18th century


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  • The French Court continued as center of fashion during the reigns of Louis XV and XVI.
  • Settlement in the British colonies in the New World continued. Colonists in British lands in American grew restive under British rule and by the latter part of the century they revolted and declared their independence, establishing the United States of America.
  • The British Empire, circa 1815 Trade with the Far East brought Asian textiles to Europe, providing luxurious silks and printed cottons for fashionable garments.
  • In Europe and America the Industrial Revolution made possible the production of a wide range of domestic textiles.
  • Fashion changes for men in the 18th century were not extreme
  • Toward the beginning of the century, men wore white shirts with a ruffled frill at the front under vests that were sleeved or sleeveless. The vest was only a little shorter than the outer coat, which had become wider. Coat cuffs were wide. Breeches reached to the knee.
  • Throughout the century, coats for formal wear were lavishly embroidered or made of luxurious silks.
  • If the coat, vest, and breeches were made of the same fabric, the suit was know as a ditto suit .
  • For less formal occasions, a frock coat, which was a more casual coat with a flat, turned down collar and a looser fit, might be worn.
  • By the second half of the century, vests had grown shorter, breeches were more closely fitted, and the jacket had narrowed and curved back, away from the front below the waistline. Both frock coats and more formal coats continue to be worn.
  • Loose colorful dressing gowns called banyans were worn at home and also on the street. When relaxing, men might take off their wigs and wear an embroidered nightcap.
  • Skirts became less round and were wider from side to side. Gowns fitted in the back were called à l’Anglaise and those with full unfitted pleats at the shoulder back and fitted fronts were know as robes à la Française.
  • Gowns generally had square necklines. Many had a “v” shaped insert at the front, that was called a stomacher, was often highly ornamented with embroidery, lace, and ribbon. Full skirts were generally slit in front and worn over a petticoat of matching or contrasting fabric.
  • To cover hair outdoors
  • Except for formal dress where it still appeared, the exceptionally wide robe à la Française was replaced by a dress with skirts held out by a pad, and skirts were looped up in puffs to form “ polonaise .”
  • Hairstyles grow enormous by 1770s, and get lampooned in cartoons
  • Expensive soft cotton muslins from India were made into a dress cut similarly to a chemise.
  • Fullness in the skirt gradually shifted to the back and the bodice front took on a puffed appearance as soft scarves were tucked into necklines.
  • Working class women, slaves and the poor wore petticoats with straight, unfitted, washable tops called shortgowns .
  • Philosophers suggested practical, comfortable clothing for children were better for their health and development.
  • 18th century

    1. 1. The 18th CenturyIf it ain’t Baroque, don’t fix it.
    2. 2. Keeping UpAppearancesBritish DandiesMacaroni’sItalian Influence
    3. 3. British ColoniesCivil UnrestEventually declareindependenceAt war on two fronts
    4. 4. 6Arkwright’s SpinningMachineHargreaves Spinning JennyX
    5. 5. 1700 - 17501750 - 1800
    6. 6. 1700 - 1750White shirts with ruffled frillVests that were sleeved or sleevelessVest shorter than outer coatOuter coat widerCoat cuffs wideKnee length breeches1700 - 1750
    7. 7. Throughout CenturyFormal coats have lavish embroideryMade from silk
    8. 8. The Ditto SuitCoat, vest (waistcoat), breeches allsame fabric
    9. 9. Less Formal AttireFrock coatCasualFlat, turned down collar,Looser fit
    10. 10. 1750-180018001800Shorter VestsClosely fitted breechesNarrower jacketCutaway/curved front belowwaistlineBefore 1750 After 1750
    11. 11. 13XX
    12. 12. PocketbookWigsShoes with Gold BucklesThree-Cornered HatImportant Accessories
    13. 13. Lingering Styles17th century styles stick arounduntil 1720.
    14. 14. Women’s Undergarments
    15. 15. Women’s UndergarmentsChemiseStays (corset)Under petticoatHoop
    16. 16. Style Changes1715 - 1730 1730 - 17601760 - 1790
    17. 17. 1715 - 1730WideUnfitted1715 - 1730
    18. 18. 1715 - 1730Simple hairstyles
    19. 19. 1730 - 1760Skirts less roundWider side to sideFitted in back: à l’AnglaiseFull, unfitted pleats at shoulderback: à la Françaiseà l’Anglaise à la Française
    20. 20. 1730 - 1760Square necklines“V” shaped insert at frontStomacherHighly ornamentedFull skirts with slit in frontWorn over matching/contrastingpetticoat
    21. 21. Calash
    22. 22. 1760 - 1790Formal Court attire stays sameStyle changes to a dress with skirtsheld out by a padSkirts looped up in puffs to form a“polonaise”1760 - 1790
    23. 23. 1760 - 1790Polonaise is popularCotton from IndiaDress cut similarly to a chemise
    24. 24. 1760 - 1790Fullness in skirt shifts to backBodice front looks “puffed”Soft scarves tucked into necklinesFichu
    25. 25. Working Class WomenShortgownsPetticoatsStraight, unfitted, washable tops
    26. 26. Outerwear
    27. 27. ChildrenPhilosophers suggestedPracticalComfortableFor health and development
    28. 28. 32© 2006 Fairchild Publications, Inc.C H A P T E R T E NTHE EIGHTEENTH CENTURYc. 1700 - 1800For Further StudyActual Costumes Of This Periodhttp://www.kipar.org/baroque-costumes/extant-costumes.htmlhttp://www.marquise.de/en/1700/nbg/index.shtmlhttp://www.brooksmuseum.org/public/exhibitions/default.asp?id=10000170http://www.manchestergalleries.org/costume/narrative.php?irn=80&QueryPage=index.php&themeback=1http://www.metmuseum.org/special/Dangerous_Liaisons/fashion_images.htmhttp://dept.kent.edu/museum/costume/bonc/3timesearch/tseighteenth/1700-1799.htmlArt Of The 18th Century Depicting Costumehttp://www.marquise.de/en/1700/index.shtmlhttp://mauritia.de/en/rococo/rococo_costumes.htmlhttp://www.costumes.org/classes/fashiondress/18thCent.htmhttp://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTH18thcentury.htmlSpecific Items Of Costumehttp://www.lecurieux.com/eca1.htmhttp://www.spnea.org/NEHM/NEWWSpringPage04.htmhttp://www.northampton.gov.uk/museums/Collections/Boot_and_Shoe/History_of_Shoes/18th_Century.htmhttp://www.costumes.org/history/100pages/BANYAN.HTM
    29. 29. 33© 2006 Fairchild Publications, Inc.C H A P T E R T E NTHE EIGHTEENTH CENTURYc. 1700 - 1800For Further StudyAfrican American Clothinghttp://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/aa_cover.cfmAdditional Information About Costume Of This Periodhttp://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/clothing.cfmBooks With Drawings Showing Construction Of Historic ClothingArnold, J. 1977. Patterns of Fashion. Vol. 1: 1660-1860. Vol. 2: 1860-1940. New York: Drama Book Specialists.Waugh, N. 1991. The Cut of Mens Clothes, 1600-1900. New York: Theater Arts Books.
    30. 30. 34© 2006 Fairchild Publications, Inc.C H A P T E R T E NTHE EIGHTEENTH CENTURYc. 1700 - 1800Image CreditsImage of British Macaroni, courtesy of New York Public Library Digital Images Collection.Image of Calico Printer, courtesy of New York Public Library Digital Images Collection.Image of Men at a Table, courtesy of New York Public Library Digital Images Collection, Joshua Reynolds Portrait.Photo of Panier, used courtesy of [ www.farthingales.on.ca ].Various images used courtesy of [ www.trousseau.net ].Various images used courtesy of [ www.vintagetextile.com ].Image of Woman in Calash used courtesy of the New York Digital Image Collection.Images of British Cartoons used courtesy of the New York Digital Image Collection.Image of Woman in Cloak used courtesy of the New York Digital Image Collection.Image of 18th Century Pocket used courtesy of [ www.historywired.si.edu ].Various images used courtesy of [ www.manchestergalleries.org ].Various images used courtesy of Dover Publications.Various images in this chapter are courtesy of [www.clipart.com]; [ www.photos.com ];Fairchild Publications, Inc.; and Fairchild Library.