Westward Expansion and Sectionalism
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  • 1. United States Westward Expansion 1803-1853
  • 2. Acquisition Map
  • 3. Emerging WEST 5. _______ NORTH 2. ___________________ 1.___________________ 4._______ 7. _____________ 3. _____________ SOUTH
  • 4. Do the following on the Map: Label the Mississippi River Draw the Missouri Compromise Line Label the state of Missouri Draw the line that divides the Northern states from the Southern states and the western area • Label the name of each land acquisition next to each number. • • • • • OUTLINE each acquired territory in a different color.
  • 5. Fold your Map like this: West 1. Once you fold your map, draw the following sections on the back of the flap 2. Label each section like this North South
  • 6. Answer the Following Questions: • What geographical feature is the Eastern boundary for the emerging West? • What compromise line determined which states would have slaves and which would not? • Give a reason for settlers wanting to move West. • Give a reason for the conflict over slavery. • What does “sectionalism mean” based on this map?
  • 7. “Manifest Destiny”: MANIFEST DESTINY=“OBVIOUS FUTURE”: the belief that it was America’s destiny and responsibility to control all of North America, because it was God’s plan. – To spread DEMOCRACY and Christianity to new lands and people – The American People (white) were blessed by God and He had given them all of North America to control and develop. – Anyone already living on the land would have to be removed because it was God’s plan to have white people living there. – There was no stopping this expansion because it was God’s plan MANIFEST DESTINY was achieved in many ways – Treaties, settlement, purchases, and war
  • 8. Reasons for Expansion • Political – desire and necessity • Economic – more land meant more opportunity to make money • Social – Spread religion and open up more space to live
  • 9. Political Reasons • Nationalism – Spread democracy from sea to shining sea because it is the highest form of government • National Security – Controlling land up to the Pacific would secure us against other nations • A Place on the World Stage – By expanding we can become more powerful among the nations of the world.
  • 10. Economic Reasons • Agriculture – Americans dream of owning their own land and farms – Frontier land is cheaper and sometimes free! • Businessmen – Create businesses in newly developing towns and cities in the West. • Unemployment in the East – High unemployment in the cities and job opportunity in the west. • Southern Slave Owners – Plantation land losing fertility, western lands offer new, fertile ground. – More land means more wealth and political power! • Sea Merchants – Controlling Pacific Coast means ability to trade with Pacific countries
  • 11. Social Reasons • Religious Mission – America was destined by God to expand to the Pacific and bring with it Christianity • White Superiority – God had blessed Americans (White Americans) and whatever needed to be done to expand was acceptable. • Progress – Americans could make better use of the land that those currently living there – We brought God, technology, and civilization • Population – Population was overflowing in the east because of high birth rates and IMMIGRATION
  • 12. Between 1820 and 1850, 4 million People move West!!!
  • 13. 1. Original 13 Colonies and the United States: 1607-1787 • Key Events: 1. Jamestown 1607 2. Plymouth 1620 3. American Revolution 1776 4. Treaty of Paris 1783 5. Constitution 1787 • Why? Religious freedom, profit, new life, persecution, slavery, la nd, make money with
  • 14. 2. Louisiana Purchase 1803 • Key Events: 1. Jefferson pays France $15 million 2. Lewis and Clark explore along Missouri River 3. Sacagawea translates • Why: To control Mississippi River and port of New Orleans for farmers; Find a Waterway to Pacific
  • 15. 3. Florida 1819 • Key Events: 1. Seminole Indians attacking in U.S. and Slaves escaping to Florida 2. Gen. Jackson invades Florida 3. Adams-Oniz Treaty $5 million • Why? Stop Indian raids, get slaves back, expand the country.
  • 16. 4. Texas Annexation 1845 • Key events: 1. Stephen Austin brings settlers 2. Texas Revolution and Republic of Texas (18361845) 3. President Polk and Congress annex (add) 1845 • Why? Cotton plantations, spread slavery, more land
  • 17. 5. Oregon Country 1846 • Key Events: 1. President Polk promises to get Oregon = “54 40 or Fight!” 2. Missionaries come to convert 3. Mountain men create Oregon trail • Why? New life, spread religion, trade, acquire new land.
  • 18. 6. Mexican Cession 1848 • Key Events: 1. President Polk fights U.S.-Mexican War ending with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo: $15 million. 2. Gold Rush – 1849  the 49ers 3. Mormons settle Utah 4. California and Santa Fe trail 5. Asian immigrants • Why? Gold, religious freedom, farming & ranching, new life, acquire land that will fulfill Manifest Destiny goal.
  • 19. 7. Gadsden Purchase 1853 • Key Events: 1. Bought from Mexico = $10 million • Why? Build a railroad across desert
  • 20. SECTIONALISM
  • 21. Area Geography • • • • Mississippi River Missouri River Rocky Mountains Pacific Coast • • • • • • • • • • North of the Ohio River Mississippi River South of the Great Lakes Atlantic Coast Appalachian Mountains South of the Ohio River Appalachian Mountains Mississippi River Texas Gulf and Atlantic Coast
  • 22. The NORTH: Political Leader : • Daniel Webster, Senato r from Massachusetts • Wanted strong federal government
  • 23. Economy: 1. Factory Economy and Textile Mills 2. Labor: Skilled and unskilled labor(no slaves)  factory workers 3. Strongly supported the tariff 4. Trade and Commerce
  • 24. Religion • 2nd Great Awakening • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (MORMONS) • Reform comes from religious beliefs of caring for community
  • 25. Society: • Large Citiespopulation is on the rise • Free Blacks and European immigrants • High literacy rates Intellect • Spread of Knowledge • Railroads and Electrical lines throughout • Steam Power
  • 26. The WEST: Political – Leader: Henry Clay, Senator from Kentucky – Wanted a strong federal government – Supported the tariff – Want more roads and canals
  • 27. Economy: • Agriculture economy • Free Labor and some slave labor • small farmers • Ranchers • Gold mining (California)
  • 28. Religion • Protestant Christianity • Circuit Riders – Traveling ministers and preachers • Revival Meetings • Mormons travel to Utah to escape persecution.
  • 29. Society and Intellectual • European Immigrants • Families isolated on farms • Small, new towns • No regular law enforcement • Women worked especially hard • One-room school houses
  • 30. The SOUTH: Political • Leader: John C. Calhoun Senator from South Carolina • Did not want strong federal government. • Supported State’s Rights
  • 31. Economy: • Agriculture economy, Pla ntations • Slave labor • Very little factory industry • Strongly opposed the tariff
  • 32. Society • Most wealth belong to a few plantation owners • Slavery Intellectual • Few Railroads and Power lines • Low literacy rates