is an organism with the ability to cause
diseases. The greater the organism's
virulence (ability to grow and multiply),
invasiveness (ability to enter tissues), and
pathogenicity (ability to cause diseases),
the greater the possibility that the
organism will cause an infection.
Infectious agents are bacteria, virus,
fungi, protozoa, and parasitic worms
is a place within which microorganisms
can thrive and reproduce. For example,
microorganisms thrive in human beings,
animals, and In animate objects such as
water, table tops, and doorknobs.
The most common reservoir is the human
provides a way for a microorganism to
leave the reservoir. For example, the
microorganism may leave the reservoir
through the nose or mouth when
someone sneezes or coughs.
Microorganisms, carried away from the
body by feces, may also leave the
reservoir through an infected bowel.
in the mode of transmission, is the
method by which the organism moves
from one host to another. The mode of
transmission are contact, droplet, airborne, food-borne/water-borne, Vectorborne (usually insect).
an opening allowing the microorganism
to enter the host. This includes body
orifices, mucus membranes, or breaks in
Tubes placed in body cavities, such as
urinary catheters, or from punctures
produced by invasive procedures such
as intravenous fluid replacement can
also serve as portal of entry.
a person who cannot resist a
microorganism in vading the body due
to immunity of physical resistance to
overcome the invasion by the
(1) P________________ is a disease-causing
organism which includes bacteria, virus,
parasitic worm, protozoa, and fungi and lives
in the ( 2 ) R________________ which can be a
living or non-living object. In order to be
transmitted, the pathogen leaves the reservoir
through the (3) P_______ of E_____.Examples
include the mouth, nose, anus, and other
special body openings. The pathogen is then
passed through a direct or indirect.
(4) M_____of T____________ from one host to the
next host. It is transmitted through a living vector
like a mosquito or flea. Some diseases like
malaria have complicated life cycles involving
more than one species. Some are transmitted by
respiratory droplets, while others are through
blood contact, semen, or other secretions.
Hand-to-mouth is a common mode for
gastrointestinal pathogens. The organism enters
the body through the (5) P__________ o_f_
E______. Such as the nose, skin, or mouth. The
portal of entry determines the type of personal
protective equipment (PPE) to use to keep
health care workers, family, and visitors safe in
the hospital. The ( 6) S________H_____ is a person
with low immunity to disease. This includes the
very old, and the immune suppressed (due to
genetics, transplant drugs, malnutrition, or viral
infection like HIV).
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