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Corbin14e ch10 (1)
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  • This lecture will cover muscular fitness and describe the principles of progressive resistance exercise that is used to improve muscular fitness.
  • Progressive resistance exercise (PRE) is the type of physical activity done with the intent of improving muscle
    fitness. Weight training is frequently used as a synonym for PRE but it should not be confused with the various
    competitive events related to resistance exercise. Weight lifting is a competitive sport that involves two lifts: the
    snatch and the clean and jerk. Powerlifting, also a competitive sport, includes three lifts: the bench press, the
    squat, and the dead lift. Bodybuilding is a competition in which participants are judged on the size and definition
    of their muscles. Participants in these competitive events rely on highly specialized forms of PRE to optimize their
    training. Individuals interested in general muscular fitness also rely on PRE but do not need to follow the same
    routines or regimens to achieve good results. This concept will cover the scientific basis of muscular fitness and
    will provide guidelines and principles that can be used to establish an appropriate PRE program.
  • Review definition of Muscular Strength
    What sports demand muscular strength?
    - Football
    - Weight Lifting
  • Review muscular endurance
    What sports require muscular endurance?
    - wrestling
    - gymnastics
    - downhill skiing
    How is muscular endurance different than cardiovascular endurance?
    CV endurance: efficiency of heart and lungs
    ME: efficiency of neuromuscular system
  • Review factors influencing strength:
    There are three types of muscle tissue. The three types of muscle tissue—smooth, cardiac, and skeletal—have different structures and functions.
    Leverage is an important mechanical principle that influences strength. The body uses a system of levers to produce movement. Muscles are connected to bones via tendons, and some muscles (referred to as “primary movers”) cross over a particular joint to produce movement.
    Gender: males stronger than females
    - testosterone builds muscle (anabolic effects)
    - lower amounts of body fat allows greater LBM
    Age: strength decreases with age (ex: elderly)
    - muscular strength = getting out of a chair
    - muscular endurance = walking around the house
    Anatomy:
    - The body built as a system of levers. The longer the lever arm the greater the strength for a muscle
    - The ability to increase strength depends on type of muscle fibers (see next slide)
  • Review the facts about resistance training and point out the illusion that everyone can develop huge muscles. Most people have body types and genetics that limit the capacity for this type of development.
  • This shows the position of muscular fitness within the physical activity pyramid.
  • Review benefits of muscular fitness
    Core strength is increasingly viewed as an important health parameter. Core strength refers to strength
    of the muscles of abdominal, paraspinal (back), and gluteal muscles, or the muscles of the “core” of the body. In
    the past core muscle training has not been emphasized in PRE programs. However, there is a new emphasis on
    core muscle exercises because of their importance to daily life functions, good posture, and back health. Good core strength can help reduce back pain, prevent injuries, and improve performance in many applied tasks and sport movements. Many athletes view core strength training as an important part of their conditioning. Core strength is also important for functional balance and the prevention of falls in elderly.
    Look Good:
    Feel Good:
    Muscular fitness can promote self esteem
    Improved Health:
    In addition to other benefits, building up muscle mass helps to maintain BMR and promote long term weight control.
    Improved Performance:
    Fit muscles improve performance in sports and don't tire as easily during leisure activities
  • Isotonic exercises are the most common type of PRE. When isotonic exercises are performed the muscles
    shorten and lengthen to cause movement. The most common types of isotonic exercises are calisthenics,
    resistance machine exercises, free weight exercises, and exercises using other types of resistance such as exercise bands. Isotonic exercise allows for the use of resistance through a full range of joint motion and provides
    an effective stimulus for muscle development.
    When performing isotonic exercise, both concentric (shortening) and eccentric (lengthening) contractions
    should be used. For example in the overhead press exercise, the muscles on the back of the arms (triceps)
    shorten (contract concentrically) to overcome resistance or lift a weight. When the same muscles contract
    eccentrically, lengthening occurs allowing a slow and controlled return of the muscle to its normal length.
    Because isotonic exercises involves movement against a resistance such as a resistance machine or lifting of a weight when using free weights, it is helpful for building both dynamic strength and dynamic muscular endurance. Dynamic refers to movement, so strength and muscular endurance that causes movement are referred to as dynamic.
    Isometric exercises are those in which no movement takes place while a force is exerted against an immovable
    object.
    Isokinetic exercises are isotonic-concentric muscle contractions performed on machines that keep the velocity of the movement constant through the full range of motion.
  • There are a variety of different types of weight equipment and there are advantages and disadvantages of the different systems.
    Go over advantages and disadvantages of machines and free weights and have students discuss their preferences.
    Some advantages of machines are: easy, quick to use, safer, and variable resistance in which the resistance is varied throughout the range of motion to more closely accommodate natural strength curves (ex Nautilus). Some advantages of free weights are: balanced muscle development, more challenging and rewarding, more adaptable to natural body movements.
    Free weights require more time and are more dangerous than machine weights, therefore most beginners should opt for machines when beginning a program.
  • Review the FIT formula
  • Diagram shows the repetition continuum
    Strength is developed with Hi weight / Lo reps
    Endurance is developed with Lo weights / Hi reps
    Review the concept so that students know that different gains will result from different types of training
    The following slides illustrate the concepts in greater detail and provide the FIT prescription for each type of program.
  • Review the stimulus for strength development
    - maximal exertion
    - maximal force
  • Review stimulus for muscular endurance
    - higher number of repetitions
    - short rest intervals
  • A general muscular fitness program should develop some strength and some endurance. The program should incorporate exercises for every major muscle group. Muscle imbalances can lead to injury and are not attractive (give example of Popeye - big arms, small legs)
    F: 3x per week
    I:40-60% of 1 repetition maximum; 40-50% 1RM >50 years old
    T:2-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions
  • The principles for resistance training are the same as the ones covered during the lecture on How Much Exercise is Enough? but it is a good review.
    Overload:
    You have to do more than you are used to in order to cause your muscles to adapt
    Progression:
    You must build up slowly or risk getting injured or too sore.
    Specificity:
    The adaptations are specific for the muscle groups being exercised. Another application of this principle is that the gains from resistance training may not always translate to an increased performance in sports.
    Rest/Recovery:
    You must give the body enough time to recover between workouts.
  • Review training considerations.
    Start slowly:
    Helps to avoid excessive soreness
    Allow time to recover:
    (muscles need to rest to adapt)
    Expect plateaus:
    Plateaus are common in weight training. Improvements will be rapid initially but will level off. Often it is necessary to try different routines or use a form of "periodization (structured phases in a program) to move past a plateau.
  • Go over each myth
    No Pain No Gain:
    You don't need to hurt to get benefits from exercise. The myth is based on overload principle which states that you must challenge your body to improve.
    Muscle Bound:
    Weight training can increase flexibility if through full ROM
    Fat converts into muscle
    Fat and muscle are separate tissues and you can't promote local fat loss by exercising a certain area.
    Muscle turns into fat if not used.
    A higher muscle mass causes a corresponding increase in BMR and total energy expenditure. Without training, muscle mass is lost. If a person ceases training and keeps eating the same amount, the extra calories are converted to fat. (Muscle does not turn into fat)
    Masculinizing
    Women won't develop same muscles as men because they do not have as much testosterone
  • Review concepts related to weight training.
    The Pump:
    Muscles aren't magically growing before your eyes. The increased size following a workout is due to blood trapped in muscles (venous return)
    Strength Gain: (several mechanisms)
    1. Neuromuscular- body improves ability to recruit motor units
    2. Hypertrophy (increased muscle size) - strength depends on cross sectional area of muscle
    3. Hyperplasia (increased muscle cell number) - only seen in elite weightlifter
    Muscle Fatigue: what causes muscles to tire out?
    When muscles produce too much LA, the ph of the cells decreases and muscles can't contract effectively. With repeated lifting some of the motor units become fatigued and the body has to recruit new motor units that may be less conditioned.
    Muscle Soreness: What causes muscles to feel sore?
    Various theories exist. Some say it is due to a lack of oxygen in the area, others say it is due to connective tissue damage in the fibers
    Tone: What is Tone?
    Usually people refer to tone as being definition. It requires good muscle development and also a low percent body fat. You can't turn fat into muscle and gain "tone" .
  • Cover the key steps needed for planning a resistance training program.
    Each of the components will be discussed on a separate slide so they only need to be introduced.
  • This page provides active hyperlinks if the computer is connected to the Internet.
  • Supplemental graphics follow slide
  • Lab information
  • Lab information
  • Lab information
  • Review muscle fibers
    There are two types of muscle fibers
    - Fast Twitch
    - Slow Twitch
    Fast twitch fibers generate a lot of force in a short amount of time (speed/strength). Slow twitch fibers generate force more slowly but more efficiently
    Fast Twitch fibers are primarily anaerobic and are better suited to high intensity/strength activities. Therefore, people with a higher percentage of fast twitch fibers will respond quicker and increase strength to a greater extent than people with more slow twitch fibers.
  • Go through sample calculation for relative strength. Students typically have difficult time with this type of calculation, so it is worth covering.
  • Discuss the concept of relative strength.
    An effective way is to ask students who is stronger Person A or Person B?
    Person A: Weighs 180 pounds and can lift 200 pounds
    Person B: Weighs 100 pounds and can lift 150 pounds
    Person B has more relative strength because he/she can lift more weight per pound of body weight than person A.
    When strength is relative to body weight or to Lean Body Mass females and males have nearly comparable strength. Therefore, the main reason that males are stronger than females is the amount of muscle mass.
  • Z line disruption is one of the possible explanations for muscle soreness
  • Go over anatomy concepts related to muscular fitness and resistance exercise
  • Review the concept of the sliding filament theory.
  • Describe the agonist and antagonist functions and how they work together to produce movement
  • Describe how muscles are organized and how neural regulation of force takes place
  • Describe how individual contractions sum together to produce a tetany contraction at a stable force level.
  • Explain the all or none law
  • Goals should be set at the beginning of the program
    Goals should be specific, challenging and attainable
    They must be specific so you can measure it and know when you reach it. They must be challenging to give you something to strive for but they must be attainable. Setting goals too high is the biggest problem for most people.
    Examples of specific goals:
    1. Increase strength in bench press by 20 pounds in 3 months
    2. Decrease percent body fat by 2% in 4 months
  • The type of program should relate to the goals that were established.
    If your goal is to increase strength or size you should use a muscular strength format (heavy weight / low repetition).
    If your goal is to increase endurance you should use a muscular endurance format (low weight/high repetition)
    If your goal is to improve general muscular fitness then a intermediate type of program should be used.
  • The muscle groups and exercises need to be selected.
    Some people may want to focus on certain body area to improve performance in a certain sport.
    Otherwise, most people would be best off with a program that works each of the major muscle groups.
  • The order of exercises must be specified. There are many different ways a program can be organized. The general recommendation is to do large muscle groups first followed by the small muscle groups. A different system known as the "pre-exhaust" system is based on doing small muscle groups first. The rationale is to tire out accessory muscle groups so they cannot help out during some of the major lifts.
  • Sets can also be organized in different ways.
    Good levels of fitness can be attained with only 1 set for each exercise but gains are generally greater if multiple sets are performed. Beyond 3 sets the advantage of multiple sets becomes less significant.
    Some people prefer to work with heavy weights first and then reduce the weight for the next one
    Other people prefer to start with a light set first and then increase the weight as they feel warm-up up
  • Diagram shows that both phases of the lift can promote strength gains.
    By lifting in a slow and controlled manner you can increase the overload on the muscle and make quicker gains.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 11Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Presentation Package forPresentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section III: Concept 10Section III: Concept 10 Muscle Fitness andMuscle Fitness and Resistance ExercisesResistance Exercises All rightsAll rights reservedreserved Anatomical Graphics from: Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. McGraw-Hill, 1998 Progressive resistance exercise promotes muscle fitness thatProgressive resistance exercise promotes muscle fitness that permits efficient and effective movement, contributes to easepermits efficient and effective movement, contributes to ease and economy of muscular effort, promotes successfuland economy of muscular effort, promotes successful performance, and lowers susceptibility to some types ofperformance, and lowers susceptibility to some types of injuries, musculoskeletal problems, and some illnesses.injuries, musculoskeletal problems, and some illnesses.
    • 2. 22Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e TerminologyTerminology Weight trainingWeight training Progressive Resistance ExerciseProgressive Resistance Exercise (PRE)(PRE) Weight liftingWeight lifting PowerliftingPowerlifting BodybuildingBodybuilding
    • 3. 33Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscular StrengthMuscular Strength Able to lift aAble to lift a heavy weightheavy weight Able to exertAble to exert a great forcea great force Lab 10a InfoLab 10a Info
    • 4. 44Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscular EnduranceMuscular Endurance Able toAble to performperform repeatedrepeated muscularmuscular contractionscontractions Lab 10b InfoLab 10b Info
    • 5. 55Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Note: These drugs areNote: These drugs are highly dangerous andhighly dangerous and have permanent and lifehave permanent and life threateningthreatening consequencesconsequences (see future slide)(see future slide) Factors InfluencingFactors Influencing StrengthStrength Type of muscle tissueType of muscle tissue GenderGender AgeAge Anatomy (leverage)Anatomy (leverage) DrugsDrugs  Anabolic steroidsAnabolic steroids  Human growth hormoneHuman growth hormone
    • 6. 66Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Facts aboutFacts about Resistance TrainingResistance Training Everyone can gain strength andEveryone can gain strength and enduranceendurance NOT everyone will improve to the sameNOT everyone will improve to the same extent (genetic predisposition)extent (genetic predisposition)  Adaptations depend largely on the muscleAdaptations depend largely on the muscle fibers type distribution. Fast twitch musclefibers type distribution. Fast twitch muscle fibers adapt more readily.fibers adapt more readily. See more infoSee more info on fiber typeson fiber types
    • 7. 77Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Health Benefits ofHealth Benefits of Muscular FitnessMuscular Fitness Strength andStrength and muscularmuscular endurance promoteendurance promote muscular fitnessmuscular fitness and provideand provide important healthimportant health benefitsbenefits  Avoiding backAvoiding back problemsproblems  Good postureGood posture  Reducing risks ofReducing risks of injuryinjury  Reducing risks ofReducing risks of osteoporosisosteoporosis
    • 8. 88Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Other Benefits ofOther Benefits of Muscular FitnessMuscular Fitness Weight controlWeight control Increased wellnessIncreased wellness Look goodLook good Feel goodFeel good Core strengthCore strength  Abdominal, paraspinalAbdominal, paraspinal (back), gluteal muscles(back), gluteal muscles Improved performanceImproved performance
    • 9. 99Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Types of PRETypes of PRE IsotonicIsotonic (dynamic strength/endurance)(dynamic strength/endurance)  ConcentricConcentric  EccentricEccentric  PlyometricsPlyometrics IsometricIsometric (static strength/endurance)(static strength/endurance) IsokineticIsokinetic Functional balance trainingFunctional balance training  Core strength and balanceCore strength and balance Click for info on concentric andClick for info on concentric and eccentric contractionseccentric contractions
    • 10. 1010Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Choice of EquipmentChoice of Equipment Free WeightsFree WeightsWeight MachinesWeight Machines There are advantages to both types of equipmentThere are advantages to both types of equipment. Web10-7 – variable resistance machinesWeb10-7 – variable resistance machines
    • 11. 1111Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e The FIT Formula Applied toThe FIT Formula Applied to Resistance TrainingResistance Training How often?How often? WhatWhat resistance?resistance? How manyHow many sets?sets?
    • 12. 1212Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e RepetitionsRepetitions Resistance(%of1RM)Resistance(%of1RM) High LoadHigh Load Low RepsLow Reps Mod LoadMod Load Mod RepsMod Reps Low LoadLow Load High RepsHigh Reps MuscularMuscular StrengthStrength MuscularMuscular EnduranceEndurance Repetition ContinuumRepetition Continuum
    • 13. 1313Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Stimulus for StrengthStimulus for Strength Target ZoneTarget Zone F:F: 2-3 days/wk2-3 days/wk I :I : 60-80% 1RM)60-80% 1RM) T:T: 1-3 sets1-3 sets 3- 8 reps3- 8 reps RepetitionsRepetitions Resistance(%of1RM)Resistance(%of1RM) High LoadHigh Load Low RepsLow Reps MuscularMuscular StrengthStrength MuscularMuscular EnduranceEndurance Mod LoadMod Load Mod RepsMod Reps Low LoadLow Load High RepsHigh Reps
    • 14. 1414Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Stimulus for EnduranceStimulus for Endurance Target ZoneTarget Zone F:F: every other dayevery other day I :I : 40-60% 1RM40-60% 1RM T:T: 2-5 sets 9-25 reps2-5 sets 9-25 reps RepetitionsRepetitions Resistance(%of1RM)Resistance(%of1RM) Low LoadLow Load High RepsHigh Reps MuscularMuscular StrengthStrength MuscularMuscular EnduranceEndurance High LoadHigh Load Low RepsLow Reps Mod LoadMod Load Mod RepsMod Reps
    • 15. 1515Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e F:F: 3 days/week3 days/week I:I: 40-60% 1RM40-60% 1RM 40-50% 1RM40-50% 1RM >50 years old>50 years old T:T: 1-3 sets 8-12 reps;1-3 sets 8-12 reps; 1-3 sets 10-15 reps1-3 sets 10-15 reps for adults >50 yrs oldfor adults >50 yrs old Stimulus for OverallStimulus for Overall Muscle FitnessMuscle Fitness (Target Zone)(Target Zone) RepetitionsRepetitions Resistance(%of1RM)Resistance(%of1RM) High LoadHigh Load Low RepsLow Reps MuscularMuscular StrengthStrength MuscularMuscular EnduranceEndurance High LoadHigh Load Low RepsLow Reps Low LoadLow Load High RepsHigh Reps
    • 16. 1616Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e TrainingTraining Principles of PREPrinciples of PRE OverloadOverload ProgressionProgression SpecificitySpecificity Diminishing ReturnsDiminishing Returns Rest / RecoveryRest / Recovery Click icon for info onClick icon for info on the physiology ofthe physiology of muscle functionmuscle function
    • 17. 1717Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Is There Strength in a Bottle?Is There Strength in a Bottle? Taking anabolic steroids is a dangerous way to build muscle fitness and is illegal.  Injuries happen more easily and last longer in people who use steroids. Androstenedione and THG are not safe alternatives to steroids. Human growth hormone (HGH) may be even more dangerous than anabolic steroids. Creatine use is becoming increasingly popular among people training for strength development. The safety and efficacy of many strength-related dietary supplements are not established.
    • 18. 1818Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Guidelines for Safe & EffectiveGuidelines for Safe & Effective Resistance TrainingResistance Training Start slowlyStart slowly Use good techniqueUse good technique  Lift in a controlled mannerLift in a controlled manner  Exhale during effortExhale during effort  Bring weight down slowlyBring weight down slowly Allow time for recoveryAllow time for recovery Include all body parts and balanceInclude all body parts and balance strength of antagonistic muscle groupsstrength of antagonistic muscle groups Expect plateausExpect plateaus Customize program to fit your needsCustomize program to fit your needs
    • 19. 1919Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Fallacies aboutFallacies about Resistance TrainingResistance Training See Table 4, p. 189See Table 4, p. 189 No pain - no gainNo pain - no gain Makes you “muscle bound”Makes you “muscle bound” Fat can be convertedFat can be converted into muscleinto muscle Extra muscle turns to fat if not usedExtra muscle turns to fat if not used Has masculinizing effect on womenHas masculinizing effect on women
    • 20. 2020Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts inConcepts in Resistance TrainingResistance Training "The pump”"The pump” Strength gainStrength gain Muscle fatigueMuscle fatigue Muscle sorenessMuscle soreness Tone?Tone? Click for information on aClick for information on a potential cause ofpotential cause of muscle sorenessmuscle soreness
    • 21. 2121Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Click for more info on each topicClick for more info on each topic Developing aDeveloping a Resistance Training ProgramResistance Training Program Set goalsSet goals Type of programType of program Choice ofChoice of equipmentequipment Muscle groupsMuscle groups Order of exercisesOrder of exercises Format for setsFormat for sets My ProgramMy Program Lab 10c/10d InfoLab 10c/10d Info
    • 22. 2222Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Web ResourcesWeb Resources ““On the Web” pages for ConceptOn the Web” pages for Concept Online Learning CenterOnline Learning Center
    • 23. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e 2323 Supplemental GraphicsSupplemental Graphics Lab InformationLab Information Additional DetailsAdditional Details and Graphics onand Graphics on Muscle PhysiologyMuscle Physiology
    • 24. 2424Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Lab 10a InformationLab 10a Information Evaluating Muscular Strength (1 RM)Evaluating Muscular Strength (1 RM) Find bench press and leg pressFind bench press and leg press stationsstations Choose a weight that you can lift lessChoose a weight that you can lift less than 10 times before fatiguing. Recordthan 10 times before fatiguing. Record the exact numberthe exact number Use chart to estimate 1 RM based onUse chart to estimate 1 RM based on weight and reps to fatigueweight and reps to fatigue Compute relative strength andCompute relative strength and complete rating chartcomplete rating chart Return toReturn to presentationpresentation
    • 25. 2525Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Lab 10b InformationLab 10b Information Evaluating Muscular EnduranceEvaluating Muscular Endurance Perform push-up, pull-up and flexed-Perform push-up, pull-up and flexed- arm hang exercises - record repetitionsarm hang exercises - record repetitions or timeor time (flexed-arm hang)(flexed-arm hang).. Make ratings and describe resultsMake ratings and describe results based on how you scored and how youbased on how you scored and how you thought you would scorethought you would score Return toReturn to presentationpresentation
    • 26. 2626Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Lab 10c-d InformationLab 10c-d Information Planning and Logging Your ProgramPlanning and Logging Your Program Choose exercises that work the majorChoose exercises that work the major muscle groups of the body from any ofmuscle groups of the body from any of the “Basic 8 Exercises”.the “Basic 8 Exercises”.  Lab 10c: machine / free weightLab 10c: machine / free weight  Lab 10d: calisthenics / isometricsLab 10d: calisthenics / isometrics Plan days to do exercises for 1 weekPlan days to do exercises for 1 week Monitor progress using log sheet andMonitor progress using log sheet and describe experiencesdescribe experiences Return toReturn to presentationpresentation
    • 27. 2727Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscle Fiber TypesMuscle Fiber Types Return toReturn to presentationpresentation Fast Twitch FibersFast Twitch Fibers  Stain light in colorStain light in color  More anaerobicMore anaerobic  Suited to strength andSuited to strength and speed activityspeed activity Slow Twitch FibersSlow Twitch Fibers  Stain darkStain dark  More aerobicMore aerobic  Suited to enduranceSuited to endurance activityactivity Web10-2Web10-2
    • 28. 2828Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Sample CalculationSample Calculation Question: Who’s stronger:Question: Who’s stronger:  A: 250 pound person who can lift 200 poundsA: 250 pound person who can lift 200 pounds  B: 150 pound person who can lift 175 poundsB: 150 pound person who can lift 175 pounds Answer: BAnswer: B  A: relative strength = 200/250 = .80A: relative strength = 200/250 = .80  B: relative strength = 175/150 = 1.17B: relative strength = 175/150 = 1.17
    • 29. 2929Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e The amount of weight lifted relative toThe amount of weight lifted relative to the person's body weightthe person's body weight Measured as a ratio:Measured as a ratio: Relative Strength =Relative Strength = weight lifted (lb.)weight lifted (lb.) body weight (lb.)body weight (lb.) Relative StrengthRelative Strength
    • 30. 3030Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Structural DamageStructural Damage in Muscle Fibersin Muscle Fibers Return toReturn to presentationpresentation The vertical lines areThe vertical lines are the “z - lines” thatthe “z - lines” that define the boundariesdefine the boundaries of the muscleof the muscle sarcomeresarcomere Microscopic damageMicroscopic damage can lead to disruptioncan lead to disruption of the z-lines andof the z-lines and contribute to sorenesscontribute to soreness
    • 31. 3131Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Physiology of MuscularPhysiology of Muscular ContractionsContractions Origin / InsertionOrigin / Insertion  A muscle producesA muscle produces movement due tomovement due to the fact that itthe fact that it crosses a joint.crosses a joint. See next slide to seeSee next slide to see how a muscle canhow a muscle can physiologically shorten.physiologically shorten.
    • 32. 3232Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Sliding Filament TheorySliding Filament Theory Actin/MyosinActin/Myosin  Protein filamentsProtein filaments within a musclewithin a muscle fiber that slidefiber that slide across eachacross each other toother to physiologicallyphysiologically shorten the fiber.shorten the fiber. Web10-1Web10-1
    • 33. MusclesMuscles Work inWork in PairsPairs While oneWhile one musclemuscle contracts andcontracts and shortens theshortens the opposingopposing muscle groupmuscle group relaxes andrelaxes and lengthenslengthens
    • 34. 3434Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscle Fibers are GroupedMuscle Fibers are Grouped into Motor Unitsinto Motor Units A motorA motor unit refersunit refers to a motorto a motor nerve andnerve and the numberthe number of muscleof muscle fibers that itfibers that it innervatesinnervates
    • 35. 3535Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Regulation of Muscle ForceRegulation of Muscle Force (Tetany)(Tetany) When recruited atWhen recruited at a high frequency,a high frequency, motor unitsmotor units produce aproduce a constant level ofconstant level of force as theforce as the individual forcesindividual forces sum together.sum together.
    • 36. 3636Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e The “The “All or None”All or None” Law ofLaw of Muscular ContractionsMuscular Contractions When a motor unit is stimulated, itWhen a motor unit is stimulated, it “fires” at 100% of its optimal potential,“fires” at 100% of its optimal potential, or it does not fire at all.or it does not fire at all. Light loads use few fibersLight loads use few fibers (but at 100%)(but at 100%) Heavy loads use many fibersHeavy loads use many fibers (also at 100%)(also at 100%) Return toReturn to presentationpresentation
    • 37. 3737Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Setting GoalsSetting Goals SpecificSpecific ChallengingChallenging AttainableAttainable Goals provide motivationGoals provide motivation and a sense of purposeand a sense of purpose Return toReturn to presentationpresentation
    • 38. 3838Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Type of ProgramType of Program Muscular strengthMuscular strength Muscular enduranceMuscular endurance General muscular fitnessGeneral muscular fitness The guidelines vary depending on theThe guidelines vary depending on the type of program that is desired.type of program that is desired. Return toReturn to presentationpresentation
    • 39. 3939Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscle GroupsMuscle Groups Sport specific trainingSport specific training Overall muscle balanceOverall muscle balance Most resistance training programs shouldMost resistance training programs should include exercises for all major muscle groups.include exercises for all major muscle groups. Return toReturn to presentationpresentation
    • 40. 4040Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Order of ExerciseOrder of Exercise Large muscle groups firstLarge muscle groups first Small muscle groups first (pre-exhaust)Small muscle groups first (pre-exhaust) There are many different ways toThere are many different ways to order exercises within a workout.order exercises within a workout. Return toReturn to presentationpresentation See Web10-09 for informationSee Web10-09 for information on different training systemson different training systems
    • 41. 4141Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Format for SetsFormat for Sets Single setsSingle sets Multiple setsMultiple sets  heavy to light (Oxford system)heavy to light (Oxford system)  light to heavy (DeLorme system)light to heavy (DeLorme system) Circuit TrainingCircuit Training There are many different ways toThere are many different ways to format sets within a workout.format sets within a workout. Return toReturn to presentationpresentation
    • 42. 4242Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Types of ContractionsTypes of Contractions Concentric vs. EccentricConcentric vs. Eccentric Concentric (shortening)(shortening) LIFTING Concentric LIFTING Eccentric (lengthening)(lengthening) LOWERING Eccentric LOWERING Both phases can build muscle!Both phases can build muscle! Return toReturn to presentationpresentation

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