Lewis structures/VSEPR/FC•   Count electrons in•   Basic attachments•   Subtract electrons used in attachments•   Put elec...
Names of shapes:Electron positions – “lone” (unshared pairs) prefer “more room”Especially important in trig bipyramidal an...
Bond angles – determine after placing ALL electronsC – 4 bonds, N and O total of 4 pr electrons
Bond angleShape of electronsShape of atoms connections
d- orbitals will be used in expanded octets
hybridization• VSEPR predicts bond angles but in 1930’s  Linus Pauling used atomic orbitals to to  predict these same bond...
When atoms form molecules• Electrons are more “directional”
C 1s 2s 2p              1s 2s 2p         _ _ ___              _ _ ___Explanation for bond angles seen in molecules
Hybridization• s, p, d shapes fit the same shapes and bond  angles as VSEPR                                   Add to your ...
CN   Shape (VSEPR)        hybridization2    Linear               sp3    Trigonal planar      sp24    Tetrahedral          ...
Add hybridization                                  Bond angle                                  Shape of electrons         ...
σ and π bonding• Single bonds – sigma – end to end overlap of  orbitals – electron density between nuclei• Multiple bonds ...
C2 H4FIX FOR SP2
Acetylene – 1 sigma, 2 pi’sC2 H2
Pi bonds• Overlap of unhybridized p orbitals• C2H6 C2H4 C2H2
Delocalized electrons• Pi orbitals can be delocalized over several  atoms• Alternating =‘s
Place H’s and e-’sBox sp3Triangle sp2Circle atoms with delocalized pi electrons                                           ...
CH3                CH3                                     8H3C   CH3                                                     ...
10 152-2-14-2011.
10 152-2-14-2011.
10 152-2-14-2011.
10 152-2-14-2011.
10 152-2-14-2011.
10 152-2-14-2011.
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10 152-2-14-2011.

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hybridized orbitals

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10 152-2-14-2011.

  1. 1. Lewis structures/VSEPR/FC• Count electrons in• Basic attachments• Subtract electrons used in attachments• Put electrons on outer atoms – Extra electrons go on inner atom – Deficient in electrons – use multiple bonds • May have resonance structures • FC may help determine which is more reasonable (e- in bonds go to higher e- neg atom)• e- positions determine e- shape around central atom• Atom positions determine shape of molecule
  2. 2. Names of shapes:Electron positions – “lone” (unshared pairs) prefer “more room”Especially important in trig bipyramidal and octahedral
  3. 3. Bond angles – determine after placing ALL electronsC – 4 bonds, N and O total of 4 pr electrons
  4. 4. Bond angleShape of electronsShape of atoms connections
  5. 5. d- orbitals will be used in expanded octets
  6. 6. hybridization• VSEPR predicts bond angles but in 1930’s Linus Pauling used atomic orbitals to to predict these same bond angles – Valence bond theory hybridized orbitals – Atomic orbitals do not have these shapes • Hybridized orbitals – belong to molecules
  7. 7. When atoms form molecules• Electrons are more “directional”
  8. 8. C 1s 2s 2p 1s 2s 2p _ _ ___ _ _ ___Explanation for bond angles seen in molecules
  9. 9. Hybridization• s, p, d shapes fit the same shapes and bond angles as VSEPR Add to your chart Fig 7.4 Pg 177 fig 7.5
  10. 10. CN Shape (VSEPR) hybridization2 Linear sp3 Trigonal planar sp24 Tetrahedral sp35 Trigonal bipyramid sp3d6 octahedral sp3d2
  11. 11. Add hybridization Bond angle Shape of electrons Shape of atoms connectionsNote: electrons not added Are all electrons added?
  12. 12. σ and π bonding• Single bonds – sigma – end to end overlap of orbitals – electron density between nuclei• Multiple bonds – 1 sigma and 1or 2 pi bonds• Pi bonds – side to side overlap – electron density above and below nuclei• Pi bonds weaker than sigmas – Therefore double bond less than twice as strong as single bond
  13. 13. C2 H4FIX FOR SP2
  14. 14. Acetylene – 1 sigma, 2 pi’sC2 H2
  15. 15. Pi bonds• Overlap of unhybridized p orbitals• C2H6 C2H4 C2H2
  16. 16. Delocalized electrons• Pi orbitals can be delocalized over several atoms• Alternating =‘s
  17. 17. Place H’s and e-’sBox sp3Triangle sp2Circle atoms with delocalized pi electrons O H3C NH NH O
  18. 18. CH3 CH3 8H3C CH3 9 7 H OH 12 10 NH 13 11 5 6 H CH3 14 16 4 15 3 HN 2 1 NH2 HO N HO H N HO H NH N HO H H HH3C N N O NHH3C N O

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