Chapter 12              Social PsychologyMcGraw-Hill           ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Attitudes and Social Cognition• Learning Outcomes      – Define persuasion      – Explain social cognitionMcGraw-Hill     ...
Persuasion: Changing Attitudes• Attitudes: evaluations of a particular person,  behavior, belief, or concept      – Attitu...
Persuasion: Changing Attitudes (cont.)     – Central route processing: message interpretation       characterized by thoug...
Persuasion: Changing Attitudes (cont.)     – Cognitive dissonance: the conflict that occurs       when a person holds two ...
Persuasion: Changing Attitudes (cont.)McGraw-Hill        ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.   6
Social Cognition: Understanding                       Others• Social cognition: the cognitive processes by  which people u...
Social Cognition: Understanding                   Others (cont.)      – Attribution theory: seeks to explain how we       ...
Social Cognition: Understanding                  Others (cont.)• Attribution biases     – The halo effect: an initial unde...
Social Cognition: Understanding                   Others (cont.)      – Fundamental attribution error: a tendency to      ...
Social Influence and Groups• Learning Outcomes     – Define conformity     – Explain compliance     – Discuss obedienceMcG...
Conformity: Following What Others Do• Conformity: a change in behavior or attitudes  brought about by a desire to follow t...
Conformity: Following What Others Do                    (cont.)     – Social roles: the behaviors that are associated     ...
Compliance: Submitting to Direct              Social Pressure• Compliance: behavior that occurs in response  to direct soc...
Compliance: Submitting to Direct          Social Pressure (cont.)    – That’s-not-all technique: immediately after an init...
Obedience: Following Direct Orders• Obedience: a change in behavior in response  to the commands of others (people in  pow...
Prejudice and Discrimination• Learning Outcomes      – Identify the origins of prejudice      – Distinguish measuring prac...
Prejudice and Discrimination (cont.)• Stereotype: a set of generalized beliefs and  expectations about a particular group ...
Prejudice and Discrimination (cont.)• Discrimination: behavior directed toward  individuals on the basis of their membersh...
The Foundations of Prejudice• Prejudices are not innate; they are learned      – Observational learning approaches: the be...
Measuring Prejudice and              Discrimination: The Implicit                    Personality Test• Implicit Associatio...
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination• Increasing contact between the target of stereotyping  and the holder of the stereo...
Positive and Negative Social Behavior• Learning Outcomes      – Compare and contrast the concepts of “like” and        lov...
Liking and Loving: Interpersonal     Attraction and the Development of                Relationships• Interpersonal attract...
Liking and Loving: Interpersonal     Attraction and the Development of             Relationships (cont.)      – Similarity...
Liking and Loving: Interpersonal     Attraction and the Development of             Relationships (cont.)• Passionate (roma...
Liking and Loving: Interpersonal     Attraction and the Development of             Relationships (cont.)McGraw-Hill       ...
Aggression and Prosocial Behavior:         Hurting and Helping Others• Aggression: the intentional injury of, or harm to, ...
Aggression and Prosocial Behavior:      Hurting and Helping Others (cont.)      – Observational learning approaches: socia...
Aggression and Prosocial Behavior:      Hurting and Helping Others (cont.)• Four basic steps in deciding to help      – No...
Stress and Coping• Learning Outcomes      – Define stress and discuss how it affects us      – Explain the nature of stres...
Stress: Reacting to Threat and                        Challenge• Stress: a person’s response to events that are  threateni...
The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is             Your Pleasure• Categories of stressors      – Cataclysmic events: strong...
The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is          Your Pleasure (cont.)              • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): ...
The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is          Your Pleasure (cont.)• High cost of stress      – Continued exposure to str...
The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is          Your Pleasure (cont.)McGraw-Hill         ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, I...
The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is          Your Pleasure (cont.)• Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): the study of  the relat...
Coping with Stress• Coping: efforts to control, reduce, or learn to  tolerate the threats that lead to stress      – Emoti...
Coping with Stress (cont.)      – Learned helplessness: a state in which people        conclude that unpleasant or aversiv...
Coping with Stress (cont.)• Effective coping strategies      – Turn threat into a challenge, focusing on ways to        co...
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  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Social psychology : the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Persuasion is the process of changing attitudes, one of the central aspects of social psychology. The ease with which we can change our attitudes depends on a number of factors, including message source (characteristics of a person who delivers a persuasive message), characteristics of the message (what the message is like: one-sided or two-sided), and characteristics of the target (i.e., intelligent people are more resistant to persuasion than those who are less intelligent). Attitudes influence behavior. Generally, people strive for consistency between their attitudes and their behavior. People tend to hold fairly consistent attitudes. Ironically, in some cases, it is our behavior that shapes our attitudes. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • One of the dominant areas in social psychology during the last few years has focused on learning how we come to understand what others are like and how we explain the reasons underlying others’ behavior. How can we decide what’s important and what isn’t and make judgments about the characteristics of others? Social psychologists interested in this question study social cognition – the way people understand and make sense of others and themselves. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Social influence : the process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The classic demonstration of pressure to conform comes from a series of studies carried out in the 1950s by Solomon Asch. In the experiments, participants thought they were taking part in a test of perceptual skills with 6 other people. The experimenter showed participants one card with 3 lines of varying length and a second card that had a fourth line that matched one of the first 3. Participants had to announce aloud which of the first 3 lines was identical in length to the “standard” line on the second card. Asch found that in about 1/3 of the trials, the participants conformed to the unanimous but erroneous group answer, with about 75% of all participants conforming at least once. Subsequent research shows that conformity is considerably higher when people must respond publicly than when they can respond privately. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • When we refer to conformity, we usually mean a phenomenon in which the social pressure is subtle or indirect. But in some situations, social pressure is much more obvious, with direct, explicit pressure to endorse a particular point of view or behave in a certain way. Several specific techniques represent attempts to gain compliance. They include foot-in-the-door (sign a petition, then get pressured to make a donation to a cause – since you’ve already signed the petition, you have a hard time turning this request down); door-in-the-face (someone makes an outrageous request which they expect to be refused – they follow with a more reasonable request, which is more often complied with); and that’s-not-all (salesperson offers a deal at an inflated price, but immediately thereafter offers an incentive, discount or bonus to clinch the deal). McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Compliance techniques are used to gently lead people toward agreement with a request. In some cases, however, requests aim to produce obedience – a change in behavior in response to the commands of others. Although obedience is considerably less common than conformity and compliance, it does occur in several specific kinds of relationships (boss to subordinate, teacher to student, parent to child). The classic experiment conducted by social psychologist Stanley Milgram in the 1960s had participants give increasingly strong shocks to another person as part of a study on learning. Most people who hear a description of this experiment feel that it’s unlikely that any participant would give the maximum level of shock, but in the experiment, some 65% of participants eventually used the highest setting on the shock generator (450 volts). McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • No one has ever been born disliking a specific racial, religious or ethnic group. People learn to hate, in much the same way they learn the alphabet. For example bigoted parents may commend their children for expressing prejudicial attitudes. Such learning starts early – children as young as 3 years old begin to show a preference for members of their own race. Other explanations of prejudice and discrimination focus on how being a member of a specific group helps to magnify one’s sense of self-esteem. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Nothing is more important in most people’s lives than their feelings for others. Consequently, it’s not surprising that liking and loving have become a major focus of interest for social psychologists. This area, known more formally as the study of interpersonal attraction (close relationships) addresses the factors that lead to positive feelings for others. Some factors considered by social psychologists include: proximity, mere exposure, similarity and physical attractiveness. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • Drive-by shootings, robberies, and abductions are just a few examples of the violence that seems all too common today. But also common are the simple kindnesses of life: lending a valuable compact disc, stopping to help a child who’s fallen off her bike, or merely sharing a candy bar with a friend. Such instances of helping are no less characteristic of human behavior than are the distasteful examples of aggression. Sigmund Freud was one of the first to suggest, as part of his theory of personality, that aggression is a primarily instinctual drive. Little research has found evidence for the existence of a pent-up reservoir of aggression that needs to be released. In fact, some studies flatly contradict the notion of catharsis, leading psychologists to look for other explanations for aggression. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Most of us need little introduction to the phenomenon of stress! All of us face stress in our lives. Some psychologists believe that daily life actually involves a series of repeated sequences of perceiving a threat, considering ways to cope with it, and ultimately adapting to the threat, with greater or lesser success. Although adaptation is often minor and occurs without our awareness, adaptation requires a major effort when stress is more severe or longer lasting. Ultimately, our attempts to overcome stress may produce biological and psychological responses that result in health problems. Stress means different things to different people. For example, bungee jumping may be perceived as “exhilarating” by one person, and “near-deadly” by another. For people to consider an event stressful, they must perceive it as threatening or challenging and must lack all the resources to deal with it effectively. A person’s interpretation of events plays an important role in the determination of what is stressful. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Stress is a normal part of life, and not necessarily a completely bad part. Without stress, we may not be sufficiently motivated to complete the activities we need to accomplish. It’s also clear that too much stress can take a toll on both our physical and psychological health. Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress are known as coping . We habitually use certain coping responses to deal with stress, and most of the time we’re not aware of these responses. People often employ several types of coping strategies simultaneously. They use emotion-focused strategies more frequently when they perceive circumstances as being unchangeable and problem-focused approaches in situations they see as relatively modifiable. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • How can we deal with the stress in our lives? There’s no universal solution because effective coping depends on the nature of the stressor and the degree to which it can be controlled. Good coping strategies include turning a threat into a challenge; making the situation less threatening where possible; changing your goals; exercising to relieve stress; and preparing for stress before it happens. We can’t get away from stress while we’re alive. Our best bet is to be as proactive as we can in realizing that stress will be with us and the best we can do is cope the best we can. McGraw-Hill (c) 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Feldman1psychlife ppt ch12

    1. 1. Chapter 12 Social PsychologyMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Attitudes and Social Cognition• Learning Outcomes – Define persuasion – Explain social cognitionMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
    3. 3. Persuasion: Changing Attitudes• Attitudes: evaluations of a particular person, behavior, belief, or concept – Attitude change depends on factors: • Message source: characteristics of the communicator, such as expertise & trustworthiness • Characteristics of the message: two-sided (presenting both sides of the argument) more effective than one-sided • Characteristics of the target: for example, intelligent people are more resistant to persuasion than less intelligent peopleMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
    4. 4. Persuasion: Changing Attitudes (cont.) – Central route processing: message interpretation characterized by thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to persuade (content of the message) – Peripheral route processing: message interpretation characterized by consideration of the source and related general information rather than of the message itself (how the message is provided)McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
    5. 5. Persuasion: Changing Attitudes (cont.) – Cognitive dissonance: the conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts (cognitions)McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
    6. 6. Persuasion: Changing Attitudes (cont.)McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
    7. 7. Social Cognition: Understanding Others• Social cognition: the cognitive processes by which people understand and make sense of others and themselves – Schemas: sets of cognitions about people and social experiences – Impression formation: how we organize information about another person to form an overall impression of that person • Central traits: the major traits considered in forming impressions of othersMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
    8. 8. Social Cognition: Understanding Others (cont.) – Attribution theory: seeks to explain how we decide, on the basis of samples of an individual’s behavior, what the specific causes of that person’s behavior are • Situational causes: perceived causes of behavior that are based on environmental factors • Dispositional causes: perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factorsMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
    9. 9. Social Cognition: Understanding Others (cont.)• Attribution biases – The halo effect: an initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other uniformly positive characteristics – Assumed-similarity bias: the tendency to think of people as being similar to oneself, even when meeting them for the first time – Self-serving bias: tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort), and to attribute failure to factors outside oneselfMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
    10. 10. Social Cognition: Understanding Others (cont.) – Fundamental attribution error: a tendency to over-attribute others’ behavior to dispositional causes and the corresponding minimization of the importance of situational causes; prevalent in Western culturesMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
    11. 11. Social Influence and Groups• Learning Outcomes – Define conformity – Explain compliance – Discuss obedienceMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
    12. 12. Conformity: Following What Others Do• Conformity: a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people; comes from subtle, sometimes even unspoken, social pressure – Solomon Asch experiments: participants conformed in about 1/3 of the trials; conformity higher when people must respond publicly, lower when at least one other person dissents from the groupMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
    13. 13. Conformity: Following What Others Do (cont.) – Social roles: the behaviors that are associated with people in a given position • Philip Zimbardo “prison” study: conforming to a social role can have a powerful consequence on the behavior of anyoneMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
    14. 14. Compliance: Submitting to Direct Social Pressure• Compliance: behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure – Foot-in-the-door technique: people are more likely to agree to a more important request if they have first agreed to a smaller one – Door-in-the-face technique: making a large request, expecting it to be refused, then following with a smaller one, which is the targeted requestMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
    15. 15. Compliance: Submitting to Direct Social Pressure (cont.) – That’s-not-all technique: immediately after an initial offer at an inflated price, you are offered an incentive to clinch the deal – Not-so-free sample: you feel the need to reciprocate when given a free sample, so you are more likely to buy the product (based on the norm of reciprocity)• Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology: focuses on work and job-related issues, including worker motivation, satisfaction, safety, and productivityMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
    16. 16. Obedience: Following Direct Orders• Obedience: a change in behavior in response to the commands of others (people in power/authority figures) – Stanley Milgram experiments: 65% of participants eventually used the highest setting on the shock generator (450 volts) • Participants said they obeyed mostly because they believed the experimenter would be responsible for any potential harm to the learnerMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
    17. 17. Prejudice and Discrimination• Learning Outcomes – Identify the origins of prejudice – Distinguish measuring practices for prejudice and discrimination – Assess ways to reduce prejudice and discriminationMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
    18. 18. Prejudice and Discrimination (cont.)• Stereotype: a set of generalized beliefs and expectations about a particular group and its members – Help in categorizing & organizing information – Can be negative or positive, but all stereotypes oversimplify the world• Prejudice: a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members (attitudes)McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
    19. 19. Prejudice and Discrimination (cont.)• Discrimination: behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group• Self-fulfilling prophecy: when expectations about a behavior act to increase the likelihood that the behavior will occurMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
    20. 20. The Foundations of Prejudice• Prejudices are not innate; they are learned – Observational learning approaches: the behavior of parents, other adults, and peers shapes children’s feelings about members of various groups; prejudice is learned through imitation and reward and punishment – Social identity theory: people tend to be ethnocentric, viewing the world from their own perspective and judging others in terms of their group membershipMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
    21. 21. Measuring Prejudice and Discrimination: The Implicit Personality Test• Implicit Association Test (IAT): allows for measurement of subconscious attitudes, and attitudes that people do not want to be shown, toward members of specific groups – Go to https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit to take the testMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21
    22. 22. Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination• Increasing contact between the target of stereotyping and the holder of the stereotype – Contact is relatively intimate – Individuals are of equal status – Participants must cooperate with one another• Making values and norms against prejudice more conspicuous• Providing information about the targets of stereotypingMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
    23. 23. Positive and Negative Social Behavior• Learning Outcomes – Compare and contrast the concepts of “like” and love – Explain aggression and prosocial behaviorMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23
    24. 24. Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction and the Development of Relationships• Interpersonal attraction (close relationships): positive feelings for others; liking and loving• Factors in attraction (liking): – Proximity: geographic closeness leads to liking – Mere exposure: repeated exposure to any stimulus usually makes you like it more; if negative initial interaction, dislike will intensifyMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24
    25. 25. Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction and the Development of Relationships (cont.) – Similarity: increases liking because we assume that people with similar attitudes will evaluate us positively, which promotes our attraction to that person because of the reciprocity-of-liking effect – Physical attractiveness: all else being equal, physically attractive people are more popular than physically unattractive ones (beautiful = good)McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25
    26. 26. Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction and the Development of Relationships (cont.)• Passionate (romantic) love: a state of intense absorption in someone that includes intense physiological arousal, psychological interest, and caring for the needs of another• Companionate love: the strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved• Sternberg says love consists of decision/commitment, an intimacy component, and a passion componentMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26
    27. 27. Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction and the Development of Relationships (cont.)McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27
    28. 28. Aggression and Prosocial Behavior: Hurting and Helping Others• Aggression: the intentional injury of, or harm to, another person – Instinct approaches: aggression is the outcome of innate urges • Catharsis: the process of discharging built-up aggressive energy • Little evidence to support the need for catharsis – Frustration-aggression approaches: frustration produces anger, which leads to a readiness to act aggressivelyMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28
    29. 29. Aggression and Prosocial Behavior: Hurting and Helping Others (cont.) – Observational learning approaches: social and environmental conditions can teach individuals to be aggressive • Rewards and punishment given to both the individual and models whose behavior is imitated • Research shows much support• Prosocial behavior: helping behavior – Diffusion of responsibility: tendency for people to feel that responsibility for acting is shared, or diffused, among those presentMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
    30. 30. Aggression and Prosocial Behavior: Hurting and Helping Others (cont.)• Four basic steps in deciding to help – Noticing a person, event, or situation that may require help – Interpreting the event as one that requires help – Assuming responsibility for helping – Deciding on and implementing the help • Altruism: helping behavior that is beneficial to others but clearly requires self-sacrificeMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30
    31. 31. Stress and Coping• Learning Outcomes – Define stress and discuss how it affects us – Explain the nature of stressors – Describe how we people cope with stressMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31
    32. 32. Stress: Reacting to Threat and Challenge• Stress: a person’s response to events that are threatening or challenging – Stressors: circumstances or events that produce threats to our well-being – Both positive and negative events can produce stressMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32
    33. 33. The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is Your Pleasure• Categories of stressors – Cataclysmic events: strong stressors that occur suddenly, affecting many people at once (ex.: natural disasters) – Personal stressors: major life events, such as the death of a family member, that have immediate negative consequences that generally fade with timeMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 33
    34. 34. The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is Your Pleasure (cont.) • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): victims of major catastrophes or strong personal stressors feel long- lasting effects that may include re-experiencing the event in vivid flashbacks or dreams – Background stressors (daily hassles): everyday annoyances that cause minor irritations and may have long-term ill effects if they continue or are compounded by other stressful eventsMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 34
    35. 35. The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is Your Pleasure (cont.)• High cost of stress – Continued exposure to stress can result in decline in overall functioning because of constant secretion of stress-related hormones – Psychophysiological disorders (formerly known as psychosomatic disorders): medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficultiesMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 35
    36. 36. The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is Your Pleasure (cont.)McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 36
    37. 37. The Nature of Stressors: My Stress Is Your Pleasure (cont.)• Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): the study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain – Consequences of stress • Direct physiological effects • Engaging in behaviors harmful to one’s health • Indirect health-related behaviorsMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 37
    38. 38. Coping with Stress• Coping: efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress – Emotion-focused coping: trying to manage your emotions in the face of stress – Problem-focused coping: trying to modify the stressful problem or source of stress – Avoidant coping: trying to use escape routes, such as wishful thinking, drug or alcohol use, or overeating; is often ineffective and can make the problem worseMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 38
    39. 39. Coping with Stress (cont.) – Learned helplessness: a state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled – a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances, even if they can actually exert some influence; correlated with depression – Social support: a mutual network of caring, interested others • Helps in coping with stressMcGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 39
    40. 40. Coping with Stress (cont.)• Effective coping strategies – Turn threat into a challenge, focusing on ways to control it – Make a threatening situation less threatening; if situation is uncontrollable, change your appraisal and modify your attitude – Change your goals – Take physical action (ex.: exercise) – Prepare for stress before it happens (proactive coping)McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 40
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