Reform movement


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  • On a piece of paper, list each of the 6 major reforms. Leave enough space between to take notes on.
  • Revivals were large meetings held in towns all over the country for the purpose of hearing traveling preachers. Religion became more emotional and filled with hope. Sermons taught about hope and charity. Excitement for these revivals leads to an increase in churches and attendance.
  • Reform movement

    1. 1. The Second Great Awakening: Foundation of Reform “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Labor Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Temperance Education Abolitionism Asylum & Prison Reform Women’s Rights
    2. 2. 1825 - 1846
    3. 3. Charles G. Finney (1792 – 1895) The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation. “soul-shaking” conversion R1-2 He believed women should pray aloud in church; he was a supporter of temperance and abolition.
    4. 4. Which 2 denominations experience the greatest growth? Why?
    5. 5. New Religious Denominations also begin as a result of the 2 Great Awakening nd
    6. 6. The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) Joseph Smith (1805-1844)  1830 --> Book of Mormon
    7. 7. The Mormon “Trek”
    8. 8. The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) Brigham Young (1801-1877)  Desert community  Salt Lake City, UT
    9. 9. 2. Temperance Movement 1826 - American Temperance Society “Demon Rum”! Frances Willard R1-6 The Beecher Family
    10. 10. Annual Consumption of Alcohol At the peak of consumption, approximately how many gallons of alcohol per person (per capita) do Americans consume?
    11. 11. 3. Penitentiary (Prison) Reform Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) 1821  first penitentiary founded in Auburn, NY What is a penitentiary? Why did these need to be reformed? R1-5/7
    12. 12. 4. Abolitionist Movement British Colonization Society symbol
    13. 13. William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879)  Slavery undermined republican values.  Immediate emancipation with NO compensation.  Slavery was a moral, not an economic issue. R2-4
    14. 14. The Liberator Premiere issue  January 1, 1831 R2-5
    15. 15. The Tree of Slavery—Loaded with the Sum of All Villanies!
    16. 16. Frederick Douglass (18171895) 1845  The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass 1847  “The North Star” R212
    17. 17. Sojourner Truth (17871883) or Isabella Baumfree 1850 --> The Narrative of Sojourner Truth R2-10
    18. 18. Harriet Tubman (18201913) “Moses”  Helped over 300 slaves to freedom.  $40,000 bounty on her head.  Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.
    19. 19. The Underground Railroad
    20. 20. 5. Women’s Rights  A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a refuge from the cruel world outside).  Her role was to “civilize” her husband and family.  An 1830s MA minister: “The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!”
    21. 21. Early 19 century 1. Couldn’t Women make wills, sign a th 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission. Unable to vote. Legal status of a minor. Single  could own her own property. Married  no control over her property or her children. Could not initiate divorce.
    22. 22. What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way! R2-8
    23. 23. The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society. Angelina Grimké Sarah Grimké  Southern Abolitionists R2-9 Lucy Stone  American Women’s Suffrage Assoc.  edited Woman’s Journal
    24. 24. R2-6/7 1840 --> split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it. London --> World Anti-Slavery Convention Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1848 --> Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
    25. 25. 6. Transcendentalism (European Romanticism)  “Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.”  “Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe.
    26. 26. Transcendentalist Intellectuals/Writers Concord, MA Ralph Waldo Emerson Nature (1832) Self-Reliance (1841) Henry David Thoreau Walden (1854) Resistance to Civil Disobedience (1849) “The American Scholar” (1837) R3-1/3/4/5
    27. 27. The Anti-Transcendentalist: Nathaniel Hawthorne (18041864)  pursuit of the ideal led to a distorted view of human nature and possibilities: * The Blithedale Romance  accept the world as an imperfect place: * Scarlet Letter * House of the Seven Gables
    28. 28. 7. Educational Reform  MA  always on the forefront of public educational reform * 1st state to establish tax support for local public schools.  By 1860 every state offered free public education to whites. * US had one of the highest literacy rates.
    29. 29. Horace Mann (1796- 1859) “Father of American Education”   children should be “molded” into a state of perfection   R3-6 children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials discouraged corporal punishment established state teachertraining programs
    30. 30. Purpose of Education? According to reformers, what was the purpose of education? What is the purpose of education today? What are some differences between 19th century schools and 21st century schools?
    31. 31. Factories continued to spread in the 1800s A wave of immigration in the 1840s brought in new people willing to work for low pay. Skilled workers faced low wages, long hours, and the fear of losing their jobs. Many workers formed trade unions to improve pay and working conditions.
    32. 32. Sarah G. Bagley was one of the strongest voices in the union movement. Founded the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association in 1844. Fought for a 10-hour work day instead of 12-14 hours.
    33. 33. Legacy of Reform •How did these reformers change America? •What reforms (if any) do you see evidence of in America today? •Are they similar or different from those in the 19th century?