Chapter 4: Evaluating the Author’s message<br />212:189<br />Fall 2011<br />
Make Inferences as you Read<br />Inference: a reasoned guess about what you don’t know made on the basis of what you do kn...
How to Make Inferences<br />Get the literal meaning.<br />Topic, main idea, key details, and organization.<br />Notice det...
Assess the Author’s Qualifications<br />Who is this person?<br />What do they do?<br />Where do they do it?<br />When did ...
Identify the Author’s Purpose<br />Whoa re they writing for?<br />General Audience<br />Interest Group<br />Children<br />...
Distinguish Between Fact and Opinion<br />Fact-can be verified as true or false<br />Data<br />Numbers<br />Experiements<b...
Evaluate Evidence and Data<br />Personal Experience or Observation<br />Statistics<br />Examples, descriptions, illustrati...
Be Careful!<br />Even trusted sources cannot always be trusted! Always get an opinion from an outside source!<br />
Tiananmen Square<br />A single man blocks an approaching column of PLA tanks on Changan Avenue east of Tiananmen Square in...
U.S. War Crimes<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_war_crimes<br />
Analyze Writers Tone<br />Tone: how they “sound.”<br />How does their voice make you feel?<br />Instructive<br />Sympathet...
Annotate as You Read<br />Questions<br />Opinions<br />Evidence<br />Key points<br />Ideas you disagree or agree with<br /...
Synthesize Your Ideas<br />What did the author intend to accomplish?<br />How effectively was this done?<br />What questio...
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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Evaluating the Author’s message<br />212:189<br />Fall 2011<br />
  2. 2. Make Inferences as you Read<br />Inference: a reasoned guess about what you don’t know made on the basis of what you do know.<br />Writers do not always present their ideas directly…<br />Info is left out if it would make the message too long or divert the reader from the central idea/main idea.<br />Author’s assume the reader knows enough to fill in the omitted idea.<br />The writer believes the reader will get more meaning or enjoyment by making the inference.<br />Authors may leave out information to draw you toward making the conclusion they would like you to.<br />
  3. 3. How to Make Inferences<br />Get the literal meaning.<br />Topic, main idea, key details, and organization.<br />Notice details<br />Pay attention to usual information.<br />Add up the facts<br />What is the writer trying to suggest?<br />What do the facts point to?<br />Why did the author include these facts or details?<br />Be alert to clues<br />Word choice, details included or omitted, ideas emphasized, direct commentary, author’s attitude.<br />Verify your inference<br />Sufficient evidence<br />Check for overlooked details.<br />
  4. 4. Assess the Author’s Qualifications<br />Who is this person?<br />What do they do?<br />Where do they do it?<br />When did they start doing it?<br />How many publications do they have?<br />What kind of publications are they?<br />Entertainment Weekly vs. NY Times vs. The Journal of the American Psychological Association<br />What are other people saying about them?<br />
  5. 5. Identify the Author’s Purpose<br />Whoa re they writing for?<br />General Audience<br />Interest Group<br />Children<br />Academics<br />Why are they writing it?<br />Information<br />Persuasion<br />Arguments<br />
  6. 6. Distinguish Between Fact and Opinion<br />Fact-can be verified as true or false<br />Data<br />Numbers<br />Experiements<br />Opinion-cannot be verified as true or false<br />Attitudes<br />Beliefs<br />Feelings<br />Ex. 4-6 pg/ 112<br />
  7. 7. Evaluate Evidence and Data<br />Personal Experience or Observation<br />Statistics<br />Examples, descriptions, illustrations<br />Analogies (comparisons)<br />Historical documentation<br />Experimental Evidence<br />
  8. 8. Be Careful!<br />Even trusted sources cannot always be trusted! Always get an opinion from an outside source!<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Tiananmen Square<br />A single man blocks an approaching column of PLA tanks on Changan Avenue east of Tiananmen Square in Beijing June 5, 1989 (REUTERS/Arthur Tsang)<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tank_Man<br />
  11. 11. U.S. War Crimes<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_war_crimes<br />
  12. 12. Analyze Writers Tone<br />Tone: how they “sound.”<br />How does their voice make you feel?<br />Instructive<br />Sympathetic<br />Persuasive<br />Humorous<br />Nostalgic<br />Tavle 4-1 pg. 119<br />
  13. 13. Annotate as You Read<br />Questions<br />Opinions<br />Evidence<br />Key points<br />Ideas you disagree or agree with<br />Good or poor supporting data examples<br />Inconsistencies<br />Definitions<br />Key terms<br />Contrasting points of view<br />Key arguments<br />Strong words<br />Figures of speech<br />
  14. 14. Synthesize Your Ideas<br />What did the author intend to accomplish?<br />How effectively was this done?<br />What questions does the work raise and answer?<br />What questions were ignored or left unanswered?<br />What contribution to your course content and objectives does this work make?<br />How does the work fit your textbook?<br />How worthwhile is the material?<br />What are its strengths and weaknesses?<br />

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