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Reconstruction
 

Reconstruction

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    Reconstruction Reconstruction Presentation Transcript

    • Rebuilding the Nation
    • Key Questions: • How do should the South be brought back to the Union? • How will the South be rebuilt after its destruction during the war? • How will all the newly freed slaves be integrated into American society? • Which branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
    • Presidential Plans for Reconstruction: Lincoln vs. Johnson
    • Abraham Lincoln’s Plan • Once a Southern State – Had 10% of voters took oath of allegiance to the Union – Ratified the 13th amendment • It could rejoin the Union and send representatives to Congress
    • Andrew Johnson’s Plan • From Tennessee, a border state and Vice President to Lincoln • Sympathetic to poor southern whites. • Pardoned many rebel leaders. • Recognized newly formed state governments in the South. • Did not support full legal rights for freedmen • Believed the President to run Reconstruction
    • Congress’ Plan for Reconstruction: The Radical Republicans • Reconstruction Act 1867 – Established military rule over Confederate States and Divides the Confederate States into 5 military districts • Rad. Republicans wanted strict requirements and punishment for the South
    • Bringing Freedmen into American society.
    • Freedman’s Bureau 1865 • Established by Congress. • Helped freedmen with food, clothing, and medicine. • Searched for lost family members, made marriages legal, and dealt with civil rights issues. • Opened schools for children and adults • Registered freedmen for voting
    • Civil War Amendments: Free Citizens Vote • 13th Amendment: • 14th Amendment: • 15th Amendment:
    • The Aftermath of Reconstruction: Did it work?
    • The New Republican South • Carpetbaggers Northerners who went to Southern states to be apart of the new state governments • More than 700,000 new freedmen voters • Hiram Rhodes Revels elected Senator from Mississippi along with 2,ooo other blacks elected to public office • Republican leaders elected throughout the South – Established schools, hospitals, roads, and railroads. Banned racial discrimination
    • Sharecropping: ECONOMIC SLAVERY • Done to keep plantation farming alive without slavery • Plantation owner would provide the land, tools, and materials to a freedman to work. • The freedman would give a share of his crop to the plantation owner as payment • It developed into a new form of oppression of the freedman Many sharecroppers were also poor white farmers.
    • The Ku Klux Klan • Ku Klux Klan- formed by ex-Confederate soldiers. • Secret, terrorist designed to create fear on African Americans • Bombing, lynching, murder, arson, rape, etc…
    • The Black Codes • Laws passed by Southern States. Based on older slave laws. • To preserve traditional southern society despite the abolition of slavery. • Examples: – Illegal for freedmen to hold public office. – Illegal to travel freely, to serve on a juries. – Freedmen without jobs can be fined or jailed. – Voting Tax and Literacy test before able to vote.
    • Impeachment of Andrew Johnson • Congress already wanted him gone for some time • Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act which barred Johnson from firing is Cabinet • Johnson fired his Sect. of War and Congress impeached him • He survived the dismissal vote by one!
    • The “New South” • A modern, industrial South has been born! • Moved away from plantation culture since slave labor no longer existed. • Northerners came to the South to help rebuild, put in new rail lines and develop new industries including cotton and steel mills. • Urban Industrialization begins