The Civil War
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The Civil War

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The Civil War The Civil War Presentation Transcript

  • The Civil War 1861-1865
  • The Missouri Debate • In 1819 Missouri applied to join the Union as a SLAVE State. • By 1820 Maine also wanted to join the Union as a free state Should it be allowed to join the U.S. as a SLAVE state even though it is north of the Ohio River??
  • The Missouri Compromise 1820 • Created by Henry Clay • Missouri admitted as a SLAVE state and Maine is admitted as a FREE state • Missouri Compromise line was drawn along the latitude line 36°30‘ across the Louisiana Territory • Balance of Power in the Senate stays the same • 12 FREE states • 12 SLAVE states
  • Ohio River
  • The Compromise of 1850 • In 1849, California wanted to join the United States as a FREE State
  • The Compromise of 1850 •Henry Clay’s plan, The Compromise of 1850 had five main parts: 1. California admitted as a free state 2. Voters in Utah and New Mexico Territory would decide the slavery question according to popular sovereignty (vote)
  • The Compromise of 1850 3. The slave trade would end in Washington D.C. 4. Very strict Fugitive Slave Law – All states would have to help in returning runaway slaves to their owners 5. Border dispute between Texas and New Mexico was settled
  • Effects of the Compromises: • Congress attempts to control the spread of slavery into US territories while trying to keep a balance of free states and slave states. It’s not an easy task! • Compromise of 1850 nullified the Missouri Compromise • Fugitive Slave Law creates tension between North and South in enforcing the law.
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin • In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a novel named Uncle Tom’s Cabin about an old slave beaten to death by his owner and other stories about slaves and their lives
  • Effects of Uncle Tom’s Cabin: • It became very popular and created strong emotions against slavery • In the North many people were turned against slavery • In the South, the book was hated and criticized
  • Kansas – Nebraska Act 1854 • Stephan Douglas, Senator from Illinois, introduced a new law to open up western territory to settlers: – Two new territories are created: Nebraska and Kansas – The settlers in these territories would decide on the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty (vote)
  • “Bleeding Kansas” • Anti-slavery people and Pro-slavery people moved to Kansas to support or oppose slavery • The struggle soon turned VIOLENT: – May 21, 1856: pro-slavery settlers attacked an anti-slavery town. – John Brown, an abolitionist, and his men wanted revenge, so they attacked a pro-slavery town, killing five men • Newspapers started to call the territory “ Bleeding Kansas ”
  • Effects of The Kansas Nebraska Act and “Bleeding Kansas”: • The Republican Party is formed after the Whig Party splits: – Northern Whigs form the Republican Party – Southern Whigs join the Democratic Party • Violence is now used to push against the spread of slavery • North fears spread of slavery into territories.
  • Dred Scott – Slavery Issue Goes to Court • Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. • After living with his owner in Wisconsin, a FREE state, Scott sued in court for his freedom when he returned to Missouri. – He claimed living in Wisconsin for several years had made him a free man
  • Dred Scott Case: Key Questions 1. Was Dred Scott a citizen who had the right to bring a case to federal court? 2. Did the time Scott spent in Wisconsin make him a free man? 3. Did Congress even have the POWER and AUTHORITY to make any laws about Slavery? 4. Were FEDERAL slavery laws legal under the Constitution?
  • Effects of the Dred Scott Case: • Decision 1: Dred Scott could not sue for his freedom because he WAS NOT AN AMERICAN CITIZEN !!!  No African American, slave or free, was or could ever be a citizen • Decision 2: Missouri Compromise was UNCONTITUTIONAL and ILLEGAL!!!  Slaves are property and banning slavery in a territory is the same as taking property away from owner.  Congress should be protecting the property rights of slaveholders not banning slavery
  • Lincoln vs. Douglas Debates • As a member of the new Republican Party, Abraham Lincoln ran against Stephan Douglas for Senator of Illinois. • During a series of debates they discussed the issue of slavery – Douglas argued that under popular sovereignty, the people should be the ones to decide if slavery would be allowed in a state – Lincoln argued that slavery went against the Declaration of Independence and that slaves deserved the same basic rights it guaranteed.
  • Effects of the Lincoln vs. Douglas Debates • Republicans and Democrats line up along the issue of slavery • Democrats split over support of Douglas – Southern Democrats did not support him – Northern Democrats support him • Abraham Lincoln and The Republicans gain national recognition and support.
  • John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry • John Brown led a small militia to Harper’s Ferry, Virginia where they took over a federal arsenal, stole weapons • Brown was hoping the slaves in the area would rise up with him, but they did not. • The local militia surrounded and captured him • He was tried and hanged
  • The Effects of John Brown’s Raid: • Northerners saw him as a martyr, courageous, crazy but admirable. • Southerners saw him as a terrorist and claimed the Republican Party supported John brown • John Brown “prophesied” that only bloodshed would rid the country of slavery. I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty, land: will never be purged away; but with Blood. I had as I now think: vainly flattered myself that with out very much bloodshed; it might be done.
  • Election of 1860 • Republican candidate: Abraham Lincoln, representative from Illinois • Democratic Party is split with different candidates • Southern states threaten to secede if Lincoln in wins election, believing he will end slavery.
  • Effects of the Election of 1860 • Lincoln easily won and on Dec. 20, 1860 South Carolina voted to leave the United States, Six more states followed their lead • February 1861, The Southern states that seceded formed the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis as its first president.
  • Major Events of the Civil War
  • Election of 1860: Lincoln's First Inaugural Address • In his 1st Inaugural address he pledged that there would be no war unless, the South started it • His goal is to PRESERVE THE UNION! • Stop the Spread of Slavery, not necessarily end it. He announced “… we are not enemies , but friends. We must not be enemies . Though passion may have strained , it must not break our bonds of affection.
  • South Carolina Secedes from the Union Dec. 20, 1860 • On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede (withdraw) from the United States • They call their new nation: ____________________________ and elect _____________________ as their President.
  • Jefferson Davis’ First Inaugural Address “As a necessity, not a choice, we have resorted to the remedy of separation; and henceforth our energies must be directed to the conduct of our own affairs and the perpetuity of the Confederacy which we have formed.”
  • Presidents and Military Leaders of the Civil War
  • o 16th President o Republican Party o Wants to Preserve the Union. Abraham Lincoln
  • • Fought in the Mexican American War • Leader of the Union Army • Defeated Robert E. Lee to end Civil War • 18th President of US Ulysses S. Grant
  • o President of Confederate States of America o Fought in the Mexican American War o Was a U.S. Senator and Secretary of State o Believed in States’ Rights Jefferson Davis
  • • Leader of the Confederate Army • Highly experienced combat engineer • Graduated top of class at West Point. Robert E. Lee
  • Battle of Ft. Sumter (S. Carolina) April 12, 1861 • first battle of the Civil War • Lincoln sent reinforcements to the Union Fort • Confederate Army attacked the fort and took control. • Motived Northerners to join Union Army
  • Battle of Antietam Sept. 17, 1862 • Union Army suffered many defeats before this victory • Bloodiest one day battle • 23,000 casualties (6,000 dead) • It was the victory Lincoln was waiting for to usher in the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1863 • Lincoln emancipated ONLY the slaves in the Confederate States, not in the Border States. • He didn’t want to anger the slave owners in the Union. • He did this to weaken the South’s ability to fight • He waited until the North won a battle to do the announcement (Antietam)
  • Battle of Vicksburg May 1863-July 1863 • Union Victory, first for Ulysses S. Grant • Gave Grant reputation of feared military leader • Grant and army surround the Confederates, cutting off supplies until they surrendered • Union gained control of the Mississippi River splitting the South.
  • Battle of Gettysburg July 1863 • TURNING POINT OF THE WAR! • 3 day battle • Gen. Lee tried to invade the North. • Terrible Losses  – 51,000 Casualties – 7,786 dead
  • Gettysburg Address Nov. 1863 • Lincoln came to dedicate a cemetery for those killed in the battle • Speech moved many to continue fighting despite the devastation the war brought. • Reminded that, “all men were created equal” and that they had a “government of the people, by the people, for the people.”
  • Abraham Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address Jan. 1865 • Gen William Tecumseh Sherman leads his destructive march across the South, helping Lincoln get reelected. • Lincoln says war will not end until the guilt of slavery is paid for • When war is over the nation must come back together in peace • “With malice towards none, with charity for all…let us strive…to bind up the nation’s wounds…”
  • Lee’s Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865 • Union forces captured the Confederate capital, Richmond, VA. and Gen. Lee was severely outnumbered Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant and was allowed to return home. • The war was over. • William Carney and Phillip Bazaar receive Congressional Medal of Honor William Carney
  • Abraham Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865
  • • April 14, 1865 Lincoln attends a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. • Actor John Wilkes Booth went into the President’s box and shot Lincoln in the head • Lincoln dies the next morning