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The slide presentation is created by NESTOR T. CORPUZ                                                                
G ENERAL   C ONCEPT   O F   L EARNING                                                                
LEARNING  is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values...
LEARNING  is defined as a persisting change in human performance or performance potential  (Driscoll, 2005, p. 9). WHAT IS...
HOW DOES LEARNING OCCUR? LEARNING  is defined further by how it is thought to occur.  In most psychological theories, lear...
<ul><li>Human brains do not receive and process information.  They deconstruct input and then reconstruct meaning. </li></...
<ul><li>Half of the human brains cortex is devoted to processing visual information.  We process visual information more e...
L EARNING  T HEORIES   F OR   T ECHNOLOGY   I NTEGRATION                                                                
O BJECTIVISM <ul><li>Also known as DIRECTED INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories associated with OBJECTIVISM </...
C ONSTRUCTIVISM <ul><li>Also known as INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories associated with CONSTRUCT...
OBJECTIVISM FROM CONSTRUCTIVISM. DIFFERENTIATE  OBJECTIVISM Learning is transmitted knowledge. Learning has to be teacher ...
Behavorist Theory by B. F. Skinner Learning is based on the notion of operant conditioning. Behaviors that are rewarded te...
Gagne's Theory of Instruction <ul><li>The Nine Events of Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining Attention  6.  Eliciting th...
Information-Processing Theory by Atkinson and Shiffrin The mind has three stores.  The sensory registers receive informati...
System Theory and Systematic Instructional Design Gagne and Briggs believed that learning is most efficient if it is suppo...
Social Activism Theory by J. Dewey The ultimate aim of education is to help individuals understand their culture and shoul...
Scaffolding Theory by L. Vygotsky Adults (experts) learn differently from children (novices).  The difference in the learn...
Child Development Theory by J. Piaget Children undergo stages of cognitive development.  These stages are sensorimotor (bi...
Discovery Learning by J. Bruner Children remember things better if they discovered these things by themselves. Learning is...
Multiple Intelligence Theory by H. Gardner There are at least eight independent types of intelligence.  These are linguist...
Directed Ins <ul><li>Choose objectivism or directed instruction when: </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and content to be learned a...
Directed Ins <ul><li>Choose constructivism or inquiry-based learning when: </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts to be learned are ab...
Directed Ins L EARNING   E NVIRONMENT                                                                                     ...
WHAT IS A  LEARNING ENVIRONMENT? The place and setting where learning occurs  A learning environment is a place or setting...
The place and setting where learning occurs  DESCRIBE THE COMPONENT PARTS OF THE 21 ST  CENTURY  LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. CLI...
The place and setting where learning occurs  DESCRIBE DISTANCE EDUCATION  AS A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. CLICK ON THE IMAGE  T...
DIFFERENTIATE  ANDROGOGY FROM PEDAGOGY http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw04/papers/refereed/lund/paper.htm
Directed Ins L EARNER   M OTIVATION                                                                                       ...
WHAT IS  LEARNER MOTIVATION? Learner Motivation  is defined as the psychological feature that arouses a learner’s desire t...
DESCRIBE THE COMPONENT PARTS OF KELLER’S ARCS MODEL FOR MOTIVATION.   http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_5.htm Jo...
REFERENCE LIST Reference List
 
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X assignment2 nestorcorpuz

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Learning Theories used in Technology Applications

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  1. 1. The slide presentation is created by NESTOR T. CORPUZ                                                                
  2. 2. G ENERAL C ONCEPT O F L EARNING                                                                
  3. 3. LEARNING is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values and wisdom. It is the goal of education, and the product of experience. WHAT IS LEARNING? http://projects.coe.uga.edu/ITFoundations/index.php?title=Learning_Theories_and_Instructional_Strategies#Clarifying_Theories.2C_Models.2C_and_Strategies
  4. 4. LEARNING is defined as a persisting change in human performance or performance potential (Driscoll, 2005, p. 9). WHAT IS LEARNING? Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
  5. 5. HOW DOES LEARNING OCCUR? LEARNING is defined further by how it is thought to occur. In most psychological theories, learning comes about as a consequence of the learner’s experiences and interaction with the world. (Driscoll,2005, p. 9), and this interaction is understood as an individual process. Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Human brains do not receive and process information. They deconstruct input and then reconstruct meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Every brain is wired differently from every other brain, individually processing information in ways unique to that wiring. </li></ul><ul><li>People are natural explorers, using hypothesis testing to process information. This tendency can be observed in early infancy and is probably genetic. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice increases learning. Repetition and rehearsal are critical for the successful creation of long-term memories. </li></ul><ul><li>Allen, M. W. (2007). Designing successful e-learning . San Francisco, California: Pfeiffer. </li></ul>HOW DO HUMANS LEARN?
  7. 7. <ul><li>Half of the human brains cortex is devoted to processing visual information. We process visual information more effectively than any other type. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus attentional states facilitate learning. The maintenance of such states maybe directly proportional to the emotional content of the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>People do not learned optimally from continuous, long stretches of linearly supplied information. </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed brains do not learn the same way as non-stressed brains. </li></ul><ul><li>Allen, M. W. (2007). Designing successful e-learning . San Francisco, California: Pfeiffer. </li></ul>HOW DO HUMANS LEARN?
  8. 8. L EARNING T HEORIES F OR T ECHNOLOGY I NTEGRATION                                                                
  9. 9. O BJECTIVISM <ul><li>Also known as DIRECTED INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories associated with OBJECTIVISM </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorist Theory by B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne’s Theory of Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Information-Processing Theory by Atkinson and Shiffrin </li></ul><ul><li>System Theory and Systematic Instructional Design </li></ul>Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION? WHAT ARE THE LEARNING THEORIES FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION? WHAT ARE THE LEARNING THEORIES
  10. 10. C ONSTRUCTIVISM <ul><li>Also known as INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories associated with CONSTRUCTIVISM </li></ul><ul><li>Social Activism Theory by J. Dewey </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding Theory by L. Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Child Development Theory by J. Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery Learning by J. Bruner </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligence by H. Gardner </li></ul>Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION? WHAT ARE THE LEARNING THEORIES
  11. 11. OBJECTIVISM FROM CONSTRUCTIVISM. DIFFERENTIATE OBJECTIVISM Learning is transmitted knowledge. Learning has to be teacher directed. Instruction should be directed, systematic and structured. Students should all pass the same test and standardization means accountability. A few technology applications, such as drill and practice and tutorials, are associated with directed instructions. CONSTRUCTIVISM Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted. Instruction is student centered. Students do activities that help them generate their own knowledge. Students show what they have learned in different ways, not just on written test. Some technology applications, such as web-based learning and multimedia production, are associated with inquiry-based learning. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon.
  12. 12. Behavorist Theory by B. F. Skinner Learning is based on the notion of operant conditioning. Behaviors that are rewarded tend to be exhibited more often than those that are not. Positive and negative reinforcements increase desired behaviors with rewards. Punishment decreases undesirable behaviors with aversive stimuli Learning happens inside the mind and it can not be seen directly. Learning can only be inferred by observing behaviors. Learning can be understood, explained, predicted entirely on the basis of observable events, namely, the behavior of the learner along with its environment antecedents and consequence. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH O BJECTIVISM ?
  13. 13. Gagne's Theory of Instruction <ul><li>The Nine Events of Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining Attention 6. Eliciting the performance </li></ul><ul><li>Informing the learner of the objective 7. Providing feedback about </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning performance correctness </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting the stimulus material 8. Assessing the performance </li></ul><ul><li>Providing learning guidance 9. Enhancing retention and transfer </li></ul>Learning is shaped by providing optimal instructional conditions. These conditions are the nine events of instruction. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH O BJECTIVISM ?
  14. 14. Information-Processing Theory by Atkinson and Shiffrin The mind has three stores. The sensory registers receive information a person senses through receptors. After few seconds, the information is lost or is transferred to the short-term memory. The short-term memory holds the information for few seconds. If the information is not processed then it is lost . Otherwise, it will be transferred to the long-term memory. The long-term memory will hold the processed information indefinitely. Learning is encoding information into human memory. The mind is compared to a computer in which the mind, like a computer, stores information. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH O BJECTIVISM ?
  15. 15. System Theory and Systematic Instructional Design Gagne and Briggs believed that learning is most efficient if it is supported by a carefully designed system of instruction. Gagne promoted the instructional task analysis while Briggs offered systematic methods of designing training programs. When these two areas of expertise were combined, it resulted to what is called the system approach to instructional design or systematic instructional design. The theory was a collaborative work of Robert Gagne and Leslie Briggs. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH O BJECTIVISM ?
  16. 16. Social Activism Theory by J. Dewey The ultimate aim of education is to help individuals understand their culture and should develop their relationship to and unique roles in the society. Learning is individual growth that comes about through social experiences. Students should be engaged in activities connected to real-world issues and problems. The curriculum of the school should consider the interests of the students and should be taught as integrated topics, rather than as isolated skills. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH C ONSTRUCTIVISM ?
  17. 17. Scaffolding Theory by L. Vygotsky Adults (experts) learn differently from children (novices). The difference in the learning ability between the adults and the children is called the Zone of Proximal Development. Adults should teach the children in a scaffolding manner. Teaching should be done in such a way that the instruction is aligned to where the child is, in his or her development stage and help him or her build experiences from that stage. Learning is cognitive development shaped by individual differences and the influence of culture. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH C ONSTRUCTIVISM ?
  18. 18. Child Development Theory by J. Piaget Children undergo stages of cognitive development. These stages are sensorimotor (birth – 2 years), preoperational (2 – 7 years), concrete operational (7 – 11 years) and formal operations (12- 15 years). Children develop through these stages by their interaction with their environment. Learning is cognitive growth through neurological and social maturation. Children experience disequilibrium when they encounter unknowns in their environment, respond with assimilation to fit something into their views or accommodation if they want to change their views of something. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH C ONSTRUCTIVISM ?
  19. 19. Discovery Learning by J. Bruner Children remember things better if they discovered these things by themselves. Learning is cognitive growth through interaction with the environment. Teachers believed that discovery learning would happen only if a structured type of learning was given first to the learners. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH C ONSTRUCTIVISM ?
  20. 20. Multiple Intelligence Theory by H. Gardner There are at least eight independent types of intelligence. These are linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalist intelligence. Learning is shaped by innate intelligence. Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. DESCRIBE THE LEARNING THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH C ONSTRUCTIVISM ?
  21. 21. Directed Ins <ul><li>Choose objectivism or directed instruction when: </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and content to be learned are clearly defined, concrete, and unambiguous, and a specific behavioral response can indicate learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Students need individual tutoring/practice to learn and demonstrate prerequisite skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to acquire skills as quickly and efficiently as possible. </li></ul>Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. WHEN CAN OBJECTIVISM OR DIRECTED INSTRUCTION BE USED IN TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION?
  22. 22. Directed Ins <ul><li>Choose constructivism or inquiry-based learning when: </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts to be learned are abstract and complex; teachers feel that hands-on activities are essential to help students see how concepts apply to real-world problems and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers want to encourage collaboration and/or allow alternative ways of learning and showing competence. </li></ul><ul><li>There is time to allow unstructured exploration to motivate students and help them discover their own interest. </li></ul>Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition) . Boston MA: Ally & Bacon. WHEN CAN CONSTRUCTIVISM OR INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING BE USED IN TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION?
  23. 23. Directed Ins L EARNING E NVIRONMENT                                                                                                                                
  24. 24. WHAT IS A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT? The place and setting where learning occurs A learning environment is a place or setting where learning occurs . The environment has two components, namely, instruction and learners. The instruction can be delivered in different modes. The learner subjects himself into the requirements of the instruction in order to attain a desired objective. The attainment of a desired objective is evaluated to determine if the instruction is effective and if learning actually occurred.
  25. 25. The place and setting where learning occurs DESCRIBE THE COMPONENT PARTS OF THE 21 ST CENTURY LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. CLICK ON THE IMAGES TO PLAY THE VIDEO 21 st Century Classroom 21 st Century Learner 21 st Century Instruction http://www.youtube.com/
  26. 26. The place and setting where learning occurs DESCRIBE DISTANCE EDUCATION AS A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO PLAY THE VIDEO This video presents my idea of Instructional Technology and Distance Education. . http://www.youtube.com/
  27. 27. DIFFERENTIATE ANDROGOGY FROM PEDAGOGY http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw04/papers/refereed/lund/paper.htm
  28. 28. Directed Ins L EARNER M OTIVATION                                                                                                                                
  29. 29. WHAT IS LEARNER MOTIVATION? Learner Motivation is defined as the psychological feature that arouses a learner’s desire to attain a well-defined instructional goal. This motivation can be described as extrinsic motivation which is the learner’s desire for rewards and avoidance for punishment or intrinsic motivation which is the learner’s curiosity and desire for mastering achievement.
  30. 30. DESCRIBE THE COMPONENT PARTS OF KELLER’S ARCS MODEL FOR MOTIVATION. http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_5.htm John Keller created the ARCS model for motivation. The acronym ARCS stands for Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction A TTENTION –The learner should be subjected to a stimuli in order to arouse his interest so as to get his attention. R ELEVANCE – In order for the learner to be interested in instruction, the learner must understand fully the relevance and the benefits that he will get out of listening to the instruction. C ONFIDENCE – The learner should have a good amount of faith in himself that he is capable of meeting the requirements of instruction. S ATISFACTION – The learner should experience some form of a reward after the learning experience.
  31. 31. REFERENCE LIST Reference List
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