On a piece of paper, list each of the 6 major reforms. Leave enough space between to take notes on.
Revivals were large meetings held in towns all over the country for the purpose of hearing traveling preachers. Religion became more emotional and filled with hope. Sermons taught about hope and charity. Excitement for these revivals leads to an increase in churches and attendance.
The Second Great Awakening:
Foundation of Reform
“Spiritual Reform From Within”
Social Reforms & Redefining the
Ideal of Equality
Charles G. Finney
(1792 – 1895)
The ranges of tents, the fires,
reflecting light…; the candles
and lamps illuminating the
encampment; hundreds moving to
and fro…;the preaching, praying,
singing, and shouting,… like the
sound of many waters, was
enough to swallow up all the
powers of contemplation.
He believed women should pray aloud
in church; he was a supporter of
temperance and abolition.
Which 2 denominations experience the greatest
Denominations also begin as
result of the 2 Great
(The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)
1830 --> Book of Mormon
5. Women’s Rights
A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a
refuge from the cruel world outside).
Her role was to “civilize” her husband and
An 1830s MA minister:
“The power of woman is her dependence. A woman
who gives up that dependence on man to become a
reformer yields the power God has given her for
her protection, and her character becomes
Early 19 century
1. Couldn’t Women
make wills, sign a
contract, or bring suit in court
without her husband’s permission.
Unable to vote.
Legal status of a minor.
Single could own her own
Married no control over her
property or her children.
Could not initiate divorce.
What It Would Be Like If
Ladies Had Their Own
The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women
to improve society.
edited Woman’s Journal
1840 --> split in the abolitionist movement
over women’s role in it.
London --> World Anti-Slavery Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
1848 --> Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
“Liberation from understanding and
the cultivation of reasoning.”
“Transcend” the limits of intellect
and allow the emotions, the SOUL,
to create an original relationship
with the Universe.
Resistance to Civil
Nathaniel Hawthorne (18041864)
pursuit of the ideal led to a
distorted view of human
nature and possibilities:
* The Blithedale Romance
accept the world as an
* Scarlet Letter
* House of the Seven
7. Educational Reform
MA always on the forefront of public
* 1st state to establish tax support for
local public schools.
By 1860 every state offered free public
education to whites.
* US had one of the highest literacy rates.
children should be “molded”
into a state of perfection
children were clay in the hands
of teachers and school officials
discouraged corporal punishment
established state teachertraining programs
Purpose of Education?
According to reformers, what was the purpose
What is the purpose of education today?
What are some differences between 19th
century schools and 21st century schools?
Factories continued to spread in the 1800s
A wave of immigration in the 1840s brought in new
people willing to work for low pay.
Skilled workers faced low wages, long hours, and
the fear of losing their jobs.
Many workers formed trade unions to improve pay
and working conditions.
Sarah G. Bagley was one of the
strongest voices in the union
Founded the Lowell Female
Labor Reform Association in
Fought for a 10-hour work day
instead of 12-14 hours.
Legacy of Reform
•How did these reformers change America?
•What reforms (if any) do you see evidence of
in America today?
•Are they similar or different from those in the