Four styles for ot audience cotton 1
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  • Using an inductive reasoning process, I wanted to develop a theory about caregiving style that was grounded in the data
  • End goal is theory of style. What is a style? What are the essential ingredients for something to be a style? Pattern over time, but what else? Used the literature to define style = essential elements. Used these elements as a hierarchy for codes.
  • If I looked at my participants as individuals (rather than clumping the data together as a whole) I saw there were three possible conditions. BTW, looking at things individually rather than as a block of data is part of what researchers mean when they say they are considering the context (contextualizing, placing in context).How did the cg talk about taking care of themselves? I asked specifically what they did to recharge their batteries and some had strategies and some didn’t …BTW, if I had not asked the batteries question, what would have been the effect on the trustworthiness of my analysis?
  • (would need to double check the underlying logic of this illustration with author - Priorities lead to formulation of strategies and types of interaction. These affect 1) the way the CR deals with their needs 2) the CR’s emotions.) Facilitative - Seeks to maintain identity of CR (i.e., clothing, former roles)Self-image tied to “good caregiving”
  • Priority is physical health of CRElaborate regimes of medication, nutrition, or use of supplementsAppearances important (keeps house clean, worries about being embarrassed)

Four styles for ot audience cotton 1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Caregiving StylesMary A Corcoran PhD, OT/LProfessor and Associate DeanGeorge Washington University
  • 2. Why Study Caregiving Styles? “If you’ve seen onecaregiver, you’ve seen one caregiver”
  • 3. The Caregiving Style StudiesSpouses (68) 5 years National Institute on AgingAdult children (33) 1 year Virginia Commonwealth, ARDRAF
  • 4. Mixed Methods Design• QUAL-quant • Grounded theoryFocusing on qualitative analysis today
  • 5. Data• Qualitative • Long interview (250+ total hours) • Videotapes (33+ total hours)• Quantitative • Sociodemographics • Measures of well-being
  • 6. Qualitative Analytic ApproachThree iterative tasks Coding Describe what is going on Categories Identify larger “parts” Theme Develop a theory of caregiving style
  • 7. Getting from Codes to CategoriesCoding – unlinked descriptions of dataCategories – arrange codes as hierarchies Hierarchies of what?
  • 8. BeliefsMeanings Actions Style
  • 9. Categories: Elements of StyleBeliefs  What is …?Meanings  The role signifies …?Actions  Caregiving gets done by …?
  • 10. Action: Taking Care of SelfLooking at data as a whole, caregivers take care of self by Reducing demands of role Doing something important Getting healthy Staying connected
  • 11. Taking Care of Self No Has strategies strategies Does not Does not Meets meet meet needs needs needs
  • 12. Three groupsCompare and contrast throughaxial coding Causes Consequences Context Conditions
  • 13. Example: Exercise andConditions No exercise CR not Help OK alone CR OKExercise alone
  • 14. Example: Exercise andConsequences
  • 15. Four Caregiving StylesFacilitating Directing Balancing Advocating
  • 16. Facilitating Caregiver Priority Strategy Emotional Interaction Anything thathealth, identity of Cooperative involves self CR Needs Emotions Recognizes but Worries about doesn’t address ability to provide own needs best care
  • 17. Directing Caregiver Priority Strategy InteractionPhysical health of Verbal Limited or none CR Needs EmotionsRecognized needs Frustrated and limited to work stressed
  • 18. Balancing Caregiver Strategy Priority Environmental Interaction Maintaining the status quo controls, supervision, repetitive Parallel activities Emotions Needs Generally satisfied with careHas help and meets own needs provision
  • 19. Advocating Caregiver Interaction Priority Strategy Range withManaging others Vigilance and purpose of to support CR advocacy assessment Emotions Needs Generally satisfied Has help and with caremeets own needs provision
  • 20. Conclusion• Caregivers may - demonstrate a mix of styles - change over time; circumstances• Understanding priorities of caregiver regarding self and care recipient is key
  • 21. Caveats• Styles are a guide, not a prescription• Theory - Requires further testing
  • 22. ReferenceCorcoran, M.A. (2011). Caregiving Styles: ACognitive and Behavioral Typology AssociatedWith Dementia Family Caregiving. TheGerontologist 51, 4, 463-472.doi:10.1093/geront/gnr002