10 152-2-14-2011.
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10 152-2-14-2011.



hybridized orbitals

hybridized orbitals



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    10 152-2-14-2011. 10 152-2-14-2011. Presentation Transcript

    • Lewis structures/VSEPR/FC• Count electrons in• Basic attachments• Subtract electrons used in attachments• Put electrons on outer atoms – Extra electrons go on inner atom – Deficient in electrons – use multiple bonds • May have resonance structures • FC may help determine which is more reasonable (e- in bonds go to higher e- neg atom)• e- positions determine e- shape around central atom• Atom positions determine shape of molecule
    • Names of shapes:Electron positions – “lone” (unshared pairs) prefer “more room”Especially important in trig bipyramidal and octahedral
    • Bond angles – determine after placing ALL electronsC – 4 bonds, N and O total of 4 pr electrons
    • Bond angleShape of electronsShape of atoms connections
    • d- orbitals will be used in expanded octets
    • hybridization• VSEPR predicts bond angles but in 1930’s Linus Pauling used atomic orbitals to to predict these same bond angles – Valence bond theory hybridized orbitals – Atomic orbitals do not have these shapes • Hybridized orbitals – belong to molecules
    • When atoms form molecules• Electrons are more “directional”
    • C 1s 2s 2p 1s 2s 2p _ _ ___ _ _ ___Explanation for bond angles seen in molecules
    • Hybridization• s, p, d shapes fit the same shapes and bond angles as VSEPR Add to your chart Fig 7.4 Pg 177 fig 7.5
    • CN Shape (VSEPR) hybridization2 Linear sp3 Trigonal planar sp24 Tetrahedral sp35 Trigonal bipyramid sp3d6 octahedral sp3d2
    • Add hybridization Bond angle Shape of electrons Shape of atoms connectionsNote: electrons not added Are all electrons added?
    • σ and π bonding• Single bonds – sigma – end to end overlap of orbitals – electron density between nuclei• Multiple bonds – 1 sigma and 1or 2 pi bonds• Pi bonds – side to side overlap – electron density above and below nuclei• Pi bonds weaker than sigmas – Therefore double bond less than twice as strong as single bond
    • C2 H4FIX FOR SP2
    • Acetylene – 1 sigma, 2 pi’sC2 H2
    • Pi bonds• Overlap of unhybridized p orbitals• C2H6 C2H4 C2H2
    • Delocalized electrons• Pi orbitals can be delocalized over several atoms• Alternating =‘s
    • Place H’s and e-’sBox sp3Triangle sp2Circle atoms with delocalized pi electrons O H3C NH NH O
    • CH3 CH3 8H3C CH3 9 7 H OH 12 10 NH 13 11 5 6 H CH3 14 16 4 15 3 HN 2 1 NH2 HO N HO H N HO H NH N HO H H HH3C N N O NHH3C N O