Filipino Early Revolts by Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz
Philippine Revolution From Indio to Filipino
The Filipinos began to fight the Spaniards the moment they settled permanently in 1565 and continued this resistance to the end of their rule in 1898. In October 1889, a group of ilustrados in Paris, signing themselves as the “Filipinos”. The Philippine Revolt patterns must be treated holistically and not separately.
Land problems Revolts are categorized into three Resistance to Spanish- imposed economic and religious institutions Personal and religious
Personal Motives <ul><li>The revolts were personally led by former barangay datus and maharlikas, as well as babaylans and katalonas, who had lost their prestige and power in their communities with the coming of the Spaniards, and were supplanted by leaders chosen by the Spaniards and by the Spanish friars. </li></ul>
Personal Motives <ul><li>Lakandula and Soliman Revolt in 1574 due to sequestration of their landed properties and even toleration of the encomendero’s abuse and oppression of their people. </li></ul><ul><li>The conspiracy of the maharlikas headed by Agustin de Legazpi and Martin Pangan. </li></ul>
Personal Motives <ul><li>In 1621-22, an outlawed babaylan, Tamblot of Bohol employed magic and religion in alluring the unbelieving people to abandon Christianity and to return to their former beliefs. In no time, he was crushed by Juan de Alcarazo, alcalde mayor of Cebu. </li></ul>
Personal Motives <ul><li>The rebellion in Carigara (Leyte), led by Bankaw, Datu of Limasawa </li></ul><ul><li>Francisco Dagohoy’s revolt in Bohol. This was the longest revolt in Philippine history taking 85 years to quell (1744- 1829). </li></ul><ul><li>Silang Revolt in Ilocos </li></ul><ul><li>Palaris Revolt in Pangasinan </li></ul><ul><li>Magtangaga Revolt in Cagayan </li></ul>
Religious Motives <ul><li>Two Christianized Isnegs of Northwest Cagayan, Miguel Lanab and Alalaban of Capinatan (Apayao), revolted in 1625, by mutilating and beheading the Dominicans Fr. Alonzo Garcia and Bro. Onofre Palao. </li></ul><ul><li>A nativist revolt with religious overtones was led by Tapar in Oton, Iloilo, whom proclaimed himself, “God Almighty”. </li></ul>
Religious Motives <ul><li>The Magtangaga Revolt in Cagayan in October 1718 led by Francisco Rivera, a vissionary who appropriated for himself the title of “Papa Rey”. </li></ul><ul><li>Ermano Apolinario de la Cruz’s revolt which was divided into two phases: phase 1 from 1832- 1841 was from the founding of the Confradia de San Jose in 1832 to the death of Dela Cruz in 1841, and phase 2 from 1870- 71, with the revival of the Confradia in 1870, terminating with the revolt and capture of Januario Labios in 1871. </li></ul>
Resistance to Spanish- Imposed Institutions <ul><li>Among the major rebellions belonging to this class were those in the late 16 th century led by Magalat of Cagayan, the Sumodoy and the CARAGA revolts in the 17 th century. </li></ul>
Failed because the plot was discovered. Leaders were executed. Magat Salamat, Martin Pangan, Juan Banal, Pedro Balingit Desire for Independence Tondo, Cuyo, Calamianes 1587-1588 Todo Failed. A woman betrayed the revolt. Abuses of Spanish Encomienderos Pampanga 1585 Pampanga Failed Lakandula Failure of Gov. Lavezares to fulfill Legazpis’ promise to Lakandula Tondo, Navotas 1574 Lakandula Result Leader Cause Place Date Name of Revolt
It was not materialized due to Fr. Pedro Sto. Tomas preaching. Felipe Cutabay, Gabriel Dayag Oppression of the Indios by the Spanish officials Cagayan Valley 1621 Irrayas Failed Desire for religious toleration Northern Luzon 1601 Igorot Failed. Hired Assasins killed the Magalat. Magalat Abuses of the Tribute Collectors Cagayan 1596 Magalat Failed. Easily suppressed. Refusal to pay tributes, tyranny of tribute collectors Cagayan, Ilocos Norte 1589 Cagayan- Ilocos Result Leader Cause Place Date Name of Revolt
Failed. Leaders were pardoned and later killed when they revolted anew. Miguel Lanab, Aldaban Desire for independence and punishment of a woman whom displeases certain Spanish officials Cagayan 1625, 1627, 1639 Cagayan Failed Bankaw Pagali Desire for Religious Toleration Leyte 1621 Bankaw It was suppressed by the Spaniards and Cebuanos. Babaylan Tamblot Desire to abandon Christianity and return to old religious faith Bohol 1621- 1622 Tamblot Result Leader Cause Place Date Name of Revolt
Leaders were captured and were beheaded. Juan Ponce Sumoroy and Pedro Caamug Caused by Gov. Fajardo’s order to send Visayan laborers tyo Cavite for shipbuilding Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, Zamboanga 1649- 1650 Visayan Failed Pedro Ladia Weariness from Spanish oppression Malolos, Bulacan and Southern Luzon 1643 Ladia It was suppressed. Dissatisfaction with Spanish rule Cagayan 1639 Cagayan Failed Dissatisfaction of townspeople to Spanish rule Caraga, Northern Mindanao 1629- 1631 Caraga Result Leader Cause Place Date Name of Revolt
Failed. Leaders were executed. Juan Magsanop, Pedro Almazan and Gaspar Cristobal Spanish aggression San Nicolas, Bacarra, Laog, Ilocos 1661 Ilocos Failed Andres Malong and Pedro Gumpaos Quarrel between Fr. Gorospe and Malong Binalatongan, Pangasinan 1660- 1661 Pangasinan General amnesty granted to rebels. Initial payment for services. Francisco Maniago Failure of officials to pay rice purchased; repeated requirements for polo y servico Bacoor, Cavite and Pampanga 1660- 1661 Pampanga Result Leader Cause Place Date Name of Revolt
Failed. Diego was assasinated . Diego silang and Gabriela Silang Desire to expel the Spaniards from Ilocos Ilocos 1762- 1763 Silang Failed but rebels were pardoned. Francisco Dagohoy Refusal of Fr. Morales to give Dagohoy’s brother a Christian Burial Bohol 1744- 1828 Dagohoy Failed Matienza Usurpation of Filipino lands by religious orders Bulacan, Morong (Rizal), Cavite, Laguna 1745- 1746 Agrarian It was suppressed. Tapar Desire to put up a modified form of Christianity Oton, Panay 1663 Panay Result Leader Cause Place Date Name of Revolt
Failed Apolinario dela Cruz Being a native, Pule was denied to be admitted as a monk. He founded the religious brotherhood, Confradia De San Jose, which the government outlawed and ordered to be dissolved. Quezon Province 1840- 1841 Hermano Pule Failed. Rebels were crushed by government troops. Pedro Mateo Government monopoly of basi manufacturing Ilocos 1807 Basi Failed. Palaris was executed Juan Dela Cruz Palaris Demand for reforms especially the changing of local officials Pangasinan 1762- 1765 Palaris Result Leader Cause Place Date Name of Revolt
Moro Resistance <ul><li>Most united groups were the Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>They were bounded by Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous military expeditions failed to subdue them. They fought back by raiding the coastal towns under Spain. </li></ul>
Absence of national leader Lukewarm spirit of nationalism among Filipinos Inadequate training and preparation for warfare
The Development and Growth of Filipino Nationalism
Nationalism <ul><li>It is the love of one’s country and people. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a feeling of oneness that binds the people to a common past and a common identity. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes pride in one’s cultural heritage, support for the country’s aspirations, patriotism and advocacy of national independence. </li></ul>
What facilitated the development of Filipino nationalism?
<ul><li>Influx of liberal ideas from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of modern technology </li></ul><ul><li>The opening of Philippines to world trade </li></ul><ul><li>The opening of the Suez Canal – traveling to other countries exposed the Filipinos to modern ideas of liberty. </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of new middle class- occupied a high position in society because of their wealth and prestige. They also criticized the unequal treatment of the Spaniards to the Filipinos. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Secularization Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two kinds of priest during the Spanish Regime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular - Spanish priests who belong to any of the religious orders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular - Priest who obtained their religious training in the Philippines who were under the direct control of the bishops and archbishops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filipino priests were not only denied access to the parishes but some of them were removed from their parishes to accommodate the regulars . This event turned out to be a racial discrimination against Filipino secular priests. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Cavite Mutiny- Soldiers and workers at the Cavite Arsenal rebelled against the withdrawal of their privileges of non-payment of taxes and exemption from forced labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Trial and execution of GOMBURZA </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusionment over Spanish rule- common sufferings under tyrannical rule of the Spaniards fostered a feeling of unity among Filipinos. </li></ul>
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