English Grammar - قواعد اللغة الانجليزية

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قواعد اللغة الانجليزية

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English Grammar - قواعد اللغة الانجليزية

  1. 1. ‫ذ‬ ‫‪Articles‬‬ ‫أدوات النكـــــرة والمعـــــــرفــــة‬ ‫&‪A‬‬ ‫‪AN‬‬ ‫- تسستعمل ’‘ ‪ -’‘ an‬قبسل السسم النكرة المفرد الذي يبدأ بصسوت حرف متحرك ), ‪a ,e‬‬ ‫‪I,o ,u ) an ox , an egg , an hour‬‬ ‫- تستعمل ’‘ ‪ ‘‘a‬قبل السم النكرة المفرد الذي يبدأ بصوت حسسرف ساكسسسن .‬ ‫‪a girl – a woman – a boy- a union – a unit‬‬ ‫)أ( الستــخــدام :-‬ ‫1- تستخدم )‪ (a‬أو )‪ (an‬قبل السم النكرة الذي يمكن أن يعــــــد :‬ ‫‪a book – an apple‬‬ ‫2- تستخدم قبل الصفة إن وجدت قبل السم المفرد .‬ ‫‪A beautiful girl – an unpleasant book‬‬ ‫3- تســتخدم قبــل الســم المفرد الذي يمكــن أن يعــد ويســتخدم كمثال لنوع أو صــنف بيــن أشياء أخرى‬ ‫تشترك معه فى نفس الخاصية أو الصفة.‬ ‫.‪A dog is faithful to his master‬‬ ‫.‪We’ve got a car‬‬ ‫4- قبل أسماء بعض المراض الشائعة .‬ ‫‪a cold‬‬ ‫‪a headache‬‬ ‫‪a sore throat‬‬ ‫5- تستخدم قبل السم عند ذكره لول مرة ثم بعد ذلك نستخدم ‪the‬‬ ‫‪.I saw a man coming. The man took a book on the table‬‬ ‫6- عند تصنيف الناس حسب جنسياتهم وأعمالهم .‬ ‫‪He is an Italian. He is a teacher‬‬ ‫7- مع تعبيرات الثمن والسرعة والنسبة‬ ‫‪Three pounds a kilo –70 kilometres an hour – four times a week‬‬ ‫8- مع تعبيرات خاصة بالرقام .‬ ‫– ‪ a score‬عشرون‬ ‫– ‪ a couple‬زوج من‬ ‫‪ A dozen‬دستة‬ ‫- ‪ a million‬مليون‬ ‫ألف‬ ‫‪ A hundred‬مائة – ‪a thousand‬‬ ‫٩-تستخدم ‪ an / a‬بعد هذه الكلمات والتعبيرات التالية :‬ ‫– ‪half – such – what a pity! - What a hot day! – a wash – a swim – a walk‬‬ ‫– ‪a drive – a sleep – a friend of mine‬‬ ‫٠١- تستخدم ‪ a‬بمعنى كوبا من :‬ ‫-03-‬ ‫‪Mr.Usama Ahmed‬‬
  2. 2. ‫ذ‬ ‫‪a tea = a cup of tea‬‬ ‫)ب( ل تستخدم ’‘‪ ‘’ a – an‬في الحالت التية :-‬ ‫‪He was pale with‬‬ ‫1- قبل السم المجرد / المعنوي‬ ‫‪fear‬‬ ‫‪It is made of‬‬ ‫2- قبل السم المفرد الذي ل يعد‬ ‫‪wood‬‬ ‫‪We have breakfast‬‬ ‫3- قبل الوجبات‬ ‫‪at eight‬‬ ‫‪Cats are animals‬‬ ‫4- قبل الجمع‬ ‫– ‪English‬‬ ‫٥-قبل المواد الدراسية وأسماء اللغات:‬ ‫‪Chemistry‬‬ ‫‪The‬‬ ‫) أ ( تستــخـدم:‬ ‫1- قبل السم المفرد لتدل على هذا النوع أو الفصيلة:‬ ‫* ‪.The horse is useful‬‬ ‫2- قبل أجزاء الزمن واليوم :‬ ‫* ‪The future – in the morning – in the evening‬‬ ‫ويستثنى :‬ ‫- ‪At noon – at night‬‬ ‫3- قبل السم المعرفة الذي أصبح معرفة نتيجة ذكره للمرة الثانية:‬ ‫* ‪.I saw a tree. The tree is very tall‬‬ ‫4- قبل السم إذا كنا نقصد شيئا معينا بالذات :‬ ‫.‪* She is in the garden‬‬ ‫) حديقة المنزل (‬ ‫5- قبل أسماء النهار والبحار والكتب المقدسة :‬ ‫* ‪The Nile – The red sea –The Holy Quran‬‬ ‫6- قبل السم الذي يوجد شيء واحد منه فقط )السماء الفريدة من نوعها(:‬ ‫* ‪The sky –The sun –The earth-the world – the capital- the noble‬‬ ‫‪prize‬‬ ‫7- قبل أجزاء الجسم البشرى :‬ ‫* ‪.The brain - The head – The lungs – The heart‬‬ ‫٨- أسماء البلدان المركبة والتي تحتوى علي الكلمات :‬ ‫‪* kingdom , states , republic , union , emirates ,unites‬‬ ‫٩- أسماء السلسل الجبلية:‬ ‫/‪The Himalayas * The Alps‬‬ ‫٠١- الجنسية الدالة على شعب أو ذات صيغة الجمع أو المنتهية ‪:ese‬‬ ‫١١- مع الكلمات :‬ ‫-03-‬ ‫‪Mr.Usama Ahmed‬‬
  3. 3. ‫ذ‬ ‫* / ‪middle east /far east / bank / post office / army /airport/shop / baker's‬‬ ‫‪first / second /only/police /future‬‬ ‫٢١- التجاهات المعرفة بـــ ‪:of‬‬ ‫‪* east , east , north‬‬ ‫٣١-قبل السماء المتبوعة بجملة وصفية مثل :‬ ‫* ‪.this is the man who met me in France‬‬ ‫* ‪?Can I see the man standing near the door‬‬ ‫٤١- مع الكلمات الدالة على الوسائل الترفيهية التالية:‬ ‫*‪The internet / The radio / The cinema / The theatre‬‬ ‫٥١ قبل أسماء الفنادق والمسارح والنوادي والمطاعم ودور السينما :‬ ‫*‪The Hilton Hotel / The Metro Cinema‬‬ ‫٦١- قبل اللت الموسيقية مثل ‪ the piano‬وذلك بعد أفعال مثل :‬ ‫‪* listen to / teach / learn / play‬‬ ‫٧١-قبل صفات النوع لتكون اسم جمع يمثل طبقة من الناس:‬ ‫الحياء / ‪ The living‬الفقراء *‪The poor‬‬ ‫٨١-مع حالت التفضيل في الصفة :‬ ‫*‪The tallest‬‬ ‫صفة مقارنة <<<<<< ‪+ The‬صفة مقارنة ‪+ The‬‬ ‫٩١- مع الصيغة التالية :‬ ‫. ‪*The sooner the better‬‬ ‫.‪*The more you pain the more you gain‬‬ ‫٠٢- قبل اسم يتبعه عبارة مسبوقة بحرف جر :‬ ‫.‪*This is the road to Alexandria‬‬ ‫.‪*This is the book of the girl‬‬ ‫١٢- عندما نعنى شيئا بصفة عامة :‬ ‫* ‪.We all like living in the countryside‬‬ ‫٢٢- قبل المخترعات .‬ ‫.‪*The telephone is important‬‬ ‫)ب( ل تستخدم ’‘‪ ‘‘the‬في الحـــالت التيــــة :-‬ ‫1- قبل الجمع بمعنى عام:‬ ‫–‪.Books are useful‬‬ ‫2- قبل كلمة ’’‪ ’’Man‬بمعنى النسان عموم ً :‬ ‫ا‬ ‫- ‪Man hopes for the better‬‬ ‫‪Cairo‬‬ ‫3- قبل أسماء العلم وأسماء البلد المفردة والقارات والمــــدن مثل :‪Ali //- Egypt‬‬ ‫4- قبل السماء المجردة و أسماء الوجبــــــات.)بشرط أن لتتبع بضمير وصل(‬ ‫- ‪-.Man fears death‬‬ ‫- ‪.He has dinner in the restaurant‬‬ ‫٥- قبل المواد الدراسية وأسماء اللغات مثل: ‪English –Chemistry‬‬ ‫‪glass / wood / gold‬‬ ‫٦- المواد حين تستخدم بوجه عام مثل :‬ ‫٧- أسماء الجبال مفردة مثل : ‪Mount Everest‬‬ ‫-03-‬ ‫‪Mr.Usama Ahmed‬‬
  4. 4. ‫ذ‬ ‫‪Lake‬‬ ‫٨- أســـــــــــــــــــــــــــــماء البحيرات مثـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــل : ‪Nasser‬‬ ‫‪summer / autumn / winter / spring‬‬ ‫٩-قبل أسماء فصول السنة:‬ ‫‪Saturday – April‬‬ ‫٠١- قبل أسماء اليام والشهور مثل :‬ ‫‪Football / Basketball‬‬ ‫١١-مع أسماء الرياضات مثل:‬ ‫‪Smoking‬‬ ‫/‬ ‫٢١- مـــــــع الســـــــماء المنتهيـــــــة بــــــــــ ‪ : ing‬مثـــــــل : ‪writing‬‬ ‫‪King Fahd / Professor Zeweil‬‬ ‫٣١- قبل اللقاب المتبوعة بإ سم علم :‬ ‫٤١-أسماء الطعام والشراب مثل:‪milk – coffe – butter –bread‬‬ ‫‪space – television –mountain – work – home‬‬ ‫٥١- مع الكلمات :‬ ‫** ادرس الحالت التالية:‬ ‫1- المؤسسات والمواقع:‬ ‫,}.……‪( home , hospital , mosque , university , college‬‬ ‫. ‪*He s at home‬‬ ‫. ‪* He is in hospital‬‬ ‫. ‪* He studied at college‬‬ ‫. ‪* He went to mosque‬‬ ‫نستنتج انه : إذا جاء حرف جر مثل ) ‪ ( in , to , at‬قبل المؤسسات والمواقع ل نستخدم أداة‬ ‫التعريف ) ‪. ( the‬‬ ‫٢- ولحظ ما يلي بدقة :‬ ‫.‪1- Ali went to school‬‬ ‫. ‪2- Yesterday Ali’s parents visited the school‬‬ ‫نلحظ انه:‬ ‫1- إذا دل الذهاب للموقع أو المكان العام على فكرة العمل أو الدراسة أي للهدف الذي من أجله‬ ‫أقيمت المؤسسة فإننا ل نستخدم ) ‪ (the‬فنقول :‬ ‫نحن هنا نتحدث عن طالب يذهب للمدرسة .‪He went to school‬‬ ‫2- أما إذا دل الذهاب للموقع ليس للعمل ولكن للزيارة مثل فإننا نستخدم ‪ the‬فنقول :‬ ‫نحن هنا نتحدث عن ولى أمر مثل يذهب للمدرسة للزيارة .‪He went to the school‬‬ ‫وهذا ينطبق على المواقع التالية :‬ ‫‪school / hospital / prison / court /church / mosque / collage / university‬‬ ‫٣- وسائط النقل‬ ‫) ..… ‪He traveled by ( taxi , bus , train‬‬ ‫.‪He arrived here on a bus‬‬ ‫‪He arrived here in a taxi‬‬ ‫إذا جاء قبل وسيلة النقل حرف جر ) ‪ ( on / by/in‬ل نستخدم ‪the‬‬ ‫نستنتج انه :‬ ‫٤- الوقت‬ ‫.‪We woke up before sunrise‬‬ ‫.‪The driver left at night‬‬ ‫نستنتج انه : إذا سبق الزمن حرف جر فإنه ل نستخدم ‪ the‬قبل السم .‬ ‫ملحظة : نستخدم ‪ the‬قبل الزمن في التعابير التالية .‬ ‫) , ‪In the ( present , past , future‬‬ ‫) ‪In the ( morning , evening , after noon‬‬ ‫٥- ادرس استخدام الدوات من عدمه مع كلمة ‪::life‬‬ ‫-03-‬ ‫‪Mr.Usama Ahmed‬‬
  5. 5. ‫ذ‬ Life is full of ups and downs. ‫هنا نتحدث عن الحياة بصفة عامة ولذلك ل نستخدم‬ ‫أدوات‬ He led a life of fun. ‫هنا كلمة الحياة موصوفة ولذلك سبقت الصفة بأداة نكرة‬ He led a happy life. The life of this man is full of great situations. the ‫هنا نحن نتحدث عن حياة رجل معين ولذلك استخدمنا‬ ‫٦ وهذه مزي سسسد م سسسن المثلة لتوضي سسسح حالت اس سسستخدام وعدم‬ ‫اسستخدام أدوات النكرة والمعرفسة فادرسسها ودون ملحظاتسك‬ :‫عليها‬ -:Examples 1-I think the examination on Tuesday will be difficult. 2-Look at the apples on that tree. 3-She gave the interview to a reporter from a local newspaper. 4-When I was at school, I loved Mathematics. 5-I’m going to tell you about the career of a famous man. 6- Famto chemistry is one of the most intensely studied topics in science. 7-I hate intolerance. 8-Apples are good for you. 9-I think education is something all children should value. 10- In our book we read about the work of professor Zewail. 11- She always goes on holiday in the middle of summer. 12- Why don’t you ask professor Zewail about his school days? 14- He said that the subject he enjoyed most at school was science. 15-This is the book that I promised to lend you. 16- Today is the first of April. 17-This is the road to London. 18-This is the oldest building. 19-The rich should help the poor. 20-The sooner the better. 21-I like living in the countryside 22-He plays the piano. 23-He took a sandwich and a piece of cake but he didn’t eat the cake. 24-Women have the same rights as men. 25-Oranges are good for you. 26-Professors teach and do research 27-Trees don’t grow without water. 28-The pupils go to school to learn. 29-He went to the school to meet the headmaster. -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  6. 6. ‫ذ‬ 30-He is in bed 31-He sat on the bed 32-He is at home. = He is in the house. 33-He is at work = He is in the office. 34-It's on TV. ( a programme on TV set) 35-It's on the TV. ( on top of the TV set) Exercises (1) Choose the correct answer:- 1-(A / An / The /…) sun is in (a / an / the /…) sky. 2-( A / An / The /…) vitamins are vital for you . 3-(A/ An / The / … ) Suez Canal joins (a / an / the /…) Mediterranean Sea and (a / an / the /…) Red Sea. 4-Next year we are going skiing in (a / an / the / …) Swiss Alps . 5-(A / An / The /…) highest mountain in (a / an / the /…) world is Mount Everest. 6- (A / An / The /…) police search for (a / an / the /…) murderer of that crime. 7-(A / An / The /…) Egypt is the gift of (a / an / the /…) Nile. 8-He will arrive in (a / an / the/…) afternoon. 9-I am hungry, I want to have (a /an / the /…) lunch. 10-(A / An / The /.) aeroplanes can fly at supersonic speeds 11- (A / An / The /..) wood is ( a / an / the / …) poor conductor of heat. 12- There was (a / an / the /..) knock on (a / an / the /...) door; So I went to open it. 13- (A / An / The /…) weather in summer is hot. 14- I remember (a / an / the /…) day we went to (a / an / the /…) seaside. 15- (A / An / The /…) book on that shelf is (a / an / the /…) interesting one. 16-( A / An / The /…)) life would be very difficult without electricity 17-What’s the largest city in ((a / an / the / …) Africa ? 18-Last year we visited (a / an / the / …) United States . 19-A friend of mine used to work as a reporter in (a / an / the / …)Middle East. **Insert “ the ‘ when necessary: 1-He was in ……….. bed last night with Influenza . 2 -…………. Nile is the longest river in word . 3-We went to visit ………. Mount Nebo on Friday . 4-When she was at ….. college , she studied very hard . 5-He was having …….. breakfast when I rang . -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  7. 7. ‫ذ‬ 6- I don’t like air travel , I prefer traveling by … train . 7-She works at …. hospital on Horriya street . 8- Leila is a nurse .She goes to …. hospital every day. 9- He was in ……. prison to visit his brother . 10-Children study at ………. schools. 11-After work , she usually goes ………… home. Have / have got Present:‫المضارع‬ 1.Have got/ have = to own or to possess a) We use “have” “have got” for possession and related meaning. .‫ للتعبير عن الملكية والمعاني المتصلة بها‬have, have got ‫-- تستخدم‬ ‫ مضارع تام ولكنها تعبر عن مضارع فقط مع هذا الستخدام‬have got ‫-- ل تعتبر‬ .‫ في اللغة النجليزية‬has got/have got ‫-- تستخدم‬ .‫ في اللغة المريكية‬has/have ‫-- تستخدم‬ British English American English ‫إثبــــــــــــات‬ I have got a car. I have a car. He has got a car. He has a car. ‫نفــــــــــــي‬ I haven’t got a car. I don’t have a car. He hasn’t got a car. He doesn’t have a car. ‫ســــــــــــؤال‬ Have you got a car? Do you have a car? Has he got a car? Does he have a car? ‫-:لحظ في الجدول السابق‬ has ‫ في نفي‬doesn’t ‫ و تستخدم‬have ‫ في نفي‬don’t ‫* تستخدم‬ .‫ في السؤال‬does ‫ أو‬do ‫كما نستخدم‬ .‫ ولكنهما أقل شيوعا‬does ‫ أو‬do ‫ في النفي والسؤال بدون‬has ‫ أو‬have ‫*كما يمكن استخدام‬  I haven’t a car /He hasn’t a car:  Has he a car? /Have you a car? 2)We use “have got” “have” for illness, pains. .‫ مع المراض واللم‬have ,have got ‫وتستخدم‬ He has got a toothache. He has a toothache. Past: ‫الماضى‬ : got ‫ في الماضي بدون‬had ‫ومن المألوف استخدام‬ I had a bad cold last week. He had a car did not have ‫** وفي نفي الماضى نستخدم‬ He didn’t have a camera. + Did ‫ + الفاعل‬have ‫** وفي السؤال نستخدم‬ Did he have a camera? : have ) ( has / had ‫.وهذه بعض الكلمات المرتبطة بسسسس‬ -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  8. 8. ‫ذ‬ Breakfast/lunch/dinner/super/a drink/a cup of tea/ A cigarette/a walk/a swim/a rest/a holiday/a ride/ A party/a good time/A bath/a wash/shower/ a discussion/ an argument/ a fight/a talk/a chat/a baby/an operation/a haircut/difficulty/ trouble/ fun/an accident/ an experience/ a dream. *He has breakfast at seven o’clock. = He eats…. *I had a cup of tea. = I drank…….. *We had a walk = We walked…. *Goodbye! I hope you have a nice time . = You spend…. *Mary had a baby recently. = Mary gave a birth to - ‫:لحظ الفرق في المعني‬ He has a bath every morning =(He takes a bath). He has got a bath. = (There is a bath in his house). **In question and negative sentence you must use: ( do/does/did) :‫ملحظات‬ .(has (not) , have ( not ‫ في الجابات المختصرة وتستخدم‬got ‫١ – ل تستخدم‬ - Have you got a computer ? - Yes, I have. - No, I haven’t. - Has he got a computer? - Yeas , he has. -No , he hasn't - Do you have a computer? - Yes I do. - No, I don’t. - Does he have a computer? - Yes, he does. - No he doesn’t. -Did he have a computer? - Yes he did. - No he didn’t. ‫ ( عندما ل تتبع بفعل ّخر‬d / `s/ `ve` ) ‫٢- ل تستخدم الصيغة المختصرة‬ ‫ا‬ He has a glass of milk every evening. ‫ الملكية ل يمكنك استخدامها في المستمر ولكنها تستخدم في المستمر إذا كانت ل‬have ‫٣- وعندما تعني‬ .‫تعني الملكية‬ - I have a cold (not I’m having). - He is having dinner now. The phone rang while we were having dinner. ‫ في جملة واحدة‬got ‫ و‬do ‫٤- ل تجتمع‬ Have you got any children? Do you have any children? :‫٥ - قارن ولحظ الفرق في المعنى‬ * I usually have a sandwich for my lunch . (have = eat ) but * I have got some sandwiches . Would you like one ? Exercises Choose the correct answer from a,b,c,or d: -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  9. 9. ‫ذ‬ 1-My brother usually……. Lunch at 2 o’clock. a) has got b-has c-having d- having had 2-I ….good holiday last year. a) had b) had got c- have got d- have had 3-Have you got any money? No, We …….. a- don’t b- haven’t c-haven’t got d- don’t have 4-She …….a letter from her friend yesterday . a- had b-had got c- having got d- have had 5-Does she have a computer ?Yes ,she ……. a- has b-does c-does have d- have 6-I ……..a shower when I get up every morning. a- have got b- to have c-have d- having 7-She ……...any brothers. a- hasn’t got b-isn’t having c- doesn’t d-didn’t 8-Does she …….a chat with her daughter? a - have got b- have c-has got d- to have 9-Do you want to…a meal? a- have got b-have c-have has d- having 10- She should …a walk every day. a- have b- have got c- to have d- having 11- My sister …..a cup of tea every morning. a-has b-will have got c- has got d- is having 12- We….a lovely time in the country last week. a- had got b-had c-have had d- have got 13- Excuse me, can I….a look at your newspaper? a- have got b-have c- having c-have had 14- What time……… dinner? a- do you have b- have you got c- have you d- will you have got. 15-……… any difficulty in doing this ? a- Has he b-Does he have c- Has he got d- Had he got -: Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets 1 - His flat doesn’t have a balcony. (got). 2- Do you have any pen-friends? (got). 3- She hasn’t got a white dress. (doesn't). 4- Has he got a motorbike? (Does). 5- I have four daughters. (got). 6- I don’t own a car. (got). 7-I have a computer. (possess). 8- He didn’t have a private house.(own). 9- We walked on the shore of the sea.(had). 10-He ate and went out with some friends.(meal). Give the correct short answer to these questions: -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  10. 10. ‫ذ‬ ‫?‪1-Do you have exams every week‬‬ ‫?‪2-Have you got a car‬‬ ‫?‪3-Do most students have lessons on Fridays‬‬ ‫?‪4-Has your father got a tea‬‬ ‫?‪5-Have you got study plan for next week‬‬ ‫. ‪The Past Simple Tense‬‬ ‫الماضي البسيط‬ ‫:‪Form‬‬ ‫الشكل‬ ‫‪ ‬يتكون زمن الماضي البسيط من التصريف الثاني للفعل مع الملحظة أن الفعال في الماضي‬ ‫‪. (d‬‬ ‫منه ما هو منتظم أي الذي يكون أخره )‪ (d – ed‬أو شاذ وهو الذي ل يكون أخره ) ‪– d‬‬ ‫فيأتي الفعل الماضي على عدة أشكال :‬ ‫1- الماضي المنتظم: وهو إضافة )‪ ( ed / d‬للفعل عند تحويله إلى الماضي‬ ‫‪Visit‬‬ ‫‪visited‬‬ ‫‪*store‬‬ ‫‪stored‬‬ ‫2- الماضي الثابت : عدم تغير الفعل عند تحوله إلى الماضي‬ ‫‪Put‬‬ ‫‪*Put‬‬ ‫‪cut‬‬ ‫‪cut‬‬ ‫3- الماضي الشاذ : وهو تغير شكل الفعل عند تحوله إلى ماضي وهذه الفعال تحفظ غيبا‬ ‫‪Have‬‬ ‫‪had‬‬ ‫‪*eat‬‬ ‫‪ate‬‬ ‫ملحظات على التكوين‬ ‫1-تضاف عادة ‪ ed‬إلى الفعال العادية )المنتظمة( وتضاف ‪ d‬إلى الفعل الذي‬ ‫ينتهي ب ‪e‬‬ ‫‪- visit‬‬ ‫‪visited‬‬ ‫&‬ ‫‪, invite‬‬ ‫‪invited‬‬ ‫2-تضاف ‪ ed‬إلى الفعل الذي ينتهي ب ‪ y‬أو ‪ w‬يسبقها حرف متحرك‬ ‫‪- play‬‬ ‫‪played‬‬ ‫&‬ ‫‪,follow‬‬ ‫‪followed‬‬ ‫3-تضاف ‪ ed‬ويتضاعف الحرف الساكن قبلها إذا كان الفعل يتكون من مقطع‬ ‫واحد وينتهي بحرف ساكن مسبوق بحرف متحرك‬ ‫‪- Stop‬‬ ‫‪Stopped‬‬ ‫&‬ ‫‪, plan‬‬ ‫‪planned‬‬ ‫4-إذا كان الفعل ينتهي بس ‪ y‬مسبوقة بحرف ساكن .. تقلب ألسس ‪ y‬إلى ‪ied‬‬ ‫‪- study‬‬ ‫‪studied‬‬ ‫&‬ ‫‪, try‬‬ ‫‪tried‬‬ ‫-03-‬ ‫‪Mr.Usama Ahmed‬‬
  11. 11. ‫ذ‬ -: ‫5-وهناك أفعال شاذة يجب حفظها مثل‬ - go went & break broke Use ‫الستخدام‬ . ‫١ - يعبر عن حدث انتهى في الماضي‬ - I met him last week. - I visited my uncle yesterday. . ‫2 - يستخدم لوصف حدث بدأ وانتهى في الماضي‬ Ex: The British occupied Egypt. . ‫3 - يستخدم لوصف أحداث متتالية أو يتبع بعضها البعض فى قصة أو رواية‬ Ex: The three astronauts collected rocks and soil and sent a lot of television pictures to the Earth. . ‫ للتعبير عن عادة أو موقف في الماضي‬used to ‫٤ - وتستخدم‬ - When I was young I used to play football everyday. ‫ ( إذا كان جواب‬If- unless) ‫٥ - نستخدم الماضي البسيط بعد أداة الربط الشرطية‬ would – –) ‫) مصدر‬ ‫الشرط فى الحالة الثانية أي مكون من‬ + could Ex: If he invited me, I would visit him. : ‫٦ - نستخدم الماضي البسيط مع الروابط الزمنية إذا كانت الفعال حدثت فى الماضي‬ 1- After he had eaten, he slept. 2- Before he arrived, he had sent a letter. 3- He visited me as soon as I had invited him. 4- He did not sleep until I had arrived. ‫ يأتي الفعل في الماضي البسيط‬if only ‫ أو‬as if ‫ أو‬suppose ‫ أو‬wish ‫٧ - بعد‬ .I wish he came today :‫إذا كانت الجملة تعبر عن الحاضر‬ : ‫٨ - يأتي هذا الزمن مع هذه الكلمات‬ ago , yesterday , last( week , month , day , … ) ,once ,one day , in ( 1999) , from….. to ,that( day , time ,week, … ) ,it’s ( time , 2hours , several days ) , this( morning) :‫النفي‬ ‫ ( قبل‬did not) ‫ ( يجب وضع‬Negative) ‫- عندما نستخدم الماضي البسيط فى النفي‬ . ‫الفعل مع وضع الفعل فى شكل المصدر‬ Ex: He arrived yesterday. He did not (didn’t) arrive yesterday. -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  12. 12. ‫ذ‬ ‫ تنفى‬had ‫ بعدهما . كما يلحظ أن‬not ‫ ينفيا بوضع‬were ‫ أو‬was ‫--ويجب ملحظة أن‬ didn’t have ‫بــــــ‬ : ‫السؤال‬ ‫ ( قبل‬did) ‫- عند تكوين سؤال على جملة فعلها في الماضي البسيط نستخدم المساعد‬ . ‫الفاعل مع إرجاع الماضي إلى مصدره‬ Ex: She played tennis. What did she play? ‫المجهول‬ ‫3 - عند تحويل جملة فعلها فى الماضي البسيط من المبنى للمعلوم إلى المبنى للمجهول تبدأ‬ . ‫ ( ثم نحول الفعل إلى تصريفه الثالث‬was- were) ‫بالمفعول ثم نستخدم‬ Ex: He broke the window. (active) The window was broken by him. (Passive) Exercises: ? Who (smelt/ did smell /smiling/smell) burning food 2 minutes ago -1 .You (singing /sang / sing /sings) well in the party last night-2 She ( not knew /didn’t know/ not knowing / knowing) my name from the-3 .newspaper that day . It's time we ( closed / close /closing / closes) the shop-4 .Suppose the teacher (catching/ caught / catch /catches) us in his room now-5 .She wishes she ( will know/ knew/ known)/knowing) the answer now-6 . I(saw / seeing /see/ sea ) my friend yesterday-7 . Last winter, he( is / was / been/ be ) in London-8 9-Ahmad and Zaki (was / were /are/ being) ill yesterday. 10-Yesterday I ( was not / not was / were not/ not be ) at home . .Last spring they(not were / were not / be not/ not to be ) in London-11 12-Where ( you met / did you meet /you did meet/did meet) him last week ? ?Why (he was late /was he late /late he was/be late) yesterday-13 14-This morning he( kneel/knelt/kneeling/kneels) down and ( says /saying/ said / say) his prayer. 15-The enemy ship ( sink/ sinks/ sank/sinking) off the shore in October War. 16-Father bought a magazine last week and ( gave / gives / give / will give ) it to me. 17-When I was young, a teacher at my school (teach – teaching – had taught – taught) me how to write good letters in English. -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  13. 13. ‫ذ‬ ‫‪• The past continuous tense‬‬ ‫زمن الماضي المستمر‬ ‫+ ‪ ing‬الفعل ‪was / were‬‬ ‫⊥التكوين :-‬ ‫+‬ ‫يستخدم الماضي المستمر للتعبير عن التي :-‬ ‫⊥ الستخدام : -‬ ‫1- يعبر عن نشاط كان مستمر أثناء وقت في الماضي وانتهى .‬ ‫* ‪.Between seven and eight last night, I was doing my homework‬‬ ‫.‪*We were reading all day yesterday‬‬ ‫.‪* Yesterday, from 4 to 5 P.m. we were playing tennis‬‬ ‫2- يعبر عن حدث كان مستمرافى الماضي عندما قطعه حدث ماضي آخر‬ ‫وهو الماضي البسيط .‬ ‫* ‪I was watching television when the light went out‬‬ ‫* ‪. While she was sleeping, the door bell rang‬‬ ‫٣- ويستخدم الماضي المستمر مع الكلمات التية :‬ ‫- ‪all( day time) yesterday - while – as – just as – when‬‬ ‫-‬ ‫.‪He was playing football when I saw him‬‬ ‫-‬ ‫.‪While I was putting on my clothes the telephone rang‬‬ ‫٤- يعبر عن حدثين مختلفين كانا يحدثا ن فى نفس الوقت ) حدثين مستمرين في‬ ‫نفس الوقت في الماضي (‬ ‫-‬ ‫.‪It was raining while we were walking in this street‬‬ ‫٥- ل يستخدم الماضي المستمر مع أفعال الحواس والشعور والدراك.‬ ‫٣- ل يستخدم الماضي المستمر مع الحداث المتكررة فى الماضي:‬ ‫‪.We went to Cairo four times last week‬‬ ‫: ينفى الماضي المستمر بوضع ‪ not‬بعد ‪was were‬‬ ‫⊥النفي‬ ‫⊥الستفهام : يتم تكوين سؤال لفعل زمنه الماضي المستمر بتقديم ‪ Was‬أو ‪Were‬على الفاعل.‬ ‫⊥المجهول : يتم تكوين صيغة المبنى للمجهول لفعل زمنه الماضي المستمر كما يلي :‬ ‫‪was were + being + PP‬‬ ‫.‪*The man was reading a story all day yesterday‬‬ ‫.‪A story was being read by the man all day yesterday‬‬ ‫‪Enrich your language‬‬ ‫و ل ّن ادرس ا ل ّتى:‬ ‫هذه هي أهم الروابط الزمنية التى ترتبط بهذا الزمن بالتفصيل:‬ ‫:‪1-When‬‬ ‫عندما‬ ‫.‪*When he fell down , he was running‬‬ ‫القاعدة ‪**RULE‬‬ ‫-03-‬ ‫‪Mr.Usama Ahmed‬‬
  14. 14. ‫ذ‬ **-When + Subject + ‫<<< ماضي مستمر‬ ‫ماضي بسيط‬ 2- While/As / Just as: *While (As)(Just as) I was running, I fell down. ‫بينما‬ **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **1-While / AS /Just as + subject+ ‫ماضي مستمر <<<<ماضي بسيط‬ *While he was studying , his sister was cooking. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **2-While / AS /Just as/+ subject+ ‫ماضي مستمر <<<<ماضي مستمر‬ *While reading , he fell asleep. *During running, I fell down. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **3-While/ during + v + ing >>>> ‫ماضي بسيط + فاعل‬ *During the match, he fell asleep. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **4-During + noun >>>> ‫ماضي بسيط + فاعل‬ Exercises -Choose: 1- While I was listening to music, he ....................... Television. a- watched b- has watched c- had watched d- was watching 2- She was typing letters when the lights ...................... out . a- were going b- went c- go d- had gone 3- He couldn't hear the phone because he .............. in the garden . a- was playing b- playing c- played d- is playing 4- Hoda ................ the room while Mona was making dinner . a- cleaned b- was cleaning c- is cleaning d- cleans 5- The train left while he ...................... down the platform . a- ran b- had run c- was running d- running 6- When the teacher entered the class, the pupils .......... a lot of noise a- are making b- were making c- make d- have made 7- What .................. when I saw you yesterday ? a- were you doing b- do you do c- are you doing d- have you done 8- What were you doing when I ........................ you last night ? a- phoned b- had phoned c- phoning d- would phone 9- While we were sitting in the garden, a storm ................... out . a- had broken b- broke c- broken d- breaking 10- I said quot;goodbyequot; to him but he couldn't hear me because he... to music a- listened b- had listened c- listens d- was listening -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  15. 15. ‫ذ‬ 11- While she ................. a letter, her sister knocked at the door a- wrote b- was writing c- writing d-had written 12-She ............ her homework while her mother was making a cake . a- was doing b- did c- does d-had done 13-Just as Hoda ........ things ready for the party, a message arrived . a- got b- get c- was getting d- had got 14- While I .................. home I met some friends . a- went b- am going c- was going d-had gone 15- While I was walking down the street, I ........ a car accident . a- was seeing b- saw c- had seen d-would see 16- He fell down and broke his leg while ................... football . a- was playing b- played c- playing d- play 17- He cut himself while he (saved – was shaving – shaving – shaves). 18-The hunter shot the lion just as it (jumped – was jumping – jumped – jump) on him. 19- He fell down while he (ran – was running – running – had run). 20-The bird (sat – sits – sitting – was sitting) on the branch of a tree when the farmer shot it. 21-Ahmed’s mother was cooking when he (come – came – comes – was coming) home. 22-The boy was knocked down by a bus as he (was crossing – crossed – crossing – had crossed) the road. 23- Were you talking? No. Sir, we (wrote / were wrote / were writing / write) our homework 24 -As the child (walks / was walk / was walking / walked) near the hole, he fell in it. 25-We ( had / have / Were having / will have ) tea while our children were playing on the grass . 26-They (met / were meeting / meet / will meet) ) her as she ( walks / was walked / was walking / walked ) ) along the road . 27-What (you were wearing / you wore / were you wearing / did you wear) when she met you? 28-Last night I was reading in bed when I suddenly (was hearing / hear / heard / will hear) a scream. 29-What ( are / were / did / do ) you doing at seven o’clock yesterday? : Rewrite - (I was doing my homework and the light went out suddenly. (when-1 (He was walking in the street when he met his friend. (while-2 -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  16. 16. ‫ذ‬ (We were having supper and suddenly the doorbell rang. (while-3 (During his sleep last night, someone broke into his house. (while-4 The past perfect tense ‫الماضي التام‬ Form: ‫الشكل‬ 1- Affirmative: ‫الثبات‬ Had + P.P. ‫التصريف الثالث‬ Ex: He had finished his homework. 2- Negative: ‫النفي‬ Had not + P.P. ‫التصريف الثالث‬ Hadn’t Ex: She had not (hadn’t) arrived. 3- Question:‫الستفهام‬ Had + ‫ +الفاعل‬P.P. ‫التصريف‬ ‫الثالث‬ Ex: Had Ali finished his work? 4- Passive: ‫المبنى للمجهول‬ Had + been + P.P. ‫التصريف‬ ‫الثالث‬ Ex: The lesson had been written by him. Use: ‫إذا كان لدينخا فعليخن حدثخا فخي الماضخي وأن إحداهمخا حدث قبخل الخخر فالذي حدث أول يكون‬ . ‫في زمن الماضي التام أو الفعل الذي حدث بعده يكون في الماضي البسيط‬ Ex: 1- I found the book, which I had lost. .‫في هذا المثال فقدت الكتاب أول ثم وجدته بعد ذلك‬ 2- After he had eaten, he slept. .‫أي أنة أكل أول ثم نام بعد ذلك‬ -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  17. 17. ‫ذ‬ ‫ اذا كان هناك‬already / just ‫٢- يأتى الفعل فى الماضى التام مع‬ ‫فعل‬ .‫اّخر فى الماضى البسيط‬ .He said that he had just finished the letter When I got there , he had already finished lunch. .He had already understood the lesson well, so he knew the answer : ‫٣-يستخدم الماضى التام للتعبير عن المنية فى الماضى‬ I wish I had seen him yesterday. Enrich Your Language :‫والن ادرس ا ل ّتى‬ ‫هذه هي أهم الروابط الزمنية التى تستخدم مع هذا الزمن بالتفصيل‬ 1-When: ‫عندما‬ *When I arrived at the office , the manager had left , so I didn't meet him. *When she returned home she found that someone had stolen her jewellery. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **1- When + subject +‫<<< ماضي تام‬ ‫ماضي بسيط‬ *When I had done my homework , I went to bed. *When the telephone had rung , I ran to answer it. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **2- When + subject +‫<<< ماضي بسيط‬ ‫ماضي تام‬ *It was only when he had gone to many shops that he bought the shirt. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **3- It was only when + ‫ >>> جملة زمنها ماضي تام‬that + ‫جملة زمنها ماضي بسيط‬ : ‫وأخيرا لحظ الفرق بين الجملتين‬  When I arrived at the party, Ali left. (Ali left when I arrived)  When I arrived at the party, Ali had left. (Ali left before I arrived) 2- As soon as ‫بمجرد أن‬ *As soon as she saw (had seen) the dress, she bought it. -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  18. 18. ‫ذ‬ **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **1-As soon as + subject + ‫<<<ماضي بسيط‬ ‫ماضي تام‬ 3- till / until: ‫حتى‬  First I found the pen. Then I wrote the letter.  I didn’t write the letter until I had found the pen.  First I read the question paper. Then I stated to answer.  I didn’t start answer until I had read the question paper. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **1-‫ >> جملة زمنها ماضي بسيط منفي‬till /until + subject +(‫ماضي تام) أو بسيط‬ *Until yesterday , he had written five letters. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ ** 2-Till /Until + ‫نقطة زمنية في الماضي + ماضي تام‬ *She didn’t buy the dress until going to many shops. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ ** 3- ‫>>>>الجملة الولى‬till (until)+noun.( v+ ing ) *I won't go out until his arrival. *It wasn't until he had seen the lion that he fainted. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **4- It wasn't until + ‫ >>> جملة زمنها ماضي تام‬that + ‫جملة زمنها ماضي بسيط‬ ‫ فل يتم نفيها‬waited /stayed/ remained ‫ الفعال‬until ‫ و‬till ‫* ملحوظة : عندما يسبق‬ 4-After ‫بعد‬ *He had his break fast. Then he went out. *After he had had his break fast, he went out. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **1-After + subject + ‫ماضي تام <<<< ماضي بسيط‬ *After having his breakfast, he went out. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **2-After + noun/ v + ing >>>> ‫الجملة الثانية‬ *Having done his homework , he went to bed. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **3-Having + past participle. >>>> ‫الجملة الثانية‬ *It was only after he had gone to many shops that he bought the shirt. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **4- It was only after + ‫ >>> جملة زمنها ماضي تام‬that + ‫جملة زمنها ماضي بسيط‬ -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  19. 19. ‫ذ‬ 5-Before: ‫قبل‬ *Before she left, she had spoken to me. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **1-Before + subject + ‫ماضي بسيط <<<< ماضي تام‬ *Before leaving ,she spoke to me. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **2- Before + noun / V.+ ing >>> ‫الجملة الثانية‬ 6-Bythetime ‫قبيل‬ *By the time she left, she had spoken to me. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **1- By the time + subject + ‫ماضي بسيط <<<< ماضي تام‬ **2- By the time + ‫مضارع بسيط أو تام <<< مستقبل بسيط أو أمر‬ 7-By ‫قبل‬ *By five o'clock yesterday , he had finished revising all his lessons. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ **By +‫نقطة زمنية في الماضي + جملة زمنها ماضي تام‬ 8-no sooner …….. than hardly ……… when… scarcely……….when….. ‫لم يكد..... حتى‬ a) He saw his daughter. He kissed her at once. *No sooner had he seen his daughter than he kissed her. Or : No sooner did he see his daughter than he kissed her **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ 1-No sooner + had + ‫ + الفاعل‬pp >>> than + ‫ + الفاعل‬past simple 2-No sooner + did + ‫ >>> الفاعل +المصدر‬than + ‫ + الفاعل‬past simple b) He got into the house. Just then the light went out. *Hardly did he get into the house when the light went out Or : Hardly had he got into the house when the light went out c) They read the telegram. They shouted with joy. *Scarcely did they read the telegram when they shouted with joy. Or : Scarcely had they read the telegram when they shouted with joy. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ 3-Hardly / Scarcely +had + ‫ +الفاعل‬pp >>>when ‫ + الفاعل‬past simple -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  20. 20. ‫ذ‬ 4-Hardly / Scarcely + did + ‫ >>> الفاعل +المصدر‬when ‫ + الفاعل‬past simple *Immediately after reading the diagram , they shouted with joy. **RULE ‫القاعدة‬ 5-Immediately after + noun / v + ing >>> ‫الجملة الثانية‬ Exercise Rwrite: 1- I read the book then I took it back to the library. (By the time) 2- He wrote his homework. Then, he watched TV. (As soon as) 3- Wesam didn't swim. He did his homework. (until) 4- first, his mother cooked, then, he arrived home. (until) 5- The train arrived first, then I got to the station. (When) 6- First he studied his lesson. Then he watched TV (As soon as) 7- She fried the chicken.Then I made the salad. (By the time) 8- She left home. Then she met her cousins. (After) 9- As soon as he had found the money, he took it to the police station. (No sooner) 10- First I had lunch. Then I went out. (until..) 11- I returned the book to my friend. I had read it. ( It was only) 12- I didn’t open my present. I had looked at my birthday cards. ( It wasn't until) 13- The telephone rang. I had locked the front door. ( before) 14- We served dinner. Out guests. had all arrived. (After) 15- The children had gone to bed. We watched TV. (Hardly) Choose:- 1-He thanked me for what I (do – did – have done – had done). 2-I didn’t go shopping until I (have – had – have had – had had) my dinner. 3-I (don’t park – didn’t park – won’t park – park ) my car until I had found a space. 4-I telephoned him at 5, but he( has – is – had – was) already left. 5-If I (know – knew – had known – have known) you were in trouble, I would have written to you. Adjectives -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  21. 21. ‫ذ‬ Degrees of Comparison: ‫درجات المقارنة‬ 1- Positive: ‫الصفة لشخص واحد‬ - He is tall. 2- Comparative : ‫المقارنة بين اثنين‬ - He is taller than her. 3 - Superlative ‫المقارنة بين أكثر من اثنين‬ - He is the tallest pupil in the class. :[two syllables ‫[ أو ] المقطعين‬one syllable ‫صفات ذات ] المقطع الواحد‬ Positive Comparative Superlative strong stronger the strongest cold colder the coldest noble nobler the noblest clever cleverer the cleverest ‫ وإضا فة‬comparative ‫ في ال س‬er ‫* ل حظ في الجدول ال سابق إضا فة كل مة‬ . ‫ في نهاية الصفة‬est ‫و‬ :more than two syllable ‫صفات ذات أكثر من مقطعين‬ Positive Comparative Superlative beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful exciting more exciting the most exciting wonderful more wonderful the most wonderful comparative ‫ ف سي الس س‬more ‫* لح سظ ف سي الجدول الس سابق إضاف سة كلم سة‬ ‫س‬ ‫س‬ ‫س‬ ‫س‬ ‫س‬ ‫س‬ . ‫ قبل الصفة‬superlative ‫ في الس‬the most ‫وإضافة‬ :‫* الصفات غير قياسية‬ Positive Comparative Superlative good better best bad worse worst many (much) more most little less least old elder eldest( people only ) old older oldest ( people and things ) far farther farthest ‫للمسافة‬ -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  22. 22. ‫ذ‬ far further furthest ‫للمسافة والزمن‬ .‫[ في المقارنة بين اثنين وتوضع بعد الصفة‬than] ‫ل تنسى‬ : ‫* ملحظة‬ .‫[ في المقارنة بين أكثر من اثنين وتوضع قبل الصفة‬the] ‫ل تنسي‬ - It is hotter than yesterday. - He is the best in the class. ‫* إذا كانـت الصـفة ذات المقطـع الواحـد منتهيـة بحرف سـاكن مسـبوق بحرف متحرك‬ .‫فإننا نضاعف الحرف الساكن الخير‬ big bigger than fat fatter than hot hotter than thin thinner than -: est ‫ أو‬er ‫ عند إضافة‬ie ‫ في نهاية الصفة إلى‬y ‫* نحول حرف الـ‬ - easy - easier - easiest -lucky -luckier - luckiest -happy -happier - happiest . ‫ للمقارنة بين شيئين أحدهما أقل من الّخر‬than (adj. ) less ‫* تستخدم‬ EX . Jane is less beautiful than Soha He is less fat than his brother. a bit / much / a lot ‫* يمكن تحديد مقدار صفة المقارنة باستخدام‬ EX . Going by bus is a lot cheaper than going by plane. EX . Going by plane is much more expensive. ‫ إذا تساوى اثنان في المقارنة‬as…… as ‫* توضع الصفة أو الظرف بين‬ - Rania is as clever as Hoda. - Maha is as old as her friend. - Mr X is as black as night. - She is as sweet as sugar. -John is as tall as Peter. (They are the same height.) -Hussein isn’t as old as peter. -Hussein isn’t so old as peter. (Peter is the older of the two) : ( the same as : ‫* في المقارنة المماثلة: تستخدم‬ -Noha's salary is the same as mine. -I'll have the same drink as the last time. ., ( the(comparative)……: (the(comparative ‫* نستخدم‬ .‫بمعنى )كلما …….. كلما( للمقارنة حين نعني أن شيئ ً ما يعتمد علي شئ أخر‬ ‫ا‬ -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  23. 23. ‫ذ‬ -:‫كما في المثلة‬ - The colder the weather, the better I feel. (‫)كلما يبرد الطقس، كلما أشعر بتحسن‬ - The more you have, the more you want. )‫(كلما تمتلك، كلما ترغب في المزيد‬ .The earlier we leave, the sooner we will arrive - (‫)كلما بكرنا في المغادرة، كلما أسرعنا في الوصول‬ * The more you read, the more you learn. * The more you work, the more you earn. * The more you practise, the better you get. * The more you pain , the more you gain 3- We sometimes usequot; mostquot; adj. (without ‘’the” to mean ‘’very”) : very ‫ بمعنى‬the ‫.( ( بدون‬most + adj ‫*أحيان ً نستخدم‬ ‫ا‬ * The article I’ve just read was most interesting. (very interesting) : ‫ مع الماكن‬in ‫* مع صفات التفضيل تستخدم‬ -The Nile is the longest river in the world. ‫ مع الفترات الزمنية وكذلك مع الشخاص‬of ‫*ومع صفات التفضيل أيضا تستخدم‬ * Yesterday was the coldest day of the year. * He is the tallest of his friends. :‫*نستخدم غالب ً زمن المضارع التام بعد الصفة في حالة التفضيل‬ ‫ا‬ * It was the most exciting film I’ve ever seen. * She is the most beautiful girl I’ve ever met. .situations ‫ أو المواقف‬events ‫ تصف الحداث‬ing‫* الصفات التي تنتهي بـ‬ -: persons ‫ تصف الشخاص‬ed ‫* الصفات التي تنتهي بـ‬ ‫صفات تصف‬ ‫صفات تصف‬ ‫صفات تصف‬ ‫صفات تصف‬ ‫الحدث أو الموقف‬ ‫الشخص‬ ‫الحدث أو الموقف‬ ‫الشخص‬ tiring tired confusing confused exciting excited depressing depressed fascinating fascinated horrifying horrified amusing amused terrifying terrified astonishing astonished worrying worried boring bored annoying annoyed -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  24. 24. ‫ذ‬ interesting interested exhausting exhausted shocking shocked satisfying satisfied disgusting disgusted frightening frightened embarrassing embarrassed pleasing pleased Examples: - I was bored. - The film was boring. - She was depressed. - The view was depressing. .opinion adjectives‫ تسمى صفات الرأي‬beautiful, lovely, nice ‫* صفات مثل‬ .fact adjectives ‫ تسمى صفات الحقيقة‬sunny, cold, old ‫* صفات مثل‬ -:‫إذا كان هناك صفتين في نفس الجملة تأتي صفة الرأي قبل صفة الحقيقة كما في المثال‬ -: ‫ملحظة‬ - a beautiful sunny day. - a nice white cat. :‫** وأخيرا قم بالدراسة الجيدة لهذه الجمل‬ 1- No man in the city is more courageous than Ali. (most) Ali is the most courageous man in the city. 2- Ali is the most intelligent student in our class. ( No student) No student in our class is more intelligent than Ali. 3- No mountain in the world is higher than Everest. (Everest is) Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 4- No liquid is cheaper than water. (Water) Water is the cheapest liquid. 5- This problem is the most different one in the test. (more) This problem is more difficult than any other one in the test. No problem in the test is more difficult than this one. 6- Cairo is the biggest city in Egypt. (than) No city in Egypt is bigger than Cairo. 7- The house and the villa are not the same price. (expensive) The house is not as expensive as the villa. 8- Adel is more intelligent than his friends. (less) Adel’s friends are less intelligent than him. 9- I’ve never met a funny face like Ali’s. (ever met) Ali's face is the funniest face I've ever met. 10- New York is the most intelligent city in the world. (more) New York is more intelligent than any other city in the world. No city in the world is more intelligent than New York. -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  25. 25. ‫ذ‬ 11-He is younger than his sister. ( as ) He is not as old as his sister. 12- Listening to English leads to improving your language. (The) The more you listen to English, the more you improve your language. 13-I have never read such an interesting story. ( The most) This is the most interesting story I have ever read. 14-This student is the cleverest one I have ever seen. ( never) I have never seen a clever student like this one. I have never seen such a clever student. 15-. This is the most interesting film I have ever seen. (never / - I have never seen such an interesting film. - I have never seen a more interesting film than this one. - I have never seen a film as interesting as this one. 16- Ex. Hazem isn’t so tall as Mohamed. (than ) - Mohamed is taller than Hazem. 17-. The box is heavier than the parcel. ( as ) - The box isn’t as light as the parcel. - The parcel isn’t as heavy as the box. Enrich Your Language : ‫موقع الصفة‬ ‫** معظم الصفات فى اللغة النجليزية يمكن أن تأتى فى الجملة إما قبل اسم أو بعد فعل‬ :‫مثال ذلك‬ She lives in a beautiful house ‫أو‬ Her house is beautiful ‫**ولكن هناك بعض الصفات تكون مختلفة عن ذلك و يمكن ان تستخدم فقط فى مكان واحد‬ . ‫ تستخدم فقط قبل اسم‬main, single :‫مثال ذلك‬ : ‫يمكننا آن نقول‬ There was a single tree in the middle of the garden. The main reason I came home was to see my parents. ‫ تستخدم فقط بعد فعل‬asleep ، unwell ‫** كلمة‬ : ‫يمكننا آن نقول‬ Is he unwell? No, he's asleep. ‫** وهناك بعض الصفات و خاصة تلك التى تستخدم فى صيغ القياسات تأتى دائما بعد‬ -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  26. 26. ‫ذ‬ . ‫اسم‬ The hole is three meters deep. :‫يمكننا ان نقول‬ The cupboard is two feet high and four feet wide. Syllables ‫المقاطع‬ Words are divided into separate parts, culled syllables A syllable always contains a vowel sound . ‫تنقسم الكلمات إلى أجزاء منفصلة تسمى المقاطع ، وكل مقطع به صوت لحرف متحرك‬ One Two Three Four Syllable Syllables Syllables Syllables sea Living Pinpointed Incredibly world Creature Atmosphere Methuselah tree Mountain Submarine Expedition top Bottom Sympathy Fictionalize :‫وهذا هو البيان‬ ‫ :أو أجزاء‬syllables ‫إذا حللنا الكلمات في اللغة النجليزية نجد أنها مقسمة إلى‬ tall , big , small , nice ‫*: فبعض الكلما ت تتكون من جزء واحد مثل‬ pretty (pre-tty) ; tidy (ti-dy) : ‫*مثل جزأين وبعض الكلمات تتكون من‬ ‫ثلثة أجزاء مثل : * وبعض الكلمات تتكون من‬ beautiful (beau-ti-ful) ; important (im-por-tant); exciting(ex-ci-ting) ‫أربعة أجزاء مثل : * وبعض الكلمات تتكون من‬ interesting (in-ter-es-ting ) A-Choose the correct Answer:- 1- He is ………… of all the workers. a- helpful b- the most helpful c- more helpful d- less helpful 2- Aswan is ………. from Cairo than Benha is. a- far b- further c- furthest d- the furthest 3- Kamel is……… of three brothers. a- tall b- the taller c- the tallest d- taller 4- Ramez is ………. than he usually is. a- cheerful b- most cheerful c- more cheerful d- the most cheerful -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  27. 27. ‫ذ‬ 5- She is ……….. than she was last month. a- healthy b- healthiest c- healthier d- as healthy 6- The food isn’t nearly so ………. as it has been in the past. a- better b- worst c- the worst d- good 7- I had ……….. time than I needed to finish the job. a- less b- least c- little d- the least 8- He is ……… driver in the company. a- more careful b- less careful c- the most careful d- most careful 9- January is……….. month of the year. a- more cold b- less cold c- little d- the coldest 10- The road is not so ………..as I thought. a- longer b- longest c- long d- the longest 11- I think Samy is ……….. than his brother. a- strong b- stronger c- more stronger d- the strongest 12- Our children are………... than us. a- luckier b- luckiest c- the luckiest d- lucky 13- Hassan is a………..doctor than Nady. a- good b- better c- worst d- the best 14- She bought ………..dress she could find. a- cheap b- cheaper c- cheapest d- the cheapest 15- Noha is ………….of her friends. a- the older b- the oldest c- old d- older 16- My chair is ……….. as yours. a- less comfortable b- more comfortable c- most comfortable d- as comfortable 17- My house is …………..expensive one in the area. a- more b- less c- the most d- most 18- Bill is much …………..than tom. a- intelligent b- least intelligent c- more intelligent d- the most intelligent 19-1 think that she is the (bad - worse - worst - better) cook. 20- It is …………difficult exercise I’ve done. a- more b- less c- the most d- least 21- This test is not so difficult (so - more - as) the last time. 22- The more expensive the hotel (the better - more - than - better) the service. 23- Amal is the same age (so - as - more - most) her friend. 24- The more you walk, (me most - the more - more - than) tired you become. -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  28. 28. ‫ذ‬ 25-It is becoming harder and (hard - hardest- harder - the hardest) to find a job. 26- The more you practice your English, the (fast-faster-fastest-fasting) you'll learn. 27-It is silly (for - of - at - to) you not to close the door. 28-It is a very (hot - hotter - hottest) day. 29- It was nice (for - at - to - of) you to come to my birthday. 30- He is as strong (for - as - so - more) a horse 31- Gold is the (most valuable - valuable - value) metal. 32- She is the (beautiful-more -most beautiful-beautifully) girl. 33- English is (easy - easier - the easiest - easiest) than French. 34- America is the (rich-richest-richer) country in the world. 35- His voice is (loud - louder - loudest - the loudest) than hers. 36- This is a (tiring - tired - tire - tiredness) day. I don't like it. 37- I am hungry, thirsty and (tired - tiring - tireless - tire). 38- The film was long and (bored - boring - bore - boredom). 39- The children were (surprised-surprising- surprise - surprisingly) when they saw the clown. 40-This is an (excited - exciting - excite excitement) story. 41-What you said is not an (interesting- interested interest - interestingly) thing. 42-The students were (bored - boring - bore - boredom). 43-She was (depressed - depression - depressing - depress) when she heard the bad news. B- Rewrite using the word(s):- 1- I have never heard a more interesting story than this. (the most) 2- Hazem is the youngest boy in the class. (younger) 3- It is the most expensive car I have ever seen.(I have never seen) 4- He is the strangest person I’ve ever met. (stranger) 5-I have never had such a delicious meal before. (ever) 6- A train is not so fast as a plane. (faster) 7- The Nile is the longest river in the world. (No river) 8- Everest is the highest mountain in the world. (higher) 9- He got the best marks in the class. (better/ good) 10- I haven’t had such an accurate watch. (This watch is…) 11- It is the most comfortable bed I’ve slept in. (more) 12- I haven’t heard such an amusing story. (the most) 13- It is the worst program I’ve ever watched. (bad /worse) -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  29. 29. ‫ذ‬ 14- Hossam is shorter than Hazem. (as tall as) 15- Hamdy is the oldest man in our town. (older) 16- France is colder than Turkey. (as cold as) 17- It is the best car I’ve ever driven. (good) 18- I haven’t met a happier person than Hany. (happiest) 19- It is the smallest camera I’ve ever seen. (smaller) 20-It is the first time I have ever had a cold. ( never) 21-It is the first time for me to have a cold. ( never) C- Put the adjectives in the correct form : 1- Diamonds are ( hard ) than gold. 2- Dr. Muhab is a ( good ) doctor than his friend. 3- The price of oranges is (little) than the price of apples. 4- Cairo is the (large) city in Africa. 5- The lion is the ( strong ) animal in the jungle. 6- Some jobs are ( dangerous ) than others. 7- That street is ( narrow) than usual. 8- A bicycle is ( expensive ) than a car. 9- This perfume has a ( sweet) smell than that. 10-1 think this advice is the ( good ). -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  30. 30. ‫ذ‬ Conjunctions ‫الروابط‬ First : Ways of saying quot;andquot;: :‫ لربط فكرتين أو أكثر في جملة مثل‬and ‫*هناك الكثير من الكلمات والعبارات التي تستخدم مثل‬ 1- and : ‫و‬ *He went to school. He met his classmates. -He went to school and met his class mates. ‫**هنا نلحظ حذف فاعل لجملة الثانية‬ 2- both ……...and ‫........كل من..... و‬ *He plays football. He plays tennis. -He plays both football and tennis. ‫هنا تم الربط بين‬ ‫**مفعولين‬ *Ali likes tea . Anhar likes tea. -Both Ali and Anhar like tea. ‫**هنا الربط تم بين فاعلين ولذلك وضع الفعل في صيغة الجمع‬ 3- as well as= besides= in addition to: / ‫أيضا‬ ‫بالضافة إلى‬ *He speaks English.. He speaks French. -He speaks English as well as/ in addition to/ besides French. ‫**هنا تم الربط بين مفعولين‬ *Yesterday, besides as well as / in addition to doing my homework, I prepared a new lesson . ‫**نلحظ هنا أننا حينما نربط بين فاعلين ونبدأ الجملة بأدوات الربط هذه فإنها تتبع‬ .‫ أو تتبع باسم‬ing ‫بسس الفعل مضافا إليه‬ *She as well as I is clever *He as well as his brothers gets up early. ‫ بين فاعلين مختلفين فإن الفعل يتبع‬as well as ‫**ملحوظة أخيرة هامة : إذا جاءت‬ ‫الفاعل الول‬ 4 -not only…....but also….... -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  31. 31. ‫ذ‬ not only…….but…..…as well .....‫ليس فقط .... لك ن‬ ‫..... أيض ا‬ *He succeeded. He got high marks. He not only succeeded but he also got high marks. He not only succeeded but he got high marks as well. ‫ أول الجملة يوضع الفعل بعدها في صيغة‬not only ‫**ولكن يلحظ أنه :إذا جاءت‬ ‫الستفهام‬ Not only did he succeed but he got high marks as well. :‫ للربط بين مفعولين‬not only ‫** وتستخدم‬ He speaks not only English but French as well ‫ بين فاعلين فإن الفعل يتبع الفاعل الثاني‬not only ‫**وإذا ربطت‬ *Not only my brothers but also my sister knows Italian. 5- and so ‫وكذلك ..... وأيضا‬ ‫**للربط بين جملتين يهما فعلن متكرران مثبتان‬ a) He likes football. I like football. *- He likes football and so do I. b) They ran. She ran. *-They ran and so did she. c) He is playing. I am playing. *-He is playing and so am I. d) He likes music, and so do I. ‫وأنا أيضا‬ e) Noha went to the zoo. and so did Mido ‫وأيض ً ميدو‬ ‫ا‬ f) Mr. Bill is a teacher, and so is his brother‫وأيض ً أخوه‬‫ا‬ ‫[ ويأتي الفعل مشابهاً في زمنه‬addition to remarks] ‫** لحظ أن الجزء الثاني من الجملة يسمى‬ .‫[ إذا كان في الثبات‬so] ‫للفعل الصلي ويكون مسبوق ً بـ‬ ‫ا‬ 6- and neither ‫ول .... أيض ا‬ ‫**للربط بين جملتين يهما فعلن متكرران منفيان‬ a) He doesn’t study. They don’t study. He doesn’t study and neither do they. b) They don’t write. She doesn’t write. They don’t write and neither does she. c) He does not play, and neither do I. ‫و ل أنا‬ d) Hit did not travel, and neither did she. ‫و لهي‬ e) Mrs. Bill is not a teacher, and neither is her friend. ‫ول صديقتها‬ ‫[ ويأتي الفعل مشابهاً في زمنه‬addition to remarks] ‫** لحظ أن الجزء الثاني من الجملة يسمى‬ .‫[ إذا كان في النفي‬neither] ‫للفعل الصلي ويكون مسبوق ً بـ‬ ‫ا‬ -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  32. 32. ‫ذ‬ 7-in addition : ‫بالضافة إلى‬ ‫ذلك‬ *He went to the market. In addition, he visited his uncle. ‫ جاءت بين الجملتين بدون تغيير‬in addition ‫**هنا نلحظ أن‬ Second : Ways of saying quot; so quot;: :‫ وعبارات أخرى لتبين أن حدثا قد أدى إلى حدث آخر مثل‬So ‫*تستخدم‬ so/therefore/hence/thus /that's why/consequently / as a result ‫ولذلك‬ *Gamal worked hard. He got through the exam. Gamal worked hard, so / therefore he got through the exam. Gamal worked hard, that's why he got through the exam. Third : Ways of saying quot; because quot; : : Why ‫*تستخدم الكلمات والتعبيرات التالية لتبين سبب حدوث الشيء وتجيب عن السؤال المبدوء بــ‬ 1 - because/ as /since ‫لن‬ ‫**هذه الروابط تتبع بفاعل وفعل‬ EX. : a) He missed the train. He got up late. He missed the train because he got up late. b) She has stayed at home. She is ill. She has stayed at home as she is ill. c) He joined the faculty of medicine .He worked hard. He joined the faculty of medicine since he worked hard. d)He couldn’t hear the door bell because he was listening to the radio. e) He didn't achieve his goal as he hadn't exerted great efforts. 2- because Of / owing To / due To / on account Of/ through/ out of / as a result of ‫بسبب‬ ‫ أو باسم‬ing ‫**هذه الروابط تتبع بالفعل مضافا إليه‬ *He missed the train because of getting up late. *He has stayed at home owing to his illness / being ill. *He joined the faculty of medicine due to hard work / working hard. Fourth : Ways of saying quot; but quot; : -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  33. 33. ‫ذ‬ ‫تستخدم هذه الروابط للتعبير عن التناقض‬ 1- . but/ however/yet/still/nevertheless ‫لكن‬ :‫لربط جملتين متناقضتين‬ *He is tall. His sister is short. -He is tall but his sister is short. 2- though – although - even if – even though – ‫: بالرغم من‬ He succeeded. He wasn’t happy. *Although he succeeded, he wasn’t happy ‫: تأتي بعدها فاعل وفعل كما يمكن أن تأتي في أول‬Although ‫نلحظ هنا أن‬ ‫الجملة‬ .‫أو بين الجملتين‬ 3 - despite / in spite of / for all / with all / notwithstanding /regardless of : : ‫بالرغم‬ ‫من‬ *In spite of his success, he wasn’t happy *Despite being rich , he isn’t contented. /ing ‫**جميع الروابط السابقة يأتي بعدها اسم أو فعل مضافا إليه‬ 4- However: ‫بالرغم من‬ * However beautiful she is, nobod likes her. *However quickly she ran , she missed the bus. .‫ يأتي بعدها صفة) أو ظرف ( ثم فاعل وفعل‬However ‫**نلحظ من المثال السابق أن‬ 5 - Whatever : ‫بالرغم من‬ *She is beautiful. Nobody likes her. *Whatever beauty she has , nobody likes her. *Whatever mistakes he makes , he isn't punished. .‫ يأتي بعدها اسم ثم فاعل وفعل ثم الجملة الثانية‬whatever ‫**نلحظ هنا أن‬ *Whatever his wealth is , he isn't contented. (Verb to be) ‫ يأتي بعدها ضمير ملكية ثم اسم ثم‬whatever ‫**نلحظ هنا أن‬ .‫ثم الجملة الثانية‬ 6 - ‫ + صفة‬as : : ‫بالرغم‬ ‫من‬ *Rich as he is , he isn’t contented. -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed
  34. 34. ‫ذ‬ .‫ تسبق بصفة وتتبع بفاعل وفعل ثم الجملة الثانية‬as ‫وهنا نلحظ أن‬ Fifth :Expressing the idea of : quot;purposequot; ‫تستخدم الروابط التالية لتبين الغرض من فعل شيء‬ 1- So That / In Order that / In the hope that: ‫لكي‬ ‫ ثم‬may ‫ أو‬can ‫**هذه الروابط تأتي في وسط الجملة ويأتي بعدها : فاعل ثم‬ ‫المصدر‬ ‫ مضارع أو أمر أو مستقبل‬so that ‫إذا كان الفعل الرئيسي قبل‬ ‫إذا كان الفعل الرئيسي قبلها‬ ‫ ثم المصدر‬might ‫ أو‬could ‫ونضع فاعل ثم‬ ‫ماضي بسيط‬ a) I go to school. I want to learn. I go to school so that I can learn. b) He ran quickly. He wanted to catch the train. He ran quickly in order that he could catch the train ‫ إن‬want to / hope to/ wish to ‫** نلحظ أننا عند استخدام الروابط نحذف العبارات‬ ‫وجدت في الجملة قبل استخدام أداة الربط‬ 2- To / So as to / In order to : ‫لكي‬ *I go to school to learn. *He ran quickly in order to catch the train . ‫**هذه الروابط تأتي في وسط الجملة أو أولها ويأتي بعدها المصدر‬ 3- because + ‫فاعل‬ + want to + ‫مصدر‬ ‫لكي‬ *He ran quickly because he wanted to catch the bus. 4- Lest / For fear that: ‫خشية‬ ‫أن‬ *Sara took her umbrella lest she should get wet. *They got up early for fear that they should miss the train. *Ahmed did his best lest he should fail. -30- Mr.Usama Ahmed

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