Corruption, corporate transparency and open data
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Corruption, corporate transparency and open data

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Presentation given by Chris Taggart of OpenCorporates at the Open Knowledge Festival, September 2012, on the importance of open data and corporate transparency in the fight against corruption, fraud, ...

Presentation given by Chris Taggart of OpenCorporates at the Open Knowledge Festival, September 2012, on the importance of open data and corporate transparency in the fight against corruption, fraud, money laundering and organised crime

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Corruption, corporate transparency and open data Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Corruption, & Open Data Corporate Transparencyhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/zomgitsbrian/4042100914
  • 2. We live in a highly complex,massively interconnected,corporate world
  • 3. Companies nolonger look like this
  • 4. Companies nolonger look like this
  • 5. Companies nolonger look like this nor even like this
  • 6. Butlikethis
  • 7. Butlikethis or like this
  • 8. Butlikethis or like this
  • 9. And they are more complexby the day
  • 10. And they are more complexby the dayGrowing in scale – not 10s of legal entities but 1000s
  • 11. And they are more complexby the dayGrowing in scale – not 10s of legal entities but 1000sGrowing in speed – we are seeing the beginnings ofhigh-frequency company formation
  • 12. And they are more complexby the dayGrowing in scale – not 10s of legal entities but 1000sGrowing in speed – we are seeing the beginnings ofhigh-frequency company formationGrowing in opacity – use of secrecy jurisdictions andoff-register entities to provide firewalls to tax, regulation,information
  • 13. And they are more complexby the dayGrowing in scale – not 10s of legal entities but 1000sGrowing in speed – we are seeing the beginnings ofhigh-frequency company formationGrowing in opacity – use of secrecy jurisdictions andoff-register entities to provide firewalls to tax, regulation,informationGrowing in complexity – not a hierarchy but a complex,sometimes even circular network of entities
  • 14. And they are more complexby the dayGrowing in scale – not 10s of legal entities but 1000s
  • 15. And they are more complexby the dayGrowing in scale – not 10s of legal entities but 1000sGrowing in speed – we are seeing the beginnings ofhigh-frequency company formation
  • 16. And they are more complexby the dayGrowing in scale – not 10s of legal entities but 1000sGrowing in speed – we are seeing the beginnings ofhigh-frequency company formationGrowing in opacity – use of secrecy jurisdictions andoff-register entities to provide firewalls to tax, regulation,information
  • 17. And they are more complexby the dayGrowing in scale – not 10s of legal entities but 1000sGrowing in speed – we are seeing the beginnings ofhigh-frequency company formationGrowing in opacity – use of secrecy jurisdictions andoff-register entities to provide firewalls to tax, regulation,informationGrowing in complexity – not a hierarchy but a complex,sometimes even circular network of entities
  • 18. guys... Which is great for the badhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/vincentsl/3543888150
  • 19. ...becausecriminalactivity isa result of http://www.flickr.com/photos/sepehrehsani/5766453552cost-benefitanalysis
  • 20. http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/newsroom/news_releases/archives/ 2009_news_releases/september_2009/09122009.xmlHow much can we make?
  • 21. Will we get caught? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Viktor_Bout_Extradited_to_US.jpg
  • 22. What’s the downside?http://www.flickr.com/photos/timpearcelosgatos/3558607900
  • 23. This mattershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/propagandatimes/5242113537
  • 24. Corruption This mattershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/propagandatimes/5242113537
  • 25. Corruption This mattershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/propagandatimes/5242113537
  • 26. Fraud Corruption This mattershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/propagandatimes/5242113537
  • 27. Fraud Corruption Money laundering This mattershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/propagandatimes/5242113537
  • 28. Fraud Corruption Money laundering This mattershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/propagandatimes/5242113537
  • 29. This matters Corruption Fraud Money laundering Organised crime http://www.flickr.com/photos/propagandatimes/5242113537
  • 30. “Out of 150large-scalecorruptioncases themajority usedcompanies tohide themoney trail”
  • 31. So what has open data got to do with it?
  • 32. Complexity is good (if youwant to avoid detection) http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamescridland/613445810It’s easy for the bad guysto get lost in the crowd
  • 33. “While bad behaviour doesfollow the shadows, there’sa huge difference betweenhuddling in corners andhaving a riot in the darkenedstreets” – John Wonderlich, Sunlight Foundation
  • 34. A concrete exampleAsiaUniversalBank –Kyrgystan’s largest bankNot just a small bank ina far off countryFully connected to theworld’s financial system3 US senators on theboard
  • 35. A concrete exampleLeaks & accusations ofinsolvency & money-laundering, following arevolutionA superb investigationby Global Witness led tocompanies in NewZealand, UK, etc...Companies withshareholders who hadbeen dead even beforethe formation
  • 36. The lesson (for criminals)Absent of... ...a revolution ...leaks ...a long-running investigation by a well-resourced NGOyou’re safe!
  • 37. We’re looking for needles ina haystack, and need opendata to reduce the problemto manageable proportions
  • 38. This is where the watchdogs(are supposed to) come in?
  • 39. This is where the watchdogs(are supposed to) come in?NGOs? Don’t get data
  • 40. This is where the watchdogs(are supposed to) come in?NGOs? Don’t get dataGovernment? Limited by jurisdiction and mindset
  • 41. This is where the watchdogs(are supposed to) come in?NGOs? Don’t get dataGovernment? Limited by jurisdiction and mindsetData journalists? Not enough of them and don’tunderstand the subject
  • 42. This is where the watchdogs(are supposed to) come in?NGOs? Don’t get dataGovernment? Limited by jurisdiction and mindsetData journalists? Not enough of them and don’tunderstand the subjectCitizens/good business? Don’t have the tools/resources
  • 43. This is where the watchdogs(are supposed to) come in? NGOs? Don’t get data Government? Limited by jurisdiction and mindset Data journalists? Not enough of them and don’t understand the subject Citizens/good business? Don’t have the tools/ resourcesAnd all have a problem getting thedata (especially in a usable form)
  • 44. So open data is not aloneenough
  • 45. So open data is not aloneenough
  • 46. So open data is not aloneenoughWe need skills,understanding, incentives
  • 47. So open data is not aloneenoughWe need skills,understanding, incentives
  • 48. So open data is not aloneenoughWe need skills,understanding, incentivesBut without it we are sunk
  • 49. We also need to make a distinction between thetransparent corporate world and the opaque one – the ‘dark corporate web’
  • 50. So how do the Open Government Partnershipcountries score for access to company data?
  • 51. So how do the Open Government Partnership FA IL!for accesscountries score to company data?
  • 52. 4 key measures
  • 53. 4 key measuresBasic search: can you search the company registerfreely, without charge and without registrationLicence: Is there a licence that allows open reuse ofthe informationData: Is the information available as open data as adata dump or an APIDepth: Is there sufficient information to get a truepicture of the company and those who control it –directors, significant shareholdings, and statutory filings
  • 54. The results were not good...
  • 55. The results were not good...
  • 56. OpenCorporates
  • 57. A simple (huge) goal: an entry (and URI) forevery corporate legal entity in the world
  • 58. A simple (huge) goal: an entry (and URI) forevery corporate legal entity in the world URI is based on the company register ID, meaning it’s open and IP-free
  • 59. A simple (huge) goal: an entry (and URI) forevery corporate legal entity in the world URI is based on the company register ID, meaning it’s open and IP-free
  • 60. A simple (huge) goal: an entry (and URI) forevery corporate legal entity in the world URI is based on the company register ID, meaning it’s open and IP-free
  • 61. A simple (huge) goal: an entry (and URI) forevery corporate legal entity in the world URI is based on the company register ID, meaning it’s open and IP-free
  • 62. A simple (huge) goal: an entry (and URI) for every corporate legal entity in the world URI is based on the company register ID, meaning it’s open and IP-free Also i trade mpor marks ting pofficia , gove ublic data l regis rnme ters & nt spe – gazet nding te not , ices.. .
  • 63. All Op enly Lfree re icens use, e ed, al ven c lowin omm g ercial ly
  • 64. 5 core uses
  • 65. 1. An open identifying system
  • 66. 1. An open identifying system URIs can be used as common identifiers among a variety of organisations
  • 67. 1. An open identifying system URIs can be used as common identifiers among a variety of organisations Can be used without reference to OpenCorporates
  • 68. 1. An open identifying system URIs can be used as common identifiers among a variety of organisations Can be used without reference to OpenCorporates Because they map to the id issued by the company register the corresponding entry in the registry (and associated info) can be found, and vice versa
  • 69. 1. An open identifying system URIs can be used as common identifiers among a variety of organisations Can be used without reference to OpenCorporates Because they map to the id issued by the company register the corresponding entry in the registry (and associated info) can be found, and vice versa Fits the new EU Business Vocabulary
  • 70. 1. An open identifying system URIs can be used as common identifiers among a variety of organisations Can be used without reference to OpenCorporates Because they map to the id issued by the company register the corresponding entry in the registry (and associated info) can be found, and vice versa Fits the new EU Business Vocabulary Can even by used for companies in jurisdiction we haven’t yet imported
  • 71. 2. The simple search
  • 72. 2. The simple searchNot to be underestimated
  • 73. 2. The simple searchNot to be underestimated
  • 74. 2. The simple searchNot to be underestimatedMassively reduces friction(how long will it take youto find and searchmultiple jurisdictions)
  • 75. 2. The simple searchNot to be underestimatedMassively reduces friction(how long will it take youto find and searchmultiple jurisdictions)
  • 76. 2. The simple searchNot to be underestimatedMassively reduces friction(how long will it take youto find and searchmultiple jurisdictions)Allows what if questions
  • 77. 2. The simple searchNot to be underestimatedMassively reduces friction(how long will it take youto find and searchmultiple jurisdictions)Allows what if questionsPotentially generatesstories in its own right
  • 78. 2. The simple searchNot to be underestimatedMassively reduces friction(how long will it take youto find and searchmultiple jurisdictions)Allows what if questionsPotentially generatesstories in its own right
  • 79. 3. Source for additional info
  • 80. 3. Source for additional info Addresses, filings, status, websites...
  • 81. 3. Source for additional info Addresses, filings, status, websites...
  • 82. 3. Source for additional info Addresses, filings, status, websites... Intl trademarks, UK govt spending, official notices, health & safety violations...
  • 83. 3. Source for additional info Addresses, filings, status, websites... Intl trademarks, UK govt spending, official notices, health & safety violations...
  • 84. 3. Source for additional info Addresses, filings, status, websites... Intl trademarks, UK govt spending, official notices, health & safety violations... Other IDs: SEC, CAGE, etc – allows reverse mapping queries, e.g. show me legal entitity mapped to a CIK code
  • 85. 4. Reconciliation(matching names to legal entities)Clean up messycompany names(& prev names)to legal entity,and from thereto other dataGoogle Refinereconciliationservice (specificto jurisdiction)
  • 86. 5. The platform
  • 87. 5. The platform API: allows all information to be retrieved as data, even searches
  • 88. 5. The platform API: allows all information to be retrieved as data, even searches
  • 89. 5. The platform API: allows all information to be retrieved as data, even searches Users can now add data too
  • 90. 5. The platform API: allows all information to be retrieved as data, even searches Users can now add data too
  • 91. 5. The platform API: allows all information to be retrieved as data, even searches Users can now add data too
  • 92. 5. The platform API: allows all information to be retrieved as data, even searches Users can now add data too Coming soon: the option to match data to companies
  • 93. 5. The platform API: allows all information to be retrieved as data, even searches Users can now add data too Coming soon: the option to match data to companies
  • 94. New feature: directors/officersWe’ve juststartedimporting &indexingcompanydirectors &officers,allowing searchby name, &finding linksbetween themand othercompanies
  • 95. New feature: directors/officersWe’ve juststartedimporting &indexingcompanydirectors &officers,allowing searchby name, &finding linksbetween themand othercompanies
  • 96. New feature: directors/officersWe’ve juststartedimporting &indexingcompanydirectors &officers,allowing searchby name, &finding linksbetween themand other similarly namedcompanies
  • 97. New feature: directors/officersWe’ve juststartedimporting &indexingcompanydirectors &officers,allowing searchby name, & other resourcesfinding linksbetween themand other similarly namedcompanies
  • 98. New feature: shareholdingsFirst stage inmapping outcorporate‘hierarchies’A highlycomplexsubject and onenot wellunderstoodeven by manyregulators
  • 99. New feature: shareholdingsFirst stage inmapping outcorporate‘hierarchies’A highlycomplexsubject and onenot wellunderstood shareholderseven by manyregulators
  • 100. tions isdic tes 0 jur nies in 5 26 US sta compa clud ing 5million In wov er 4No