Pb+2
  • 5. General solubility rulesgenerally insoluble
    Insoluble compounds
    Salts of
    CO3-2
    PO4-3
    C2O4-2 (oxalate)
    CrO4-2
    S-2
    OH-1
    O-2
    Exceptions
    Salts of NH4+ and all the alkali metals (Group IA metals)
  • 6. Medical applications
    Kidney stones are often calcium salts of slightly soluble compounds (we classified them as insoluble)
    Phosphates
    Carbonates
    Oxalates
    Calcium oxalate crystals are needle like and would be extremely painful to excrete!! Whereas the phosphates and carbonates aren’t needle-like
  • 7. Other medical applications
    A lot of drugs have poor solubilities as neutral molecules –
    Many of the drug molecules have acidic or basic groups
    If you react the acid molecules with NaOH – you can produce the sodium salt - usually with better solubility
    If you react the basic molecules (the amines) with HCl – you produce the chloride salt and usually increase the solubility
  • 8. Example of these drugs
    Naproxen sodium (or sodium naproxen) the drug in Alleve – acid group reacts with NaOH to eliminate water leaving naproxen as an anion
    Naproxen-COOH + NaOH NaproxenCOO-Na+ + H2O
    Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride:a decongestant
    PseudoephedrineNH2 + HCl pseudoephedreinNH3+Cl-