• How do should the South be brought back to the
• How will the South be rebuilt after its destruction
during the war?
• How will all the newly freed slaves be integrated
into American society?
• Which branch of government should control the
process of Reconstruction?
Presidential Plans for
Lincoln vs. Johnson
Abraham Lincoln’s Plan
• Once a Southern State
– Had 10% of voters took oath of
allegiance to the Union
– Ratified the 13th amendment
• It could rejoin the Union and
send representatives to
Andrew Johnson’s Plan
• From Tennessee, a border state
and Vice President to Lincoln
• Sympathetic to poor southern
• Pardoned many rebel leaders.
• Recognized newly formed state
governments in the South.
• Did not support full legal rights for
• Believed the President to run
Congress’ Plan for Reconstruction:
The Radical Republicans
• Reconstruction Act 1867
– Established military rule over
Confederate States and
Divides the Confederate
States into 5 military districts
• Rad. Republicans wanted strict
requirements and punishment
for the South
Bringing Freedmen into
Freedman’s Bureau 1865
• Established by Congress.
• Helped freedmen with
food, clothing, and
• Searched for lost family
members, made marriages
legal, and dealt with civil
• Opened schools for children
• Registered freedmen for
The New Republican South
• Carpetbaggers Northerners who went to Southern
states to be apart of the new state governments
• More than 700,000 new freedmen voters
• Hiram Rhodes Revels elected Senator from
Mississippi along with 2,ooo other blacks elected
to public office
• Republican leaders elected throughout the South
– Established schools, hospitals, roads, and
railroads. Banned racial discrimination
Sharecropping: ECONOMIC SLAVERY
• Done to keep plantation farming alive
• Plantation owner would provide the land,
tools, and materials to a freedman to work.
• The freedman would give a share of his
crop to the plantation owner as payment
• It developed into a new form of oppression
of the freedman Many sharecroppers were
also poor white farmers.
The Ku Klux Klan
• Ku Klux Klan- formed
• Secret, terrorist
designed to create
fear on African
• Bombing, lynching,
murder, arson, rape,
The Black Codes
• Laws passed by Southern States. Based on
older slave laws.
• To preserve traditional southern society
despite the abolition of slavery.
– Illegal for freedmen to hold public office.
– Illegal to travel freely, to serve on a juries.
– Freedmen without jobs can be fined or
– Voting Tax and Literacy test before able to
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
• Congress already wanted
him gone for some time
• Congress passed the
Tenure of Office Act which
barred Johnson from firing
• Johnson fired his Sect. of
War and Congress
• He survived the dismissal
vote by one!
The “New South”
• A modern, industrial South has been born!
• Moved away from plantation culture since
slave labor no longer existed.
• Northerners came to the South to help
rebuild, put in new rail lines and develop
new industries including cotton and steel
• Urban Industrialization begins