The Open Índex
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The Open Índex

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An argument for the application of open data norms to international indices in development and human rights.

An argument for the application of open data norms to international indices in development and human rights.

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  • 3 trends2 questions
  • CITATION
  • Find academic source fr levels of local accountability
  • Insert picture on pg 14 of harnessing
  • Indaba—online platform for collaborative data gathering and publishing. Tailored for governance dataSwift River—filtering and verification api for data streamsOpen Data Kit—open source software for cloud and app-based data collectionTxtEagle—mobile based data entry and compensation
  • Scopeof data presented (geographic and thematic), North/South network position (headquarters location, use of local teams, degree of engagement with country-level actors in designing methodologies and analyzing data),the type ofdata (whether they constructed comparative indices, use of qualitative and quantitative data, use of objective or subjective source data), online accessibility of the data (whether data was freely available for data, and whether it was possible to analyse the data online) and, the degree of digital media engagement (whether social media were employed and to what degree this engendered actual communication with country-level actors).
  • Much less when meaningful
  • Rights-focused: slightly less digital media useLocal Partners: slightly better job of actual media engagement than other typesLocal engage: significantly worse on all countsIndexes: slightly better at providing online analysis, slightly worse at digital media useThose that did everything little right (download, analysis, digital engagement) were : Commitment to Development Index, Eurobarometer, Global Corruption Barometer, Global Hunger Index, Global Competitiveness Index,Human Development Report, Media Map.In fact, there did not even appear to be a correlation between local engagement and local partnership. Only 16% of data sources with local partners constitutively engaged country-level actors, and only 41% of data sources that consitutively engaged country-level actors also had local partners.
  • What consequences for transnational networks and knowledge exhcange?Is there an ideological bias?
  • Open DataCompleteAccessible, non-discriminatory and Machine ReadableLicensed open and non-proprietaryOpen Methods Statistical methods clearly described in an style suitable for academic publicationCollection methods are clearly described and explained, including selection of data sources and Primary data documentation, including links to original sourcesAccess to code sheets and quantitative, expert reportsOpen organisationExhaustive list of all organizations or individuals involved in data collection and analysisFunding sources
  • Much world Bank data was accessible before. But when they opened it up, use tripled in 6 months.

The Open Índex The Open Índex Presentation Transcript

  • Ideology,Technologyand the Open Index:
    standards for actionable data across borders
  • Trend 1: The Move to Measure
    Dramatic proliferation of initiatives to measure human rights and development in recent decades
    Including:
    Donor assessments
    International Initiatives
    Country and local initiatives
  • 90
    88
    86
    84
    96
    98
    00
    02
    04
    92
    94
    06
    78
    76
    1974
    08
    80
    International data sources on country-level governance
    (adapted from UNDP Oslo Governance Centre)
    Global Accountability Report
    Indicators of Local Democratic Governance
    Institutional Profiles Database
    World Governance Assessment
    Democracy Index
    Human Rights Indicators
    World Democracy Audit
    Gender Empowerment Measure
    Weberian Comparative State Project
    Failed States Index
    State Failure Dataset
    Civil Society Index
    Countries at the Crossroads
    Women in Parliament
    Press Freedom Index
    Index of Economic Freedom
    Index of Human Rights
    CIRI Human Rights Databse
    Political Terror Scale
    Open Budget Index
    Global Corruption Barometer
    Commitment to Development
    Index of Democracy
    Rule of Law Index
    Global Competitiveness Index
    Journalists killed
    Governance Matters
    Integrity Index
    Economic Freedom of the World
    Bertelsmann Transformation Index
    Global Peace Index
    Polity
    BEEPS
    International Country Risk Guide
    CPIA
    Governance and Democracy Processes
    World Values Survey
    Opacity Index
    Press Freedom Survey
    Corruption Perceptions Index
    Freedom in the World
    Bribe Payers Index
    GAPS in Workers’ Rights
    82
  • Common Measurement Objectives
    To better understand
    To impact international policy processes
    To impact country level practice
    The great divide:country-led or comparative
  • Trend 2: The Rise of Technology
    • ICT for development
    • Social Media for Organisations
  • Data in the digital age
    Survey tools
    Local data online
    Transnational networks
    Open gov’t
    Citizen-generated data
    Digital dissemination
    Populist Technologies
    International Digital Media
  • Trend 3: Transnational Information Ecologies
    Especially:
    Social and political mobilization
    Knowledge exchange and capacity development
  • Trend intersection (Measurement - Technology – Globalization)
    Cross country technologies for data collection
    • Indaba
    • Swift River
    • Open Data Kit
    • TxtEagle
    Cross country technology for data dissemination
    • The internet
  • Bridging the Divide? (Measurement - Technology – Globalization)
    Have the rise of new technologies and transnational communication flows supported increased connectivity and knowledge exchange between national and international actors collecting and mobilizing data on human rights and development?
    Local actors appear to be reaching out, but very difficult to quantify
    It is possile to evaluate whether international actors are reaching out.
  • 90
    88
    86
    84
    96
    98
    00
    02
    04
    92
    94
    06
    78
    76
    1974
    08
    80
    Global Accountability Report
    Indicators of Local Democratic Governance
    Institutional Profiles Database
    World Governance Assessment
    Democracy Index
    Human Rights Indicators
    World Democracy Audit
    Gender Empowerment Measure
    Weberian Comparative State Project
    Failed States Index
    State Failure Dataset
    Civil Society Index
    Countries at the Crossroads
    Women in Parliament
    Press Freedom Index
    Index of Economic Freedom
    Index of Human Rights
    CIRI Human Rights Databse
    Political Terror Scale
    Open Budget Index
    Global Corruption Barometer
    Commitment to Development
    Index of Democracy
    Rule of Law Index
    Global Competitiveness Index
    Journalists killed
    Governance Matters
    Integrity Index
    Economic Freedom of the World
    Bertelsmann Transformation Index
    Global Peace Index
    Polity
    BEEPS
    International Country Risk Guide
    CPIA
    Governance and Democracy Processes
    World Values Survey
    Opacity Index
    Press Freedom Survey
    Corruption Perceptions Index
    Freedom in the World
    Bribe Payers Index
    GAPS in Workers’ Rights
    82
  • 49 Global Sources for National Data on Development and Human Rights
    Online presence
    Measuring the relationship between states and citizens (Social Contract Data)
    Presenting data on multiple countries
    Current data (at least from 2008)
  • Global Sources were coded for:
    Scopeof data(geographic and thematic),
    North/South network position
    Types ofdata(comparative, quantitative, sources)
    online accessibility
    degree of digital mediaengagement
    HYPTOTHESIS: a correlation between country-level engagement and digital engagement
  • Showed little engagement,
    1/2 –made data available for download
    1/3 –online analysis
    1/4 –used social media
    1/5 –actual digital engagement
  • with no obvious correlations.
  • Why are global data sources not geting wired?
    Different measurement objectives
    Path dependency
    A natural uptake
  • Costs, opportunities and tradeoffs
    Costs
    investment in technical capacities
    human resources
    software development
    institutional costs
    Opportunities
    Implementation costs
    Better data
    contextualized
    real-time
    validated
    Engagement
    Local actionability
    Perennial Trade-offs
    Comparative data vs contextualized data
    International vs national discourse
  • But…
  • ..even for comparative ranking advocates who do NOT wish to
    substantively engage with national actors,
    adjustmethodologies to reflect lived realities, or
    expendresources on technology adaption,
    There is always….
  • The Open Index: a minimal approach to digital engagement
    Open Data
    Complete
    Non-discriminatory & Machine Readable
    Licensed open & non-proprietary
    Open Methods
    Statistical methods (as suitable for academic pub)
    Collection methods (including source selection)
    Primary data documentation & links to original sources
    Code sheets & background reports
    Open organisation
    All organizations involved in collection & analysis
    Funding sources
  • Open Data is Used Data
  • Registers of Actionability
    Data may be locally actionable for
    Policy
    Advocacy
    Research
  • The Cost of Closed
    Political and social capital for local actors
    Opportunity cost for capacities and knowledge
    A widening divide
  • Presentation and international data source spreadsheet
    avalable at:
    http://www.engineroom.no/data-sheets/