Evolution on your
dinner plate?
Malin Pinsky
Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources
Institute of Marine and Coastal Sci...
The raw material for evolution
DNA
The raw material for evolution
DNA
The raw material for evolution
DNA

from
Mother
from
Father
Parts of the genome

Gene or locus
Parts of the genome

Allele
Source of variation
• Mutations
Source of variation
• Mutations

• Germ line copy passed to offspring
Oh cruel herb of soap,
Bane of burritos worldwide,
The slayer of taste.
from ihatecilantro.com
OR6A2 gene

Eriksson et al. 2012 Flavour

People with two
“soapy” alleles
more likely than
others (15% vs.
10%) to dislike...
Population
Population
Population
Population

• Allele frequencies
–  50% blue
–  50% red
Phenotype: running speed

Fast
Slow
Phenotype: running speed

Fast
Slow

Moderate
Population

• Fitness: ability to pass genes on to
future generations
Population

• Fitness: ability to pass genes on to
future generations
Population

• Fitness: ability to pass genes on to
future generations
Population
33% blue
67% red

• Fitness: ability to pass genes on to
future generations
Evolution
1.  Heritable variation
Evolution
1.  Heritable variation
2.  More offspring than can survive
Evolution
1.  Heritable variation
2.  More offspring than can survive
3.  Offspring vary in ability to survive
and reprodu...
Bighorn sheep

Coltman et al. 2003 Nature
tness than rams of lower breeding value
he average horn length observed in the
clined (Figure Ib). Unrestricted harvesting...
Fisheries effects

1957
Fisheries effects

1957

2007
Importance of diversity in populations
Importance of diversity in populations
• Raw material for
evolution
Importance of diversity in populations
• Raw material for
evolution
• “Insurance policy”
Importance of diversity in populations
• Raw material for
evolution
• “Insurance policy”
• Avoid inbreeding
Measuring molecular diversity
• Number of alleles
Measuring molecular diversity
• Number of alleles
• Heterozygosity
–  probability of picking two different alleles
Genetic bottlenecks

Alleles:
3
Heterozygosity: 60%
Genetic bottlenecks

Alleles:
3
Heterozygosity: 60%

Alleles:
2
Heterozygosity: 40%
Bottleneck examples

Robert Schwemmer

Northern elephant seal

Florida panther
Can fisheries cause bottlenecks?

Purse seiner for salmon

Tuna, billfishes, swordfish
Myers & Worm 2003 Nature
Can fisheries cause bottlenecks?

Collapsed
populations still
abundant!
A few examples?
New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus)

Number of alleles (Ā)

after Hauser et al. 2002 PNAS

12
11
10
9
8
7...
A few examples?
New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus)

Number of alleles (Ā)

after Hauser et al. 2002 PNAS

12

Also:
–  A...
A few examples?
New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus)

Number of alleles (Ā)

after Hauser et al. 2002 PNAS

12

Also:
–  A...
Data

0.x

176

20j.14

.0
009

1.2

910

e
tiv
uc us),
rod stin
ep my
dr
an tes
ion ebas
t
S
bu
tri sh (
fi
dis
al rock ia...
Data

0.x

176

20j.14

.0
009

1.2

910

e
tiv
uc us),
rod stin
ep my
dr
an tes
ion ebas
t
S
bu
tri sh (
fi
dis
al rock ia...
Data

0.x

176

20j.14

e
tiv
uc us),
rod stin
ep my
dr
an tes
ion ebas
t
S
bu
tri sh (
fi
dis
al rock ial
ic
t
ph lue
en
g...
Paired comparisons
Overfished
populations

Healthy species
and population
in same genus
or family

Pinsky et al. 2014 Mole...
Paired comparisons
Overfished
populations

Healthy species
and population
in same genus
or family

Pinsky et al. 2014 Mole...
Paired comparisons
A = 16
He = 0.7

A = 12
He = 0.8

Pinsky et al. 2014 Molecular Ecology

New Zealand
snapper

Other Pagr...
Paired comparisons
overfished vs. control

n = 12

A50 = 10.2
A = 10.2
He =50A = 10.2
0.736
He =50A = 10.2
0.736
He =50A =...
Cynoscion
Drum

●

Scombridae
Tunas

●

Flounders
Pleuronectidae

●

Seabream
Pagrus

●

Herrings
Clupeidae

●

Turbots
Sc...
Cynoscion
Drum

●

Scombridae
Tunas

●

Flounders
Pleuronectidae

●

Seabream
Pagrus

●

Herrings
Clupeidae

●

Turbots
Sc...
Cynoscion
Drum

●

Scombridae
Tunas

●

Flounders
Pleuronectidae

●

Seabream
Pagrus

●

Herrings
Clupeidae

●

Turbots
Sc...
Cynoscion
Drum

●

Scombridae
Tunas

●

Flounders
Pleuronectidae

●

Seabream
Pagrus

●

Herrings
Clupeidae

●

Turbots
Sc...
Cynoscion
Drum

●

Scombridae
Tunas

●

Flounders
Pleuronectidae

●

Seabream
Pagrus

●

Herrings
Clupeidae

●

Turbots
Sc...
Cynoscion
Drum

●

Scombridae
Tunas

●

Flounders
Pleuronectidae

●

Seabream
Pagrus

9 of 12 groups
have lower
diversity ...
Cynoscion
Drum

●

Scombridae
Tunas

●

Flounders
Pleuronectidae

●

Seabream
Pagrus

●

Herrings
Clupeidae

●

Turbots
Sc...
Findings
• Weak bottleneck now
Findings
• Weak bottleneck now
• Impacts likely started ~1950s: rapid!
Findings
• Weak bottleneck now
• Impacts likely started ~1950s: rapid!
• Becoming stronger with time
Findings
• Weak bottleneck now
• Impacts likely started ~1950s: rapid!
• Becoming stronger with time
• Lower ability to ad...
Summary
• Genetic diversity provides the raw
material for evolution
Summary
• Genetic diversity provides the raw
material for evolution
• Evolution is happening all around us
Summary
• Genetic diversity provides the raw
material for evolution
• Evolution is happening all around us
• Humans can in...
Evolution & Fisheries: A Relationship?: Dr. Malin Pinsky
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Evolution & Fisheries: A Relationship?: Dr. Malin Pinsky

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Dr. Malin Pinsky, Rutgers University, presented on his work with respect to the impacts of overfishing on genetic diversity in fishes at the January 9, 2014 STEM Educators' Series.

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Evolution & Fisheries: A Relationship?: Dr. Malin Pinsky

  1. 1. Evolution on your dinner plate? Malin Pinsky Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University
  2. 2. The raw material for evolution DNA
  3. 3. The raw material for evolution DNA
  4. 4. The raw material for evolution DNA from Mother from Father
  5. 5. Parts of the genome Gene or locus
  6. 6. Parts of the genome Allele
  7. 7. Source of variation • Mutations
  8. 8. Source of variation • Mutations • Germ line copy passed to offspring
  9. 9. Oh cruel herb of soap, Bane of burritos worldwide, The slayer of taste. from ihatecilantro.com
  10. 10. OR6A2 gene Eriksson et al. 2012 Flavour People with two “soapy” alleles more likely than others (15% vs. 10%) to dislike cilantro
  11. 11. Population
  12. 12. Population
  13. 13. Population
  14. 14. Population • Allele frequencies –  50% blue –  50% red
  15. 15. Phenotype: running speed Fast Slow
  16. 16. Phenotype: running speed Fast Slow Moderate
  17. 17. Population • Fitness: ability to pass genes on to future generations
  18. 18. Population • Fitness: ability to pass genes on to future generations
  19. 19. Population • Fitness: ability to pass genes on to future generations
  20. 20. Population 33% blue 67% red • Fitness: ability to pass genes on to future generations
  21. 21. Evolution 1.  Heritable variation
  22. 22. Evolution 1.  Heritable variation 2.  More offspring than can survive
  23. 23. Evolution 1.  Heritable variation 2.  More offspring than can survive 3.  Offspring vary in ability to survive and reproduce
  24. 24. Bighorn sheep Coltman et al. 2003 Nature
  25. 25. tness than rams of lower breeding value he average horn length observed in the clined (Figure Ib). Unrestricted harvesting decline in the trait that determines trophy removing desirable rams of high genetic uctive peak. Bighorn sheep wice the expected deviation of an individual’s tion mean) for horn length of trophy-harvested ountain. Males with greater breeding value are thus tend to have lower fitnessal. 2003 Nature Coltman et than males with Plot of mean (ÆSE) horn length of 4-year-old
  26. 26. Fisheries effects 1957
  27. 27. Fisheries effects 1957 2007
  28. 28. Importance of diversity in populations
  29. 29. Importance of diversity in populations • Raw material for evolution
  30. 30. Importance of diversity in populations • Raw material for evolution • “Insurance policy”
  31. 31. Importance of diversity in populations • Raw material for evolution • “Insurance policy” • Avoid inbreeding
  32. 32. Measuring molecular diversity • Number of alleles
  33. 33. Measuring molecular diversity • Number of alleles • Heterozygosity –  probability of picking two different alleles
  34. 34. Genetic bottlenecks Alleles: 3 Heterozygosity: 60%
  35. 35. Genetic bottlenecks Alleles: 3 Heterozygosity: 60% Alleles: 2 Heterozygosity: 40%
  36. 36. Bottleneck examples Robert Schwemmer Northern elephant seal Florida panther
  37. 37. Can fisheries cause bottlenecks? Purse seiner for salmon Tuna, billfishes, swordfish Myers & Worm 2003 Nature
  38. 38. Can fisheries cause bottlenecks? Collapsed populations still abundant!
  39. 39. A few examples? New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus) Number of alleles (Ā) after Hauser et al. 2002 PNAS 12 11 10 9 8 7 1940 Peter Halasz 1960 1980 2000
  40. 40. A few examples? New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus) Number of alleles (Ā) after Hauser et al. 2002 PNAS 12 Also: –  Atlantic cod –  European plaice 11 10 9 8 7 1940 Peter Halasz 1960 1980 2000
  41. 41. A few examples? New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus) Number of alleles (Ā) after Hauser et al. 2002 PNAS 12 Also: –  Atlantic cod –  European plaice 11 10 But not: 9 8 7 1940 Peter Halasz 1960 1980 2000 –  Atlantic cod –  Bluefin tuna –  Canary rockfish
  42. 42. Data 0.x 176 20j.14 .0 009 1.2 910 e tiv uc us), rod stin ep my dr an tes ion ebas t S bu tri sh ( fi dis al rock ial ic t ph lue en gra of b l pot eo , g ages ersa y A US A, tor ne disp z, C v Cru his ct li h nta t ha , Sa hic istin a hig tha n ruz C ups ciatio rap d anta gro th e ia ia S og n of mic on sp spec wi forn m ali no n ine ha of C io axo De latio fish sity in t ormat exam reef m iver e ge f Un to ocky 3–5 iso arin gy, han l in xa r g iolo exc ritica od ta ow tin d dist yB c D nar etic go shall ge las an am O R volutio sly gen vide are f ta ry / 111 doi: • Microsatellite diversity –  202 studies of 140 species M. BU O. ent artm Dep RF logy co of E and E 10.1 iers s Ab to ill u pro nus) nts o rval s histo revio ou ti a arr ial w s mys habit gic la nary ed p is gr ct eb t la th te rib am tio tra g th oten Sebas ory in a pe volu desc ss in ns s e us at ith n ee ndin l p h ( ce sta persa ckfis migr ific w se th ystin pro specim d a m n n der o is le c Un igh d lue r re no th Pa analy in S. ciatio from revea frequ o h e B r a h eral. hey a n No was t s wit e sp rived ange equal , wi h r t e s gen use easte study neag and t ta de nus r lmost ation hic a t ti a li bec g the f this rent nders lar d . mys ges. A le loc ograp pa o n e S p : u lecu m ex ea alo goal f diff rds to the o lin d sam . A de den o p d Availa ywo of he rns o ation he m d s w cate u T t Ke ble on d s erve age T m re; est; te km he line at t pat infor fish. 1650 for t ally lo e line rience obs ory a ixtu www.s ; t dm ment e loci; e e n a th tr is ciencethis rsal ion tely ibutio t cen een d exp ed th hic h spite directe ; sign atellit tribut p om a n as dis .coxim distr ed a betw ed an ffect grap , de ed dis ros egio r a r mic atch trol r sion; mo lysis iverg app therly ccur lation diverg ich n m n d , de ana o h o mis NA co expa Fition; sherie sou ages ive is eages , w ution netic eages D s Resea m t tion e isola mt rch 89 la line oduc o lin ximu distrib he ge th lin (2008) r t opu uctiv o tw ma tial p b 196–20 d m rep the 9 l pro ion. pa d fro ggest t ia s re iat tha glac The oun s, su c f . spe a last cture ness ystinu are e stru inctiv S. m s in on t l in ly age dis ersa line ere on the p P. Aba ct dis un a, tin d wh ing of dis n M.T. G za ∗, A.G. or rlap a stand ion inti Murta b arc´a r t ı ove unde pecia poten s S. Ma Santamar´ g , N. Cam h ealize our sing ıa , L ttiucc j pbell c hig r .S. Go i , J. M , R. C cau mple, ls of hy t ch rdo h im oll e A. Sa s su rs, exa lev to w ps w njuan e oy k, G. N , S.A. Ive maruta d, A tor h fac arrie e asc rs f .S , A.T. hig ht in grou r a a Santo b etti d, A.L en , K. Ma . Comesacnle eical b in th ct sig omic the Institu in n c e-s ˜ . c s , C. b d to Es Scho n gh o In tim gr ah G es ca a Depar ˜ Stransk Pinto b, R. Q Keny ie ceoAap h,ang. Dahn ft a tax lthou d an a tment ol of Biolog stituto de In panol de O rz , s le of (2009) 10:1969–1972 ve ce ic c A u na y lnC. t Conserv Genet Ecology an al Sciences stiga¸ ao da anograf´a, , Z olutioinrtas,b, g sical. Maacoorla ghou ,ucere h po c ı P.O d Su (Zoo s Pe sid ig o . im a n P hese fgb u u i -9870-8 e ev mette phy . Ramo thro s , ,red tic 240, 39 DOI 10.1007/s10592-009lta stainable Ec logy), The scas e do M Boxucti Facu con a h ing p rmann m f t Uni s 08 Sad ar, Av on n h de de t ne ns , ms s, f Biolox omic Devel versity of rod . Brasiliry 0a ntande wit e las of r g ind r tic tion o latio syste to ge ith Ab ´a, Ed ı opm InL N Institu g Int erdeen, Tira a, 14 w acr, Spis i T E C H N IhC A stitutoO T E te of Marine Re ificio de Cie ent, Tuscia Uempo llydror 00 Lisboat,ePoainina popu arine lead cies w ted sta ence t a Faculta Espanol j ˜ de t on har omb ncias, e tni rt g se Depar Hellenic C m pe y ara UCon versen, Via ecAvenue,cAb ugal n entre d,3de de Cienc Oceanog arch, P.O. evid ares nivers rr ity icS. tment ma hin s e sep also a la r Mar mo ). In fo , ra ı u erde Bo id of Pu Sel a v h Gio AB ec , Massimoblic Health ine Reseias de Lisboa f´a, Avda. 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T s r ith d Lan a,1 Biology w se Croatia b,4 et s r m u ni , Monica l Evolutionary 10 Rovinj,ungsanstal t f¨ r Fische te, Parkm ienza” Uni to ics,cP.O’ 49-016 Li or fe, Spain ia ions ciatio stron flo lation pec t f¨ r Fi ore In of Experimenta for Marine Research, 522 Giulia Riccio rei, In versity e ie . r eli u sc a O R I G I N A L Tinti sto cau 8) , Po s l u dust sp of Roo Box 2214 n sboas, ertugal reg r spe it is ene stitu ter Abstr ; b Departmentd herei, io ani , and Fau P A P E R u f g g pop 00 Ferrara, Italy , Italy; and Institute Cen , Italy) act o Institu t f¨ r Seefi rial Estate ion me, piiat , GR ge0 gica if Guido Barbuj 200 i 01 sche ,tGal entazzale sta 71 lo 3 Ir re ova t f¨ r O igno of Ferrara, 441 t o n y, u st t 9) n, University ova, 35121 Pad rsbiologie, Rov rsit seefisc rei, Palmai ifwer, Irelan ic Aldo coor uctu , Gre n f ay elag t e M or ◦ aklio e o ly effec amo Horse and Evolutio dis itut für Mee versity of Pad ew July 24, 200 ive lle 9, p herei, d en d D-2 mac d for revi of Biology a st n 5, tag ece g ienisches Inst Un of Biology, Uni Alter c Department 200 impr eive s 0018nizin nship ell Department ina/Deutsch-Ital er 1, thus 9 (rec kerel stoc 67 H Hafen ng 27ifferam etic 5 Rom du , Italy;Lif ogia Mar loS¨ 2, d k iden of larval stages orn Board Decemb e, Ita bu , uo D as gene oving the 40126 Bologna Italo-Gee history, en rgpelagic oge relatio ly ell.e rmanico di Biol ,C itytificatio Æ Jung -Youn Park Æ Mi-Jung Kim Æ the Editorial n manag all uto ecology andand accepted by tic m high mortal Suck n w int -180g ngst Germany tic cor to 69 Ro oc hom e (formerly Istit em Hyeent an ity, s and fish wH undd lifeand arkers (a g experimentAn as carr ford, CA, the biogeo 8@ d b ity, Stan no e lo breaks among 15 gra roduction, high fec dist helhist , tagginllozymes ofandreso Æpled out Kil Kim ie x en hk, Germany th mo N lea ford Univers Fer of 14, 15). geneti IO eg ail: h a ct t tr ara Block, Stan ri ur specieserstanding of repphyed instrong Nonetbutioessoryanaits (groEun ,YouneonLee ceKyung with the ai d ctemitochg com 208 UT -m Edited by Barb und of PaciWc roc view 6 n wit ntera of th t OL rd, wth m of ob (re sh, Seb s have vels of clednge ofunexpe ,uctive facdrialsD. The stock id 3; e 48 tor kW unr ge ra n EV changed our dy, urfo –1 338 gre en ta ast le orph ave netic di hors rod reprod ics attha OR cou luatio hav Siva atly fish. In this stu .B 71 59 eticsArjune the ery data analyse es (mbehavioral, and repe mackedynuction and NA, microsate tification w ining manag 14 TY F aO sundar ·ring in marine am a fferenulation rel th 14 Fishery gen ctu Stephen R. Palu nnus thynnus), an ometri ical, 9) v as log al em di of IE 0 83 arth . cs al amics and stru mbi OC (20 ough interplay of eco spatialthand temporand pop tiation, stabin rough 20 s stribution), llite DNA an made by inte ent units th e (ABFT, Thu : M USA x: +1 otolith sam population dyn pa the m 22 AN S nce behavior, , d Bluefin tuna with fa gr at atu di in pl L. os wes rasite res le n e t the Atlantic g online: 7 March d2009 hly migratory PE could affect the 16). stMicishe hemtical tesign s) suppor geneticedrutwo ing localited:in the EU SSCP on /nucl atinedboth es wereespoeani 14853 7586; IO we show tha RO r m exhibiting hig rn . B -f ry , th gu rocd r) unequivocally identifi strycture / Accept 24 Februaun 2009 Publish t th during early ta Corhe NYng 4 l 9 ea ory species se for dispersal large scale (11 th e Iberian Pe mainly based Mediterranfor the paratio2009over the ies in 2009 ea ded HOMSI r DNA), m blishaca,and831fu1 biologic . E V O L0 0 9 E U Received: 19 eFebrua tern yea d oceanic predat B.V. Nor high potential orphom +1 innova Sea ean area Eas n ness young-of-the- ninsula rranean Springer Science+Busiic twMediastudy tim th st Atla al .entit ª 2 J r space and It e “Nor on mor R dite tion size, and Ó erences ove : tive apO R O N ies an coul ant be een th et yearlings (i.e., ntic an project. T e and H large popula sugges th Se Me so to Tel. d nt genetic diff We et e he sam ry, para areas [i.e., thea” ock. uth for thephomstern Atld also d ed activities on TI We compared U T proa lays significa teGulf of plin main spawning Seasthe d that adstMexicose Cape Finistalrics, parasite ofbe mixed w Atlantic Oce high levels of M- iterrelucidating gandTsitesA as oring ches such of such of variation. The ing s monit P I L Aog the effect biol anea life stages, disp co H E large scales orical (n = tion, resuof nat errehom ith the t an and ult teriza ge s ical ta fore, in recent years, the re (NW MediSea. 0 0 9 veL C M 256) and hist the fine and A nt Atlantic popula on th and noehern high e rateke lts imact d Here Spain)and lifedevelopmentlaand charac Med netic variabn stocksor(FAOdOalmost. Theregs, the rt of hors mac report 2 se rratime, both at Received: 15 of contemporary (n = icfrom Sebastesrr wild ility ª H U R N A ac 1993) the w e resu North as (95l co plfor ththe we ; a “w history trai Abstr ie e revi m ke (13)]. Becaus popula ite an re.8% on April 2009 / Acce stern Medite . HO are ho variati nous populations has lts tral ts te loci Se es population sub-st their from pted: 2 Marc -we J mig limited and microsatellite© Springer-Vof ABFTs of the cen h 2010 tury. Measures ) 14 polym on of th bo tern” stoc to ructured nativeorphlf a). Horse m uldand rate th siorphic emicrosatellik, : a “southern” tions. In the ean Sea in stockingseverel showed loindige ofhoowever, impacts upon le m of lts extent of Mexico 3 to samples erlag 2010 along ed w ral ap from viewpoints of conservation ly 20th cen roug the spawning adu findings 3% for to at Gu ometric tion ackeres fr , 17), h di at theseriloci revealth fromstock 23 Northea unda rse m attention pr in the 99) biological cit sugl (11 orphism back to the ear oaches an AB and 99.of di leas e ff om schlegFTPolymat both erent ar es of range e west 0.34is di beensta focus ofac erozygote defi latter dating terranean Sea aspects of entfferent apually matur alysisel. ence the Med riheterozygosity the soutd fromcoast of to stributed al Atlantic, varikerel this species. However, to date little is and s in sex pr t three mai eas fo au nean Sea, the trac tion and a general het hern an for populatio Abs ntia Strong mo E s, both now on ementou llo in © vem th biolog ant geneticn diverg the use of alleles. TheABFT pa ta ere t d 0.31 to genetic population sample more complex 2007 Els e significof oaches show areas: weste observpopsi nian coast is itywrangeedwfrom western uropeand manage West s stocks can ns,and population differentiag from C g th of genetic diff surprisin exist among change over short a single panmicis erences g amo Atlant diversity di ev ing th two rn, cent ra tes as zygos stingu th est co The at ape Fi genetic ic be stocks tions show ier B.V y the spec i.1.00, and the expected heterobi loc known aboutster ng marine spec resent spatial scales ni ra an docu two popula Keyw ) is Two as in th as prev imaltely coast . All (18) ies and ing population ogic found.hed by locitsweree gest that diff ntial. Con s, ABFTs do not rep with high igned to infer ment a wide variety ords and mtDNA righ populationthe horoxe disequibriumolwas al ies pote ago. Thu of (12 : Tr io this re to N Information regard s. re Noapp lis cordant breaks amo Statistics des dispersal linkagare d ea rs tern ing microsatellite of patterns in gene Xow ts reserv0.95.ducing th tic ap suf- stern Med tags, the ho its high grow Northea of usly specie or with tr and 96–80 yea for geogditerranean Sea.ng several species genetic var- that inter action er in size,achurusthe eas , suggest- . (19). Both pe proafrom HWE iterran 0.01). The 14 loci th tionst Atlant defined. R way and and genetic diversity within ed ch is a role the Me raph e ty (P ea rse m of esul ac rate an ure, levels of gene flow s ic in I ed ic barriers to disp t and past signals acke settl ula beha diff indi vidual specieshuru population n. significantly deviater ent the appr trait St tic population fornia, size, both from curren . AlonT the ulations, ementtion vior with e as the western s; s ock id red depleted, consistror in stocother opriate tes In this co andrel popu structhigh ba (i.e. betwee ts also species harvested for comersal of Cali tion such as Sebasway species ntri 12 latio d of as∗ larg envi ronmental are consuch entity; also surveyedmass coas ABF g pop t side were nC in four k identifi tc breaks have not popula ocea 10 times bution, n among hpopulationseltic to iden Corre changes inbiogeographit some Mediterranean seenpotential, might nography can strongly rfishing and factors suchspawniolisticstock bio been as H ng ap cation. diversityyranged we and in the Med fecundity. B provide useful information for ove sponding tif ho etic across the t tha c barrier of Poin Con have proach amplified, where allelic of ite fering from E-mailimpact population structhe rse s ception, merci te purposes can ased loci succe 1970s; levels), iation, sugges raphic ly reduced tin their gen but rt-term estimates tial geog other potenaddres author. Te tinuous s: declinel.: +3 ture. 40% of the ssfully Norindst to monomorphic. These resultmackerel st inalgrated th rranean Sea and management plans. th boun still not severe daries have been survsho with the con ocks, pablo. is 4 94 at polymorphictlantic; older ea i-A stock, au now 22 although We tested for stron aphic declines. The eyed less often shold developing co e furvation is eli thre ab on conse ndamenta Medite agefrom highly in -783 eastern rtalitynza@st of91060; class 8 and g-po the markers can be used for vering ich, 0165the 6/ d from demogr pulation structure minimum . te markers from S. schleg Intr rate .ieo. fax: +3 rranea microsatellite tion Seba straddled on in 11 species etic diver-oduc(wh have suffere stes sampled multip l $ – se Although six microsatelli 20) n Se do high fishing mo 4 . es (P.demonstrate these e across ulation size are le by Yoshida et al. (2005), a set Natur A 19, 94 maintain gen of c genetica;diversity. with the i:10.1016/j.fismofront ingtepredictions (16,baunzaby 2275intra- at the 07 ed al mar dispersal ) indicat ns cont of effective pop barriers, = 500two regioed to aining potentialtions in h hresdel mat r © 2007 ics exhibited ). ABFTs and inter-specifi have been already report ks; Li the study of 2. nean appliand .2007. tion size conducte across several genera For many viduals, and wit fe hist 09.022 marine species, x population dynamElsevier ective popula are needed for various other four additional ry potential d a meta-analysis including diterra (eff or molec larval dispersal B.V in the Me ofy traits ular markers ona species. We show two pedigree of migration The comple nt is a a finer scale All right strong breaks north of evoluti ability, and also apparent at critical part . spawning in differeschlegel Á Rockfish Á population studies to sity and Monterey Bay, span s re Sebastes and cations, from further ning an oceanogr te species canlarge scale is life history diVemovementeen Keywords served. Genetic populations. dramatically aVec ependent rences betw s aphic gradient and gic naturalan upwelling jet. Mod isolated 14 novel microsatelli Á Cross-amplification (15, 21–23). Siz t erate genetic struc structure | large pela tic diVe gene analysis. In this work, we Inve Microsatellites markersat etic Sea es among e-d gene Xow.been documented renc (16). mon in the north represented their evaluation ion size | gen ture is just as comhave latio stigations of ples suggested that and mari s as ulat e popit is in the sout widely used areas and periodne popu ns have been markers from S. schlegeli, h, across the biog DNA | brea rt time d conto gauge levels of three geographical sam graphic effectiv r sho ancient k at Point Concept n in four other relate eodisp nus with larval traits iation among ersal, which oftentscale persist ove and s ion. Gene Xow is var such as pela for cross-species amplificatio higher amothyn rranean Sea, fishes | Thunnu ng tions inhabi gene Stock identi ty of h Atlan tic an orse macke d Med rel (Tr differ iterranean achurus tra ent sto S ck ide ea: Integrati churus) in th ntifica n tion a g the result e Northeas pproa t s from ches genetic ructuring and l population st Atlantic Bluefin tuna ra Spatio-tempo on in depleted ty retenti diversi ranean Sea markers zation of microsatellite of the Mediter Isolation and characteri schlegeli, rockfish Sebastes for the heavily exploited r related Sebastes spp. ies amplification in fou and cross-spec National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration deep-water sp rally n the last B gic duration subpopula astern Medite
  43. 43. Data 0.x 176 20j.14 .0 009 1.2 910 e tiv uc us), rod stin ep my dr an tes ion ebas t S bu tri sh ( fi dis al rock ial ic t ph lue en gra of b l pot eo , g ages ersa y A US A, tor ne disp z, C v Cru his ct li h nta t ha , Sa hic istin a hig tha n ruz C ups ciatio rap d anta gro th e ia ia S og n of mic on sp spec wi forn m ali no n ine ha of C io axo De latio fish sity in t ormat exam reef m iver e ge f Un to ocky 3–5 iso arin gy, han l in xa r g iolo exc ritica od ta ow tin d dist yB c D nar etic go shall ge las an am O R volutio sly gen vide are f ta ry / 111 doi: • Microsatellite diversity –  202 studies of 140 species M. BU O. ent artm Dep RF logy co of E and E 10.1 iers s Ab to ill u pro nus) nts o rval s histo revio ou ti a arr ial w s mys habit gic la nary ed p is gr ct eb t la th te rib am tio tra g th oten Sebas ory in a pe volu desc ss in ns s e us at ith n ee ndin l p h ( ce sta persa ckfis migr ific w se th ystin pro specim d a m n n der o is le c Un igh d lue r re no th Pa analy in S. ciatio from revea frequ o h e B r a h eral. hey a n No was t s wit e sp rived ange equal , wi h r t e s gen use easte study neag and t ta de nus r lmost ation hic a t ti a li bec g the f this rent nders lar d . mys ges. A le loc ograp pa o n e S p : u lecu m ex ea alo goal f diff rds to the o lin d sam . A de den o p d Availa ywo of he rns o ation he m d s w cate u T t Ke ble on d s erve age T m re; est; te km he line at t pat infor fish. 1650 for t ally lo e line rience obs ory a ixtu www.s ; t dm ment e loci; e e n a th tr is ciencethis rsal ion tely ibutio t cen een d exp ed th hic h spite directe ; sign atellit tribut p om a n as dis .coxim distr ed a betw ed an ffect grap , de ed dis ros egio r a r mic atch trol r sion; mo lysis iverg app therly ccur lation diverg ich n m n d , de ana o h o mis NA co expa Fition; sherie sou ages ive is eages , w ution netic eages D s Resea m t tion e isola mt rch 89 la line oduc o lin ximu distrib he ge th lin (2008) r t opu uctiv o tw ma tial p b 196–20 d m rep the 9 l pro ion. pa d fro ggest t ia s re iat tha glac The oun s, su c f . spe a last cture ness ystinu are e stru inctiv S. m s in on t l in ly age dis ersa line ere on the p P. Aba ct dis un a, tin d wh ing of dis n M.T. G za ∗, A.G. or rlap a stand ion inti Murta b arc´a r t ı ove unde pecia poten s S. Ma Santamar´ g , N. Cam h ealize our sing ıa , L ttiucc j pbell c hig r .S. Go i , J. M , R. C cau mple, ls of hy t ch rdo h im oll e A. Sa s su rs, exa lev to w ps w njuan e oy k, G. N , S.A. Ive maruta d, A tor h fac arrie e asc rs f .S , A.T. hig ht in grou r a a Santo b etti d, A.L en , K. Ma . Comesacnle eical b in th ct sig omic the Institu in n c e-s ˜ . c s , C. b d to Es Scho n gh o In tim gr ah G es ca a Depar ˜ Stransk Pinto b, R. Q Keny ie ceoAap h,ang. Dahn ft a tax lthou d an a tment ol of Biolog stituto de In panol de O rz , s le of (2009) 10:1969–1972 ve ce ic c A u na y lnC. t Conserv Genet Ecology an al Sciences stiga¸ ao da anograf´a, , Z olutioinrtas,b, g sical. Maacoorla ghou ,ucere h po c ı P.O d Su (Zoo s Pe sid ig o . im a n P hese fgb u u i -9870-8 e ev mette phy . Ramo thro s , ,red tic 240, 39 DOI 10.1007/s10592-009lta stainable Ec logy), The scas e do M Boxucti Facu con a h ing p rmann m f t Uni s 08 Sad ar, Av on n h de de t ne ns , ms s, f Biolox omic Devel versity of rod . Brasiliry 0a ntande wit e las of r g ind r tic tion o latio syste to ge ith Ab ´a, Ed ı opm InL N Institu g Int erdeen, Tira a, 14 w acr, Spis i T E C H N IhC A stitutoO T E te of Marine Re ificio de Cie ent, Tuscia Uempo llydror 00 Lisboat,ePoainina popu arine lead cies w ted sta ence t a Faculta Espanol j ˜ de t on har omb ncias, e tni rt g se Depar Hellenic C m pe y ara UCon versen, Via ecAvenue,cAb ugal n entre d,3de de Cienc Oceanog arch, P.O. evid ares nivers rr ity icS. tment ma hin s e sep also a la r Mar mo ). In fo , ra ı u erde Bo id of Pu Sel a v h Gio AB ec , Massimoblic Health ine Reseias de Lisboa f´a, Avda. Tres x 1870aNorc adgrdepVigo, tE- orvanni weca en94 24 2T ow wit ar s can axa Oli r-tax , s dn e a b fl n, flo D 19 (I ns arch, , Lorenzo Zan e t es Scienc b Institu O/DBA), Bl de Mayo 73 o , N-5817 ne 0 Viise,ollato, en01 Z,veK Mar Biol ssia Cariani es, Se o em onme Be 3620 v go, Sp g 1, e 10e U n ulatio force rine sist s wit t l d , 3800 e te oc ano , Ale ction Bund ai k of Para of Marine Bi o C-2, Camnvir 5 Sant g rgen(Aorw in n tion 0 Viterbo, tive , m ab , Ilaria Mil ma ough he DOI 10.1007/s0 pop Italy tion in c b,1,2 1419 Bundes esforsch gna, The M ay e po educe a C ge N n si ol Bolo 0227-010-, Giorgia Ferrar -3 fo of di a in Teneris , Universityrsch ungsanstal arine Institu tology, “Sap ogy and Gen Grande, 17 nruz deatio pecia lly if . Sele n in g en w. T s r ith d Lan a,1 Biology w se Croatia b,4 et s r m u ni , Monica l Evolutionary 10 Rovinj,ungsanstal t f¨ r Fische te, Parkm ienza” Uni to ics,cP.O’ 49-016 Li or fe, Spain ia ions ciatio stron flo lation pec t f¨ r Fi ore In of Experimenta for Marine Research, 522 Giulia Riccio rei, In versity e ie . r eli u sc a O R I G I N A L Tinti sto cau 8) , Po s l u dust sp of Roo Box 2214 n sboas, ertugal reg r spe it is ene stitu ter Abstr ; b Departmentd herei, io ani , and Fau P A P E R u f g g pop 00 Ferrara, Italy , Italy; and Institute Cen , Italy) act o Institu t f¨ r Seefi rial Estate ion me, piiat , GR ge0 gica if Guido Barbuj 200 i 01 sche ,tGal entazzale sta 71 lo 3 Ir re ova t f¨ r O igno of Ferrara, 441 t o n y, u st t 9) n, University ova, 35121 Pad rsbiologie, Rov rsit seefisc rei, Palmai ifwer, Irelan ic Aldo coor uctu , Gre n f ay elag t e M or ◦ aklio e o ly effec amo Horse and Evolutio dis itut für Mee versity of Pad ew July 24, 200 ive lle 9, p herei, d en d D-2 mac d for revi of Biology a st n 5, tag ece g ienisches Inst Un of Biology, Uni Alter c Department 200 impr eive s 0018nizin nship ell Department ina/Deutsch-Ital er 1, thus 9 (rec kerel stoc 67 H Hafen ng 27ifferam etic 5 Rom du , Italy;Lif ogia Mar loS¨ 2, d k iden of larval stages orn Board Decemb e, Ita bu , uo D as gene oving the 40126 Bologna Italo-Gee history, en rgpelagic oge relatio ly ell.e rmanico di Biol ,C itytificatio Æ Jung -Youn Park Æ Mi-Jung Kim Æ the Editorial n manag all uto ecology andand accepted by tic m high mortal Suck n w int -180g ngst Germany tic cor to 69 Ro oc hom e (formerly Istit em Hyeent an ity, s and fish wH undd lifeand arkers (a g experimentAn as carr ford, CA, the biogeo 8@ d b ity, Stan no e lo breaks among 15 gra roduction, high fec dist helhist , tagginllozymes ofandreso Æpled out Kil Kim ie x en hk, Germany th mo N lea ford Univers Fer of 14, 15). geneti IO eg ail: h a ct t tr ara Block, Stan ri ur specieserstanding of repphyed instrong Nonetbutioessoryanaits (groEun ,YouneonLee ceKyung with the ai d ctemitochg com 208 UT -m Edited by Barb und of PaciWc roc view 6 n wit ntera of th t OL rd, wth m of ob (re sh, Seb s have vels of clednge ofunexpe ,uctive facdrialsD. The stock id 3; e 48 tor kW unr ge ra n EV changed our dy, urfo –1 338 gre en ta ast le orph ave netic di hors rod reprod ics attha OR cou luatio hav Siva atly fish. In this stu .B 71 59 eticsArjune the ery data analyse es (mbehavioral, and repe mackedynuction and NA, microsate tification w ining manag 14 TY F aO sundar ·ring in marine am a fferenulation rel th 14 Fishery gen ctu Stephen R. Palu nnus thynnus), an ometri ical, 9) v as log al em di of IE 0 83 arth . cs al amics and stru mbi OC (20 ough interplay of eco spatialthand temporand pop tiation, stabin rough 20 s stribution), llite DNA an made by inte ent units th e (ABFT, Thu : M USA x: +1 otolith sam population dyn pa the m 22 AN S nce behavior, , d Bluefin tuna with fa gr at atu di in pl L. os wes rasite res le n e t the Atlantic g online: 7 March d2009 hly migratory PE could affect the 16). stMicishe hemtical tesign s) suppor geneticedrutwo ing localited:in the EU SSCP on /nucl atinedboth es wereespoeani 14853 7586; IO we show tha RO r m exhibiting hig rn . B -f ry , th gu rocd r) unequivocally identifi strycture / Accept 24 Februaun 2009 Publish t th during early ta Corhe NYng 4 l 9 ea ory species se for dispersal large scale (11 th e Iberian Pe mainly based Mediterranfor the paratio2009over the ies in 2009 ea ded HOMSI r DNA), m blishaca,and831fu1 biologic . E V O L0 0 9 E U Received: 19 eFebrua tern yea d oceanic predat B.V. Nor high potential orphom +1 innova Sea ean area Eas n ness young-of-the- ninsula rranean Springer Science+Busiic twMediastudy tim th st Atla al .entit ª 2 J r space and It e “Nor on mor R dite tion size, and Ó erences ove : tive apO R O N ies an coul ant be een th et yearlings (i.e., ntic an project. T e and H large popula sugges th Se Me so to Tel. d nt genetic diff We et e he sam ry, para areas [i.e., thea” ock. uth for thephomstern Atld also d ed activities on TI We compared U T proa lays significa teGulf of plin main spawning Seasthe d that adstMexicose Cape Finistalrics, parasite ofbe mixed w Atlantic Oce high levels of M- iterrelucidating gandTsitesA as oring ches such of such of variation. The ing s monit P I L Aog the effect biol anea life stages, disp co H E large scales orical (n = tion, resuof nat errehom ith the t an and ult teriza ge s ical ta fore, in recent years, the re (NW MediSea. 0 0 9 veL C M 256) and hist the fine and A nt Atlantic popula on th and noehern high e rateke lts imact d Here Spain)and lifedevelopmentlaand charac Med netic variabn stocksor(FAOdOalmost. Theregs, the rt of hors mac report 2 se rratime, both at Received: 15 of contemporary (n = icfrom Sebastesrr wild ility ª H U R N A ac 1993) the w e resu North as (95l co plfor ththe we ; a “w history trai Abstr ie e revi m ke (13)]. Becaus popula ite an re.8% on April 2009 / Acce stern Medite . HO are ho variati nous populations has lts tral ts te loci Se es population sub-st their from pted: 2 Marc -we J mig limited and microsatellite© Springer-Vof ABFTs of the cen h 2010 tury. Measures ) 14 polym on of th bo tern” stoc to ructured nativeorphlf a). Horse m uldand rate th siorphic emicrosatellik, : a “southern” tions. In the ean Sea in stockingseverel showed loindige ofhoowever, impacts upon le m of lts extent of Mexico 3 to samples erlag 2010 along ed w ral ap from viewpoints of conservation ly 20th cen roug the spawning adu findings 3% for to at Gu ometric tion ackeres fr , 17), h di at theseriloci revealth fromstock 23 Northea unda rse m attention pr in the 99) biological cit sugl (11 orphism back to the ear oaches an AB and 99.of di leas e ff om schlegFTPolymat both erent ar es of range e west 0.34is di beensta focus ofac erozygote defi latter dating terranean Sea aspects of entfferent apually matur alysisel. ence the Med riheterozygosity the soutd fromcoast of to stributed al Atlantic, varikerel this species. However, to date little is and s in sex pr t three mai eas fo au nean Sea, the trac tion and a general het hern an for populatio Abs ntia Strong mo E s, both now on ementou llo in © vem th biolog ant geneticn diverg the use of alleles. TheABFT pa ta ere t d 0.31 to genetic population sample more complex 2007 Els e significof oaches show areas: weste observpopsi nian coast is itywrangeedwfrom western uropeand manage West s stocks can ns,and population differentiag from C g th of genetic diff surprisin exist among change over short a single panmicis erences g amo Atlant diversity di ev ing th two rn, cent ra tes as zygos stingu th est co The at ape Fi genetic ic be stocks tions show ier B.V y the spec i.1.00, and the expected heterobi loc known aboutster ng marine spec resent spatial scales ni ra an docu two popula Keyw ) is Two as in th as prev imaltely coast . All (18) ies and ing population ogic found.hed by locitsweree gest that diff ntial. Con s, ABFTs do not rep with high igned to infer ment a wide variety ords and mtDNA righ populationthe horoxe disequibriumolwas al ies pote ago. Thu of (12 : Tr io this re to N Information regard s. re Noapp lis cordant breaks amo Statistics des dispersal linkagare d ea rs tern ing microsatellite of patterns in gene Xow ts reserv0.95.ducing th tic ap suf- stern Med tags, the ho its high grow Northea of usly specie or with tr and 96–80 yea for geogditerranean Sea.ng several species genetic var- that inter action er in size,achurusthe eas , suggest- . (19). Both pe proafrom HWE iterran 0.01). The 14 loci th tionst Atlant defined. R way and and genetic diversity within ed ch is a role the Me raph e ty (P ea rse m of esul ac rate an ure, levels of gene flow s ic in I ed ic barriers to disp t and past signals acke settl ula beha diff indi vidual specieshuru population n. significantly deviater ent the appr trait St tic population fornia, size, both from curren . AlonT the ulations, ementtion vior with e as the western s; s ock id red depleted, consistror in stocother opriate tes In this co andrel popu structhigh ba (i.e. betwee ts also species harvested for comersal of Cali tion such as Sebasway species ntri 12 latio d of as∗ larg envi ronmental are consuch entity; also surveyedmass coas ABF g pop t side were nC in four k identifi tc breaks have not popula ocea 10 times bution, n among hpopulationseltic to iden Corre changes inbiogeographit some Mediterranean seenpotential, might nography can strongly rfishing and factors suchspawniolisticstock bio been as H ng ap cation. diversityyranged we and in the Med fecundity. B provide useful information for ove sponding tif ho etic across the t tha c barrier of Poin Con have proach amplified, where allelic of ite fering from E-mailimpact population structhe rse s ception, merci te purposes can ased loci succe 1970s; levels), iation, sugges raphic ly reduced tin their gen but rt-term estimates tial geog other potenaddres author. Te tinuous s: declinel.: +3 ture. 40% of the ssfully Norindst to monomorphic. These resultmackerel st inalgrated th rranean Sea and management plans. th boun still not severe daries have been survsho with the con ocks, pablo. is 4 94 at polymorphictlantic; older ea i-A stock, au now 22 although We tested for stron aphic declines. The eyed less often shold developing co e furvation is eli thre ab on conse ndamenta Medite agefrom highly in -783 eastern rtalitynza@st of91060; class 8 and g-po the markers can be used for vering ich, 0165the 6/ d from demogr pulation structure minimum . te markers from S. schleg Intr rate .ieo. fax: +3 rranea microsatellite tion Seba straddled on in 11 species etic diver-oduc(wh have suffere stes sampled multip l $ – se Although six microsatelli 20) n Se do high fishing mo 4 . es (P.demonstrate these e across ulation size are le by Yoshida et al. (2005), a set Natur A 19, 94 maintain gen of c genetica;diversity. with the i:10.1016/j.fismofront ingtepredictions (16,baunzaby 2275intra- at the 07 ed al mar dispersal ) indicat ns cont of effective pop barriers, = 500two regioed to aining potentialtions in h hresdel mat r © 2007 ics exhibited ). ABFTs and inter-specifi have been already report ks; Li the study of 2. nean appliand .2007. tion size conducte across several genera For many viduals, and wit fe hist 09.022 marine species, x population dynamElsevier ective popula are needed for various other four additional ry potential d a meta-analysis including diterra (eff or molec larval dispersal B.V in the Me ofy traits ular markers ona species. We show two pedigree of migration The comple nt is a a finer scale All right strong breaks north of evoluti ability, and also apparent at critical part . spawning in differeschlegel Á Rockfish Á population studies to sity and Monterey Bay, span s re Sebastes and cations, from further ning an oceanogr te species canlarge scale is life history diVemovementeen Keywords served. Genetic populations. dramatically aVec ependent rences betw s aphic gradient and gic naturalan upwelling jet. Mod isolated 14 novel microsatelli Á Cross-amplification (15, 21–23). Siz t erate genetic struc structure | large pela tic diVe gene analysis. In this work, we Inve Microsatellites markersat etic Sea es among e-d gene Xow.been documented renc (16). mon in the north represented their evaluation ion size | gen ture is just as comhave latio stigations of ples suggested that and mari s as ulat e popit is in the sout widely used areas and periodne popu ns have been markers from S. schlegeli, h, across the biog DNA | brea rt time d conto gauge levels of three geographical sam graphic effectiv r sho ancient k at Point Concept n in four other relate eodisp nus with larval traits iation among ersal, which oftentscale persist ove and s ion. Gene Xow is var such as pela for cross-species amplificatio higher amothyn rranean Sea, fishes | Thunnu ng tions inhabi gene –  Number of alleles (A) Stock identi ty of h Atlan tic an orse macke d Med rel (Tr differ iterranean achurus tra ent sto S ck ide ea: Integrati churus) in th ntifica n tion a g the result e Northeas pproa t s from ches genetic ructuring and l population st Atlantic Bluefin tuna ra Spatio-tempo on in depleted ty retenti diversi ranean Sea markers zation of microsatellite of the Mediter Isolation and characteri schlegeli, rockfish Sebastes for the heavily exploited r related Sebastes spp. ies amplification in fou and cross-spec National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration deep-water sp rally n the last B gic duration subpopula astern Medite
  44. 44. Data 0.x 176 20j.14 e tiv uc us), rod stin ep my dr an tes ion ebas t S bu tri sh ( fi dis al rock ial ic t ph lue en gra of b l pot eo , g ages ersa y A US A, tor ne disp z, C v Cru his ct li h nta t ha , Sa hic istin a hig tha n ruz C ups ciatio rap d anta gro th e ia ia S og n of mic on sp spec wi forn m ali no n ine ha of C io axo De latio fish sity in t ormat exam reef m iver e ge f Un to ocky 3–5 iso arin gy, han l in xa r g iolo exc ritica od ta ow tin d dist yB c D nar etic go shall ge las an am O R volutio sly gen vide are f ta ry / 111 doi: • Microsatellite diversity –  202 studies of 140 species M. BU O. ent artm Dep RF logy co of E and E 10.1 iers s Ab to ill u pro nus) nts o rval s histo revio ou ti a arr ial w s mys habit gic la nary ed p is gr ct eb t la th te rib am tio tra g th oten Sebas ory in a pe volu desc ss in ns s e us at ith n ee ndin l p h ( ce sta persa ckfis migr ific w se th ystin pro specim d a m n n der o is le c Un igh d lue r re no th Pa analy in S. ciatio from revea frequ o h e B r a h eral. hey a n No was t s wit e sp rived ange equal , wi h r t e s gen use easte study neag and t ta de nus r lmost ation hic a t ti a li bec g the f this rent nders lar d . mys ges. A le loc ograp pa o n e S p : u lecu m ex ea alo goal f diff rds to the o lin d sam . A de den o p d Availa ywo of he rns o ation he m d s w cate u T t Ke ble on d s erve age T m re; est; te km he line at t pat infor fish. 1650 for t ally lo e line rience obs ory a ixtu www.s ; t dm ment e loci; e e n a th tr is ciencethis rsal ion tely ibutio t cen een d exp ed th hic h spite directe ; sign atellit tribut p om a n as dis .coxim distr ed a betw ed an ffect grap , de ed dis ros egio r a r mic atch trol r sion; mo lysis iverg app therly ccur lation diverg ich n m n d , de ana o h o mis NA co expa Fition; sherie sou ages ive is eages , w ution netic eages D s Resea m t tion e isola mt rch 89 la line oduc o lin ximu distrib he ge th lin (2008) r t opu uctiv o tw ma tial p b 196–20 d m rep the 9 l pro ion. pa d fro ggest t ia s re iat tha glac The oun s, su c f . spe a last cture ness ystinu are e stru inctiv S. m s in on t l in ly age dis ersa line ere on the p P. Aba ct dis un a, tin d wh ing of dis n M.T. G za ∗, A.G. or rlap a stand ion inti Murta b arc´a r t ı ove unde pecia poten s S. Ma Santamar´ g , N. Cam h ealize our sing ıa , L ttiucc j pbell c hig r .S. Go i , J. M , R. C cau mple, ls of hy t ch rdo h im oll e A. Sa s su rs, exa lev to w ps w njuan e oy k, G. N , S.A. Ive maruta d, A tor h fac arrie e asc rs f .S , A.T. hig ht in grou r a a Santo b etti d, A.L en , K. Ma . Comesacnle eical b in th ct sig omic the Institu in n c e-s ˜ . c s , C. b d to Es Scho n gh o In tim gr ah G es ca a Depar ˜ Stransk Pinto b, R. Q Keny ie ceoAap h,ang. Dahn ft a tax lthou d an a tment ol of Biolog stituto de In panol de O rz , s le of (2009) 10:1969–1972 ve ce ic c A u na y lnC. t Conserv Genet Ecology an al Sciences stiga¸ ao da anograf´a, , Z olutioinrtas,b, g sical. Maacoorla ghou ,ucere h po c ı P.O d Su (Zoo s Pe sid ig o . im a n P hese fgb u u i -9870-8 e ev mette phy . Ramo thro s , ,red tic 240, 39 DOI 10.1007/s10592-009lta stainable Ec logy), The scas e do M Boxucti Facu con a h ing p rmann m f t Uni s 08 Sad ar, Av on n h de de t ne ns , ms s, f Biolox omic Devel versity of rod . Brasiliry 0a ntande wit e las of r g ind r tic tion o latio syste to ge ith Ab ´a, Ed ı opm InL N Institu g Int erdeen, Tira a, 14 w acr, Spis i T E C H N IhC A stitutoO T E te of Marine Re ificio de Cie ent, Tuscia Uempo llydror 00 Lisboat,ePoainina popu arine lead cies w ted sta ence t a Faculta Espanol j ˜ de t on har omb ncias, e tni rt g se Depar Hellenic C m pe y ara UCon versen, Via ecAvenue,cAb ugal n entre d,3de de Cienc Oceanog arch, P.O. evid ares nivers rr ity icS. tment ma hin s e sep also a la r Mar mo ). In fo , ra ı u erde Bo id of Pu Sel a v h Gio AB ec , Massimoblic Health ine Reseias de Lisboa f´a, Avda. Tres x 1870aNorc adgrdepVigo, tE- orvanni weca en94 24 2T ow wit ar s can axa Oli r-tax , s dn e a b fl n, flo D 19 (I ns arch, , Lorenzo Zan e t es Scienc b Institu O/DBA), Bl de Mayo 73 o , N-5817 ne 0 Viise,ollato, en01 Z,veK Mar Biol ssia Cariani es, Se o em onme Be 3620 v go, Sp g 1, e 10e U n ulatio force rine sist s wit t l d , 3800 e te oc ano , Ale ction Bund ai k of Para of Marine Bi o C-2, Camnvir 5 Sant g rgen(Aorw in n tion 0 Viterbo, tive , m ab , Ilaria Mil ma ough he DOI 10.1007/s0 pop Italy tion in c b,1,2 1419 Bundes esforsch gna, The M ay e po educe a C ge N n si ol Bolo 0227-010-, Giorgia Ferrar -3 fo of di a in Teneris , Universityrsch ungsanstal arine Institu tology, “Sap ogy and Gen Grande, 17 nruz deatio pecia lly if . Sele n in g en w. T s r ith d Lan a,1 Biology w se Croatia b,4 et s r m u ni , Monica l Evolutionary 10 Rovinj,ungsanstal t f¨ r Fische te, Parkm ienza” Uni to ics,cP.O’ 49-016 Li or fe, Spain ia ions ciatio stron flo lation pec t f¨ r Fi ore In of Experimenta for Marine Research, 522 Giulia Riccio rei, In versity e ie . r eli u sc a O R I G I N A L Tinti sto cau 8) , Po s l u dust sp of Roo Box 2214 n sboas, ertugal reg r spe it is ene stitu ter Abstr ; b Departmentd herei, io ani , and Fau P A P E R u f g g pop 00 Ferrara, Italy , Italy; and Institute Cen , Italy) act o Institu t f¨ r Seefi rial Estate ion me, piiat , GR ge0 gica if Guido Barbuj 200 i 01 sche ,tGal entazzale sta 71 lo 3 Ir re ova t f¨ r O igno of Ferrara, 441 t o n y, u st t 9) n, University ova, 35121 Pad rsbiologie, Rov rsit seefisc rei, Palmai ifwer, Irelan ic Aldo coor uctu , Gre n f ay elag t e M or ◦ aklio e o ly effec amo Horse and Evolutio dis itut für Mee versity of Pad ew July 24, 200 ive lle 9, p herei, d en d D-2 mac d for revi of Biology a st n 5, tag ece g ienisches Inst Un of Biology, Uni Alter c Department 200 impr eive s 0018nizin nship ell Department ina/Deutsch-Ital er 1, thus 9 (rec kerel stoc 67 H Hafen ng 27ifferam etic 5 Rom du , Italy;Lif ogia Mar loS¨ 2, d k iden of larval stages orn Board Decemb e, Ita bu , uo D as gene oving the 40126 Bologna Italo-Gee history, en rgpelagic oge relatio ly ell.e rmanico di Biol ,C itytificatio Æ Jung -Youn Park Æ Mi-Jung Kim Æ the Editorial n manag all uto ecology andand accepted by tic m high mortal Suck n w int -180g ngst Germany tic cor to 69 Ro oc hom e (formerly Istit em Hyeent an ity, s and fish wH undd lifeand arkers (a g experimentAn as carr ford, CA, the biogeo 8@ d b ity, Stan no e lo breaks among 15 gra roduction, high fec dist helhist , tagginllozymes ofandreso Æpled out Kil Kim ie x en hk, Germany th mo N lea ford Univers Fer of 14, 15). geneti IO eg ail: h a ct t tr ara Block, Stan ri ur specieserstanding of repphyed instrong Nonetbutioessoryanaits (groEun ,YouneonLee ceKyung with the ai d ctemitochg com 208 UT -m Edited by Barb und of PaciWc roc view 6 n wit ntera of th t OL rd, wth m of ob (re sh, Seb s have vels of clednge ofunexpe ,uctive facdrialsD. The stock id 3; e 48 tor kW unr ge ra n EV changed our dy, urfo –1 338 gre en ta ast le orph ave netic di hors rod reprod ics attha OR cou luatio hav Siva atly fish. In this stu .B 71 59 eticsArjune the ery data analyse es (mbehavioral, and repe mackedynuction and NA, microsate tification w ining manag 14 TY F aO sundar ·ring in marine am a fferenulation rel th 14 Fishery gen ctu Stephen R. Palu nnus thynnus), an ometri ical, 9) v as log al em di of IE 0 83 arth . cs al amics and stru mbi OC (20 ough interplay of eco spatialthand temporand pop tiation, stabin rough 20 s stribution), llite DNA an made by inte ent units th e (ABFT, Thu : M USA x: +1 otolith sam population dyn pa the m 22 AN S nce behavior, , d Bluefin tuna with fa gr at atu di in pl L. os wes rasite res le n e t the Atlantic g online: 7 March d2009 hly migratory PE could affect the 16). stMicishe hemtical tesign s) suppor geneticedrutwo ing localited:in the EU SSCP on /nucl atinedboth es wereespoeani 14853 7586; IO we show tha RO r m exhibiting hig rn . B -f ry , th gu rocd r) unequivocally identifi strycture / Accept 24 Februaun 2009 Publish t th during early ta Corhe NYng 4 l 9 ea ory species se for dispersal large scale (11 th e Iberian Pe mainly based Mediterranfor the paratio2009over the ies in 2009 ea ded HOMSI r DNA), m blishaca,and831fu1 biologic . E V O L0 0 9 E U Received: 19 eFebrua tern yea d oceanic predat B.V. Nor high potential orphom +1 innova Sea ean area Eas n ness young-of-the- ninsula rranean Springer Science+Busiic twMediastudy tim th st Atla al .entit ª 2 J r space and It e “Nor on mor R dite tion size, and Ó erences ove : tive apO R O N ies an coul ant be een th et yearlings (i.e., ntic an project. T e and H large popula sugges th Se Me so to Tel. d nt genetic diff We et e he sam ry, para areas [i.e., thea” ock. uth for thephomstern Atld also d ed activities on TI We compared U T proa lays significa teGulf of plin main spawning Seasthe d that adstMexicose Cape Finistalrics, parasite ofbe mixed w Atlantic Oce high levels of M- iterrelucidating gandTsitesA as oring ches such of such of variation. The ing s monit P I L Aog the effect biol anea life stages, disp co H E large scales orical (n = tion, resuof nat errehom ith the t an and ult teriza ge s ical ta fore, in recent years, the re (NW MediSea. 0 0 9 veL C M 256) and hist the fine and A nt Atlantic popula on th and noehern high e rateke lts imact d Here Spain)and lifedevelopmentlaand charac Med netic variabn stocksor(FAOdOalmost. Theregs, the rt of hors mac report 2 se rratime, both at Received: 15 of contemporary (n = icfrom Sebastesrr wild ility ª H U R N A ac 1993) the w e resu North as (95l co plfor ththe we ; a “w history trai Abstr ie e revi m ke (13)]. Becaus popula ite an re.8% on April 2009 / Acce stern Medite . HO are ho variati nous populations has lts tral ts te loci Se es population sub-st their from pted: 2 Marc -we J mig limited and microsatellite© Springer-Vof ABFTs of the cen h 2010 tury. Measures ) 14 polym on of th bo tern” stoc to ructured nativeorphlf a). Horse m uldand rate th siorphic emicrosatellik, : a “southern” tions. In the ean Sea in stockingseverel showed loindige ofhoowever, impacts upon le m of lts extent of Mexico 3 to samples erlag 2010 along ed w ral ap from viewpoints of conservation ly 20th cen roug the spawning adu findings 3% for to at Gu ometric tion ackeres fr , 17), h di at theseriloci revealth fromstock 23 Northea unda rse m attention pr in the 99) biological cit sugl (11 orphism back to the ear oaches an AB and 99.of di leas e ff om schlegFTPolymat both erent ar es of range e west 0.34is di beensta focus ofac erozygote defi latter dating terranean Sea aspects of entfferent apually matur alysisel. ence the Med riheterozygosity the soutd fromcoast of to stributed al Atlantic, varikerel this species. However, to date little is and s in sex pr t three mai eas fo au nean Sea, the trac tion and a general het hern an for populatio Abs ntia Strong mo E s, both now on ementou llo in © vem th biolog ant geneticn diverg the use of alleles. TheABFT pa ta ere t d 0.31 to genetic population sample more complex 2007 Els e significof oaches show areas: weste observpopsi nian coast is itywrangeedwfrom western uropeand manage West s stocks can ns,and population differentiag from C g th of genetic diff surprisin exist among change over short a single panmicis erences g amo Atlant diversity di ev ing th two rn, cent ra tes as zygos stingu th est co The at ape Fi genetic ic be stocks tions show ier B.V y the spec i.1.00, and the expected heterobi loc known aboutster ng marine spec resent spatial scales ni ra an docu two popula Keyw ) is Two as in th as prev imaltely coast . All (18) ies and ing population ogic found.hed by locitsweree gest that diff ntial. Con s, ABFTs do not rep with high igned to infer ment a wide variety ords and mtDNA righ populationthe horoxe disequibriumolwas al ies pote ago. Thu of (12 : Tr io this re to N Information regard s. re Noapp lis cordant breaks amo Statistics des dispersal linkagare d ea rs tern ing microsatellite of patterns in gene Xow ts reserv0.95.ducing th tic ap suf- stern Med tags, the ho its high grow Northea of usly specie or with tr and 96–80 yea for geogditerranean Sea.ng several species genetic var- that inter action er in size,achurusthe eas , suggest- . (19). Both pe proafrom HWE iterran 0.01). The 14 loci th tionst Atlant defined. R way and and genetic diversity within ed ch is a role the Me raph e ty (P ea rse m of esul ac rate an ure, levels of gene flow s ic in I ed ic barriers to disp t and past signals acke settl ula beha diff indi vidual specieshuru population n. significantly deviater ent the appr trait St tic population fornia, size, both from curren . AlonT the ulations, ementtion vior with e as the western s; s ock id red depleted, consistror in stocother opriate tes In this co andrel popu structhigh ba (i.e. betwee ts also species harvested for comersal of Cali tion such as Sebasway species ntri 12 latio d of as∗ larg envi ronmental are consuch entity; also surveyedmass coas ABF g pop t side were nC in four k identifi tc breaks have not popula ocea 10 times bution, n among hpopulationseltic to iden Corre changes inbiogeographit some Mediterranean seenpotential, might nography can strongly rfishing and factors suchspawniolisticstock bio been as H ng ap cation. diversityyranged we and in the Med fecundity. B provide useful information for ove sponding tif ho etic across the t tha c barrier of Poin Con have proach amplified, where allelic of ite fering from E-mailimpact population structhe rse s ception, merci te purposes can ased loci succe 1970s; levels), iation, sugges raphic ly reduced tin their gen but rt-term estimates tial geog other potenaddres author. Te tinuous s: declinel.: +3 ture. 40% of the ssfully Norindst to monomorphic. These resultmackerel st inalgrated th rranean Sea and management plans. th boun still not severe daries have been survsho with the con ocks, pablo. is 4 94 at polymorphictlantic; older ea i-A stock, au now 22 although We tested for stron aphic declines. The eyed less often shold developing co e furvation is eli thre ab on conse ndamenta Medite agefrom highly in -783 eastern rtalitynza@st of91060; class 8 and g-po the markers can be used for vering ich, 0165the 6/ d from demogr pulation structure minimum . te markers from S. schleg Intr rate .ieo. fax: +3 rranea microsatellite tion Seba straddled on in 11 species etic diver-oduc(wh have suffere stes sampled multip l $ – se Although six microsatelli 20) n Se do high fishing mo 4 . es (P.demonstrate these e across ulation size are le by Yoshida et al. (2005), a set Natur A 19, 94 maintain gen of c genetica;diversity. with the i:10.1016/j.fismofront ingtepredictions (16,baunzaby 2275intra- at the 07 ed al mar dispersal ) indicat ns cont of effective pop barriers, = 500two regioed to aining potentialtions in h hresdel mat r © 2007 ics exhibited ). ABFTs and inter-specifi have been already report ks; Li the study of 2. nean appliand .2007. tion size conducte across several genera For many viduals, and wit fe hist 09.022 marine species, x population dynamElsevier ective popula are needed for various other four additional ry potential d a meta-analysis including diterra (eff or molec larval dispersal B.V in the Me ofy traits ular markers ona species. We show two pedigree of migration The comple nt is a a finer scale All right strong breaks north of evoluti ability, and also apparent at critical part . spawning in differeschlegel Á Rockfish Á population studies to sity and Monterey Bay, span s re Sebastes and cations, from further ning an oceanogr te species canlarge scale is life history diVemovementeen Keywords served. Genetic populations. dramatically aVec ependent rences betw s aphic gradient and gic naturalan upwelling jet. Mod isolated 14 novel microsatelli Á Cross-amplification (15, 21–23). Siz t erate genetic struc structure | large pela tic diVe gene analysis. In this work, we Inve Microsatellites markersat etic Sea es among e-d gene Xow.been documented renc (16). mon in the north represented their evaluation ion size | gen ture is just as comhave latio stigations of ples suggested that and mari s as ulat e popit is in the sout widely used areas and periodne popu ns have been markers from S. schlegeli, h, across the biog DNA | brea rt time d conto gauge levels of three geographical sam graphic effectiv r sho ancient k at Point Concept n in four other relate eodisp nus with larval traits iation among ersal, which oftentscale persist ove and s ion. Gene Xow is var such as pela for cross-species amplificatio higher amothyn rranean Sea, fishes | Thunnu ng tions inhabi gene –  Number of alleles (A) –  Heterozygosity (He) Stock identi ty of h Atlan tic an orse macke d Med rel (Tr differ iterranean achurus tra ent sto S ck ide ea: Integrati churus) in th ntifica n tion a g the result e Northeas pproa t s from ches genetic ructuring and l population st Atlantic Bluefin tuna ra Spatio-tempo on in depleted ty retenti diversi ranean Sea markers zation of microsatellite of the Mediter Isolation and characteri schlegeli, rockfish Sebastes for the heavily exploited r related Sebastes spp. ies amplification in fou and cross-spec National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration .0 009 1.2 910 deep-water sp rally n the last B gic duration subpopula astern Medite
  45. 45. Paired comparisons Overfished populations Healthy species and population in same genus or family Pinsky et al. 2014 Molecular Ecology
  46. 46. Paired comparisons Overfished populations Healthy species and population in same genus or family Pinsky et al. 2014 Molecular Ecology
  47. 47. Paired comparisons A = 16 He = 0.7 A = 12 He = 0.8 Pinsky et al. 2014 Molecular Ecology New Zealand snapper Other Pagrus (Pagrus auratus)
  48. 48. Paired comparisons overfished vs. control n = 12 A50 = 10.2 A = 10.2 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 A50 = 16.6 He =50A = 10.2 0.736 A = 16.6 He =50 0.736 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 50 He = 0.736 He = 0.84616.6 A = He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50A = 16.6 0.846 He =50 0.846 He = 0.846
  49. 49. Cynoscion Drum ● Scombridae Tunas ● Flounders Pleuronectidae ● Seabream Pagrus ● Herrings Clupeidae ● Turbots Scophthalmidae ● Gadidae Cods ● Rockfishes Sebastes ● Groupers Serranidae ● Snappers Lutjanus ● Trachurus Jack mackerels ● Smelts Osmeridae ● −50 −25 0 25 50 % difference in allelic richness % More Alleles in Overfished Pinsky et al. Molecular Ecology
  50. 50. Cynoscion Drum ● Scombridae Tunas ● Flounders Pleuronectidae ● Seabream Pagrus ● Herrings Clupeidae ● Turbots Scophthalmidae ● Gadidae Cods ● Rockfishes Sebastes ● Groupers Serranidae ● Snappers Lutjanus ● Trachurus Jack mackerels ● Smelts Osmeridae ● −50 −25 0 25 50 % difference in allelic richness % More Alleles in Overfished Pinsky et al. Molecular Ecology
  51. 51. Cynoscion Drum ● Scombridae Tunas ● Flounders Pleuronectidae ● Seabream Pagrus ● Herrings Clupeidae ● Turbots Scophthalmidae ● Gadidae Cods ● Rockfishes Sebastes ● Groupers Serranidae ● Snappers Lutjanus ● Trachurus Jack mackerels ● Smelts Osmeridae ● −50 −25 0 25 50 % difference in allelic richness % More Alleles in Overfished Pinsky et al. Molecular Ecology
  52. 52. Cynoscion Drum ● Scombridae Tunas ● Flounders Pleuronectidae ● Seabream Pagrus ● Herrings Clupeidae ● Turbots Scophthalmidae Overfished ● populations ● have lower diversity ● Gadidae Cods Rockfishes Sebastes Groupers Serranidae Overfished populations have higher diversity ● Snappers Lutjanus ● Trachurus Jack mackerels ● Smelts Osmeridae ● −50 −25 0 25 50 % difference in allelic richness % More Alleles in Overfished Pinsky et al. Molecular Ecology
  53. 53. Cynoscion Drum ● Scombridae Tunas ● Flounders Pleuronectidae ● Seabream Pagrus ● Herrings Clupeidae ● Turbots Scophthalmidae ● Gadidae Cods ● Rockfishes Sebastes ● Groupers Serranidae ● Snappers Lutjanus ● Trachurus Jack mackerels ● Smelts Osmeridae ● −50 −25 0 25 50 % difference in allelic richness % More Alleles in Overfished Pinsky et al. Molecular Ecology
  54. 54. Cynoscion Drum ● Scombridae Tunas ● Flounders Pleuronectidae ● Seabream Pagrus 9 of 12 groups have lower diversity in overfished populations ● Herrings Clupeidae ● Turbots Scophthalmidae ● Gadidae Cods ● Rockfishes Sebastes ● Groupers Serranidae ● Snappers Lutjanus ● Trachurus Jack mackerels ● Smelts Osmeridae ● −50 −25 0 25 50 % difference in allelic richness % More Alleles in Overfished Pinsky et al. Molecular Ecology
  55. 55. Cynoscion Drum ● Scombridae Tunas ● Flounders Pleuronectidae ● Seabream Pagrus ● Herrings Clupeidae ● Turbots Scophthalmidae ● Gadidae Cods Average: 12% lower ● Rockfishes Sebastes ● Groupers Serranidae ● Snappers Lutjanus ● Trachurus Jack mackerels ● Smelts Osmeridae ● −50 −25 0 25 50 % difference in allelic richness % More Alleles in Overfished Pinsky et al. Molecular Ecology
  56. 56. Findings • Weak bottleneck now
  57. 57. Findings • Weak bottleneck now • Impacts likely started ~1950s: rapid!
  58. 58. Findings • Weak bottleneck now • Impacts likely started ~1950s: rapid! • Becoming stronger with time
  59. 59. Findings • Weak bottleneck now • Impacts likely started ~1950s: rapid! • Becoming stronger with time • Lower ability to adapt in the future
  60. 60. Summary • Genetic diversity provides the raw material for evolution
  61. 61. Summary • Genetic diversity provides the raw material for evolution • Evolution is happening all around us
  62. 62. Summary • Genetic diversity provides the raw material for evolution • Evolution is happening all around us • Humans can influence the course of evolution

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