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Microsoft Word - BGW Complete Student_ With Answers
 

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    Microsoft Word - BGW Complete Student_ With Answers Microsoft Word - BGW Complete Student_ With Answers Document Transcript

    • Business God’s Way Paul Nyamuda Student Manual 1
    • Lesson 1 Knowing YourselfI. What does knowing yourself consist of?Knowing yourself consists of: A. Knowing what you value. B. Knowing what you stand for. C. Knowing your key attributes. D. Knowing your key roles. E. Knowing your goals. F. Knowing your strengths. G. Knowing your limitations H. Knowing your stress triggers and button-pushers. I. Knowing your convictions and preferences. J. Knowing your individual style.Activiyy 1.1.Make a list of 5-8 key attributes you would like to identify yourself with:I am…………………………I am…………………………I am…………………………I am…………………………I am…………………………I am………………………… 2
    • I am…………………………I am…………………………Activity 1.2. What is your behavioural profile?1. Cool Blue; High Compliance; AnalyticPossible Characteristics – cautious, rigid, sober, pessimistic, reserved, unsociable, quiet, task andthinking oriented.2. Fiery Red; High Dominance; DriverPossible Characteristics – touchy, restless, aggressive, excitable, changeable, impulsive, goal-oriented, optimistic, active, task and thinking oriented.3. Sunshine Yellow; High Influence; ExpressivePossible Characteristics - Sociable, outgoing, talkative, responsive, easygoing, carefree, lively,people and feeling orientation.4. Earth Green; High Steadiness; AmiablePossible Characteristics – Passive, careful, thoughtful, peaceful, controlled, calm, even-tempered, people and feeling orientation.Most of us are a mixture of these but will tend to have one which is more dominant than theothers. The goal is to be able to recognize and then adapt and connect with various styles. Eachstyle has gifts it brings to team settings but also has over-extensions and liabilities. It is good forus to be aware of these in ourselves and in others.II. Why is it important to know yourself? A. Knowing yourself helps you to focus. B. Knowing yourself helps you to set boundaries. C. Knowing yourself helps you to navigate in decision-making. D. Knowing yourself helps you shape other’s expectations of you. E. Knowing yourself helps you to hire complementary people. F. Knowing yourself helps you in clarifying your goals. 3
    • G. Knowing yourself helps you in managing stress. H. Knowing yourself helps you in pacing yourself.III. What are some things that shape our self-concept? A. Our self-concept is shaped by our upbringing. B. Our self-concept is shaped by our education. C. Our self-concept is shaped by our culture and worldview. D. Our self-concept is shaped by our (positive and negative) experiences. E. Our self-concept is shaped by our interpretation of events. F. Our self-concept is shaped by our revelation of God’s nature and character.Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable--if anything is excellent or praiseworthy--think about such things. Php 4:8Meditating on the scriptures outlined in the section below will assist you in the process of havinga healthy biblical self-concept.IV. What has changed because I am in God? A. I have been transformed in Christ. • I have been crucified with Christ (Gal 2:20) • I am reconciled to God (Rom 5:11) • I am justified (Rom 5:1) • I am completely forgiven (Col 1:14) • I have been transferred from Satan’s domain to the Kingdom of Christ (Col 1:13) • I have received the Spirit of God (1 Cor 2:12) • I am free from condemnation (Rom 8:1) • I have been given the mind of Christ (1 Cor 2:16) • I am a stranger to this world (1 Pet 2:11) • I am an enemy of the devil (1 Pet 5:8) B. I have an inheritance in Christ. 4
    • • I have Christ’s righteousness (Rom 5:19; 2 Cor. 5:21)• I am a joint heir with Christ, sharing His inheritance with Him. (Rom 8:17; Gal 4:7)• I have been given great and precious promises by God (2 Pet 1:4)• I am blessed with every spiritual blessing (Eph 1:3)• I have been given spiritual authority (Luke 10:19)C. I have a unique relationship with God.• I am a child of God - He is my father (John 1:12; 1 John 3:1,2)• I may approach God with boldness and freedom (Eph 3:12)• I have peace with God (Rom 5:1)• The Holy Spirit lives in me (1 Cor 3:16)• I am a temple in which God dwells (1 Cor 3:16)• I am a branch on Christ’s vine (John 15:1, 5)• I am Christ’s friend (John 15:5)• I am united to the Lord, one spirit with Him (1 Cor 12:27)• I am God’s workmanship (Eph 2:10)D. I have a significant position in God.• I am hidden with Christ in God (Col 3:3)• I am Christ’s ambassador (2 Cor. 5:20)• I am one of God’s living stones, being built up in Christ as a spiritual house (1 Pet 2:5)• I am a prince in God’s kingdom (John 1:12; 1 Tim 6:15)• I have direct access to God through the Holy Spirit (Eph 2:18)• I am the salt of the earth (Matt 5:13)• I am the light of the world (Matt 5:14)• I am chosen by Christ to bear fruit which remains (John 15:6)• I am God’s co-worker (2 Cor 6:1; 1 Cor 3:9)• I am a minister of the new covenant (2 Cor 3:6)• I am a minister of reconciliation (2 Cor 5:18,19)• I am an expression of life in Christ (Col 3:4)• I am a member of Christ’s body (1 Cor 12:27)E. I can feel secure in God.• I have access to the wisdom of God (James 1:5)• I am helped by God (Heb 4:16)• I am tenderly loved by God (Jer 31:3)• I am the sweet fragrance of Christ to God (2 Cor 2:15)• I am chosen by God, holy and dearly loved. 5
    • • I am born of God, and the evil one cannot touch me (1 John 5:18) • I have been made complete in Christ (Col 2:10) • I cannot be separated from the love of God (Rom 8:35)V. How do I change the way I see my business?A. I change the way I see my business by identifying the current paradigms.A paradigm is 1. A mental model 2. A way of seeing 3. A frame of reference 4. A filter through which one sees the worldB. I change the way I see my business by shifting from incorrect paradigms?A paradigm shift occurs when the established way of thinking fails to provide effective solutionsenabling us to achieve our goals. 1. A paradigm shift requires true repentance from mindsets that are not God-honouring. 2. A paradigm shift involves embracing a learning culture. 3. A paradigm shift involves thinking outside the box from time to time. 4. A paradigm shift requires a culture that entertains the questioning of its current reality. 5. A paradigm shift requires a culture that allows for creativity and innovation. 6. A paradigm shift requires a culture that is flexible in its outlook. 7. A paradigm shift requires a maturity that is not emotionally tied to the current practices. 8. A paradigm shift involves asking the right questions in order to generate the right solutions.Albert Einstein once said that we cannot solve today’s problems by thinking in the same way wethought when we created them. In other words, for lasting change to occur, we need to shiftparadigms.Activity 1.3Wayne Cordeiro has developed an interesting DESIGN to assist people in discovering their lifepurpose. Reflect on the questions below to examine your preference.DESIGN for life purpose D – What do you DESIRE? 6
    • E- What have been your positive and negative EXPERIENCES? S- What are your SPIRITUAL GIFTS? I-What is your INDIVIDUAL STYLE? G- What is your GROWTH PHASE? – Do you need mentorship/training or ready to launch out? N- What are your NATURAL ABILITIES?Activity 1.4The Passion TestAnswer the following questions to crystalise your work preferences. 1. What do you do that is almost effortless from your perspective but seems like a daunting task to others? 2. In what arena do people consider you to be the “go-to” person? 3. What do you enjoy about your current job? 4. What do you wish you could delegate? 5. What do you do that elicits the most praise and recognition from others? 6. What environments do you look forward to working in? 7. What kind of advice do people seek from you? 8. What environments do you avoid? 9. If you could focus more of your time and attention on one or two aspects of your job, what would they be? What one subject can you enjoy talking about for many hours? 10. What specific concerns preoccupy your mind, breaking into whatever else youre thinking about? 11. What do you most enjoy doing for others? 12. Lets pretend youve reached the end of your life, and youre in heaven looking back on it. Whats the one thing you want to be most happy about having done or having been? 13. Who out there in the world have you come to care about the most? Who do you most want to help, enable, or reach? 14. In light of your strengths, weaknesses, gifts and passions, describe your optimal working environment. • What kind of people would you enjoy working with? • Would you want to work as part of a team or on your own? • Would you want to travel? If so, how much? • Would you enjoy a highly structured environment? • Would you work better in a loosely structured environment? 15. In light of your strengths, weaknesses, gifts and passions, what kind of things would you want to be responsible for? • Do you see yourself in management, sales, marketing? • Would you enjoy working with numbers, people or both? • What kind of assignments would you enjoy tackling? • Would you enjoy a job that requires a great deal of writing? • Would you enjoy a job that requires verbal skills?Acknowledgements: 1. DESIGN is adapted from Doing Church as a Team, Wayne Cordeiro(1998, Honolulu, New Hope). 7
    • Lesson 2 The Nature of Leadership Activity 2.1 I would like you to reflect for a while on your childhood and early working years: Make a list of the leaders you followed? What was it about each of these people that inspired you to follow them? What, in your opinion was the prevailing leadership philosophy that impacted you in your upbringing? List the strengths and weaknesses of such a way of thinking? Activity 2.2. How do you view those in authority? How have your past experiences played a part in developing this view of authority figures? How has your view of authority influenced your approach to leading?Warren Bennis: “ We need to move to an era in which leadership is an organizational capabilityand not an individual characteristic that a few individuals at the top of the organisation have.”I. What are some common tensions that business leaders face? A. Principle-based leadership VS Localised contextual leadership approaches. B. Vision VS current reality. C. Facilitation of leadership development VS Accountability for results. D. Detailed Knowledge of corporation VS hands off empowerment. E. Maintenance of stability VS leadership and leverage of change. F. Clarity VS Management of ambiguity. 8
    • G. Maintenance of competitive edge VS employee satisfaction and well-being. H. Experience VS Education VS Competence. I. Counsel VS Personal Gut-feel judgmentII. What are some common problems with business leaders today? A. Many leaders have limited leadership to a particular personality type, usually the charismatic personality. B. Many leaders have limited leadership to a position. C. Many leaders are greatly skilled in a discipline but ineffective at leading people. D. Many leaders are effective in gaining followers but ineffective in developing leaders. (Exo 18:13-17) E. Many leaders are ineffective at replacing themselves. F. Many leaders are blinded by their desire to climb the corporate ladder at all cost. G. Many leaders do not have a balanced lifestyle. H. Many leaders think in terms of making money in the short-term at the expense of building organizations that last.III. What are some signs of an unhealthy leadership environment? A. An environment where people are reprimanded for authenticity (Telling it as it is) B. An environment where leaders stay silent or lie about things that matter. C. An environment where leaders can not give reasons for corporate cultural practices. D. An environment where leaders fear challenging the status quo. E. An environment where leaders are out of touch with customer needs and don’t move beyond preserving the inherited institution. F. An environment where feedback focuses on failure rather than a learning culture being created. G. An environment where the performance culture is judgmental and not participative and supportive. 9
    • H. An environment where leadership goals are continuously unclear resulting in succumbing to the long entrenched expectations of followers. I. An environment where leaders are not being fueled by purpose but only by needs. J. An environment where leaders are unaware of the quality of their employees, followers and future leaders. K. An environment where people are discouraged from thinking for themselves. L. An environment where people do not grow as persons (in skill, in intellect and relationship etc). M. An environment where people do not see God as their source of promotion.IV. What is the difference between good leaders and great leaders in business? Activity 2.3 Do you have in you any of this false humility? Describe some situations where you have you shied away from having people follow you? What belief structures in your mind led you to this resistance to influencing people? What do you think was Satan’s strategy in this? Have you repented (changed your mind) with regards to these beliefs? If not, spend time with God at this point and write down what you hear him say to you.John 14:12 I tell you the truth, anyone who has faith in me will do what I have been doing. He will do even greater things than these, because I am going to the Father.Anyone with followers is a leader. But legends are different. I define a legend as leaders wholeave a legacy. Their influence lives on. Legends are great leaders. They stand out because theyhave that edge that differentiates them. In a number of key areas legends differ from leaders. Ihave identified seven key dimensions in which legends differ from leaders. 10
    • From Leaders to Legends Dimension Leaders Legends1 Managing Relations Leaders are always moving ahead, Legends are clear about who they which is necessary for followers. give their best to. They have very However, it is possible to be a leader clear relational standards and and still a man pleaser. One can be a priorities. They are willing to change leader and still manipulated. These the nature of their relationships. people end up winning battles but not They understand that if your eye the war. They end up popular for a causes you to sin, pluck it out. They period but not achieve greatness. are so consumed with their cause that they will not allow themselves to get distracted by high maintenance relationships which don’t take them to their destination. They are able to say no. They are not man pleasers. You can’t manipulate them. They don’t have a strong need for approval from men.2 Managing Ambiguity Leaders will often struggle with The mind of a legend works ambiguity. We sometimes only see a differently. Legends can entertain single dimension in a leader. They are ambiguity. We can see this in God’s bold, or they are intelligent etc. nature. There is the kindness and severity of God. Jesus came with grace and truth. Legends somehow have multiple dimensions we see in them. For example, Jim Collin’s Level 5 leaders have a self effacing humility whilst at the same time embracing a bull-dog tenacity. Legends will often have interesting combinations e.g. great intellect coupled with the ability to learn from a child. Great talent coupled with extraordinary humility. Great humour and ability to laugh at themselves combined with extraordinary contemplative ability.3 Managing Choices Leaders make choices. These however The summation of their legendary are not always consistent with their status is seen in choices they make. cause. In order to get followers they They consistently make choices sometimes compromise their values. aligned to their values and vision. This is not compromised. The nature of their wisdom is that they know what to do next. It may involve tough, unpopular choices, but they make them. This ability to make the right decisions when it matters, ends up distinguishing them.4 Managing Time Leaders can manage time well, but that Legends manage their purpose. In so does not necessarily mean they are doing they manage their time well. doing the right thing. This is because their activities and daily habits are aligned to their cause, their vision and values. 11
    • 5 Managing Weakness Leaders often try to be great all- Legends have learned to be honest rounders. They are often in denial about their weaknesses with no concerning their weaknesses. The result shame. They put their strengths to is that they put a lot of effort into being work and manage around their average. weakness. They hire according to their weakness. They understand that we are not called to socialize or team build along the lines of least resistance. They do not see themselves more highly than they ought. They can end up attracting the best in the world and they become the greatest cheerleaders.6 Managing Failure Leaders are often experts at covering up Legends acknowledge failure but their failures. They might react by have a way of learning from it and overcompensating for their failures putting it behind them and without acknowledging them. Others embracing the future. Paul describes dwell so much on past failure that they this as a mark of maturity. A do not embrace their future. righteous man can fall 7 times but Discouragement gets the better of them. still get up. This type of perseverance is necessary for shift from leader to legend.7 Managing Learning Leaders acquire lots of knowledge but Legends are passionate learners. don’t always learn. Learning is the They do not limit their learning to acquisition of knowledge resulting in a formal environments but have change of mind and change of behavior. multiple sources of learning. They Passion for knowledge is not the same are extremely inquisitive, and adjust as a passion for learning. their behavior based on their findings. They understand that the organizations which are the most competitive are the ones which learn fastest. V. How do you gain credibility as a leader? Kouzes and Posner suggest that credibility has three aspects to it: Integrity, Competence and Inspiration. You will find that your reasons for people following you will probably be able to fit into these three categories. A. Integrity B. Competence C. Inspiration. It’s important to remember that BOTH Integrity and Competence are important in leadership. 12
    • And David shepherded them with integrity of heart; with skillful hands he led them. (Psalms 78:72) Activity 2.4 Reflect for a while on your level of integrity. Are you an example of authenticity? – This can be summed up in the word candour; “what you see is what you get?” When we discuss candour we see that there are levels of truth; with God, yourself and others: Integrity: How truthful are you with God? How truthful are you with yourself? How truthful are you with others? (In word and presentation) Competency: What competencies/skills do you have which you can sharpen? What is your action plan for increasing your competencies? How can such an endeavour increase your credibility? State with whom. Inspiration: Why do you think Jesus was so inspiring? What does the bible say about why people were amazed by Him? What can you do to become a little more inspiring?Having said all these important things about leadership, in the next lesson we will look atservant-hood. If we talk about leadership without talking about servant-hood we have missed thebiblical approach to leadership development no matter how stimulating our theories sound.Please note a number of things here. When the mother of James and John asks for her sons to bepromoted, Jesus says to her; you do not know what you are asking. Many believers today areasking God for spiritual promotion but He is asking them the same thing “Do you know whatyou are asking? Are you able to drink the cup I have drunk.” In the next lesson we will explorehow to create a servant-leadership culture in the workplace. 13
    • Appendix I – Leadership ResearchI asked a group of approximately 102 participants from 40 companies (many Blue Chip) to divide into 13 groups and give 5 keystrategies/leadershifts (Changes in leadership approach) necessary in South African business leadership. This took place on 14/15September 2008. The following were the responses I received.Group 1 • Boundaryless (no silos) • Positioning right people • People seen as an asset not an expense • Performance ownership program (POP). Parking bay issues. • Live and die for values (uncompromising customer service, integrity, winning through teamwork, professionalism, passion for brand, effective communication, long-term customer relations)Group 2 • Communication (feedback) • Empowerment (with accountability) • Implementation (not just good ideas) • Clear purpose and direction • Fairness and transparency (with diversity)Group 3 • Reduce power distance (interact beyond problems) • Encourage ownership (knowing the bigger picture) • Getting feedback • Integrity • Behaving how you want others to • Showing commitmentGroup 4 • People are important and must be seen as an asset • Knowing your team so you can influence them (profiling) • Knowing your powerbase (using influence and not position power/pulling rank) • Authenticity (being an example) • Vulnerability (not being afraid to expose your weakness, although do so with discretion) • Knowing how to play chess (positions of people etc)Group 5 • Strategy formulation (multidirectional not top down) • People empowerment (not centralized, not delegating) • Breaking from mediocrity (celebrating innovation) • Role clarity (not jumping lines of command, role ambiguity)Group 6 • Break away from patriarchal contract • Break away from hierarchical approach • Create feedback culture (including implementing feedback) • Celebrating and including all in your success • Leaders stepping back so team can enjoy success • Establishing brave leadership 14
    • • Moving from a blame shifting cultureGroup 7. • Clarifying vision (knowing your values) • Grooming your leaders • Integrity (benefiting the company and not just you) • Growing in leadership and not just management • Long-lasting legacy sustainable after you leave • Mutual respect in team setting (caring) • Maintaining and building trust • CredibilityGroup 8 • Accountable (not blaming saying it’s not my role) • Having strength analysis (being passionate) • Being able to adapt and fit your environment/surroundings. • Knowing where to cut your losses the last one standing. • Give credit where it’s due. • Increase in risk taking. Have more risk takers. • Do the insights colour profiles. (Personality/behavioural profiles)Group 9 • Choosing the right people o People whose values align with the organization o Then motivation followsGroup 10. • Empowering culture • Embracing real growth and not just change • Decisiveness • People lower down the organization need to know the Y factor (Big picture, Making vision stick)Group 11. • Responsibility • Risk-taking • Communicating the vision • Right people in right places • Working to people’s strengths • Integrity of input • Feedback and communicationGroup 12. • Education (continuous learning) • Ready to change • The big picture, overall goals (knowing what to share or not to share)Group 13. • Non-punitive environment (exploring why people mess up) • Encouraging ownership • Creating a positive culture or else the culture creates itself by default • Leaving a legacy • Diversity • A people oriented culture 15
    • Lesson 3 Embracing Servant LeadershipIntroductionWhen discussing the issue of servant-hood we can categorise our discussion into two:The inner attitudes of serving and the outer service of a servant. For the sake of our study in this manualwe will focus on the attitude of a servant. The issue of being a servant leader is really an issue of innerattitude. Our focus is not so much on what someone does but on who they are. It is one thing to do actsof kindness, it is quite another to be a kind person. When you are a kind person, everything you do isstamped with kindliness. It’s the same with being a servant leader; it’s your nature as opposed to actsyou do from time to time depending on how you are feeling.When you hear the word “servant” what do you think of?From what you know about servant-hood, would you say you have taken on the nature of a servant or isit something you simply add on to your daily life?Because of our various backgrounds and experiences, we all have a different picture of what itmeans to be a servant. But what was in Jesus’ mind when he said we must be a servant of wewant to be great? Let’s explore some biblical definitions of servant-hood.I. What is a servant?A. A servant is someone at the complete disposal of another.The Hebrew word Ebed means a person who is at the complete disposal of another (Gen.24:1 – 67). Thisapplies to a slave who has given up personal rights in order to serve his master.B. A servant is someone who works 16
    • Abad is another Hebrew word which generally means to work. In Gen 2:5; 3:23, it uses the wordmeaning a person who tills the ground.C. A servant is willing to do menial tasks (Ex 28:35-43)Sharath means a doer of menial and insignificant tasks. In Ex 28: 35 – 43 we see priests referred to as asharath.How wiling are you to do menial and seemingly insignificant tasks?Are there any tasks that you see as being beneath you? Perhaps you force yourself to do them, but stillfeel embarrassed in your heart. Reflect on this for a while.D. A servant is bonded to something (Rom 1:1; Phil 1:1; Titus 1:1)The word doulos is used in the Greek. It signifies bondage. It speaks of a servant who has willinglybonded himself to a master by some legal obligation. Paul refers to himself as this in his letters: Rom1:1; Phil 1:1; and Titus 1:1. It’s important to be a servant of Christ. If you are not bonded to Christ youwill be bonded to something else.What are you in bondage to? Jesus is our model for servant-hood. He was not a pushover. It is interesting that this is the specific thinghe says we must emulate; “Come to me, for I am gentle and humble in heart”. He also commands us toserve like he did. In Philippians we are told we need to have the same attitude as Jesus specificallyspeaking of how he humbled himself.Some may think this is an impossible task but the reality is that Christians are empowered to serve. Read1 Pet 4:10,11b. Sometimes people do not serve because they feel they will get no recognition for it butin Rev 2:19 we see that Jesus notices it.E. A servant has a target or directionWhat do you think is important to the Lord out of all your activities? Which ones does the Lord reallynotice? 17
    • We can make a choice concerning who we will serve; God or Satan. We will always be serving in eithercamp. The following scriptures illustrate this:2 Cor 11: 14-15: serving Satan2 Cor 6: 3: serving God1 Tim 4: 6: serving Christ2 Cor 11:23: servant of the gospel2 Cor 3: 6: servant of the new covenantCol 1:25 a servant of the churchThe questions to answer are:What or who are you serving?Who or what have you had to stop serving?F. A servant can be trusted.Warren Bennis describes four ingredients that leaders have that generate and sustain trust:1. Constancy: Whatever surprises leaders may face, they themselves do not create any for the group.Leaders are all of a piece; they stay on course.2. Congruity: Leaders walk their talk. In true leaders there is no gap between theories they espouse andthe life they practice.3. Reliability: Leaders are there when it counts; they are ready to support their co-workers in themoments that matter.4. Integrity: Leaders honour their commitments and promises. 18
    • II. What are the marks of true servant-hood?A. True servant-hood is a key aspect of Christ-likeness.Key scriptures in the example of Jesus:Luke 12:37; Luke 22:27; Jn 13; Mark 10 43; Jn 12:24-26; Phil 2:8Are you a servant in terms of your thinking, your emotions and your will? Sadly, many are servantsonly in part.B. True servant-hood requires death to self.The “kenosis” is the divine self-emptying of the Son of God, and because of this, we also who are in Himcan do the same; empty of ourselves. Tom Marshall states that “ in the Incarnation Jesus created aservant nature, and became a servant, and that through our incorporation in him in His death andresurrection we can come in touch with and into union with that nature.”In verse 6 of Phil 2 we see that we need to give up any grasping. What have you been grasping?Look at the following examples and discuss Jesus’ view of status. Luke 14:8-11; John 13:12-15. What didJesus do with status?In becoming a servant we need to first overcome man’s ways. This really means, dying to self. Jn12:24,25.What aspects of self do you have to die to?God’s ways are fundamentally different from man’s ways (Is 55:10,11). We are told in Romans 12:1-2;do not conform to the pattern of this world. 19
    • Study the following scriptures with regards to this and ask God to work His word in you. Let the worddwell richly within you:Mt 16:24; Col 3:3; 1 Cor. 6:19-20Before you can truly serve others you have to be a bondservant of Christ. This is an essential part ofservant leadership and is necessary if the nature of our service is going to be pure. If not, our service willalways have a hook on it. In other words we will serve people in order to get something out of it.What are the different motives people can have for serving?C. True servant-hood involves purity of motive.Another word which is translated as servant is the Hebrew word Sakiyr. This is a person who works forwages by day or by year. This was a hireling who could not eat the Passover of the master’s family (Ex12:3 – 45). The aim of the believer should be to forsake being a Sakiyr and move to a place where one isa love-slave. Leviticus 25:39 –42. A Sakiyr was not worth nearly as much as a love-slave was to hismaster. Sadly, in the church today we have many Sakiyrs. They serve God only for what they can get outof it. Their mindset is “God and the whole world owe me everything”. The Love-slave has a differentmindset, “I owe God everything, and He owes me nothing”. When we come to this place, we placeourselves at God’s disposal and He can use us mightily. The motivation of a servant is so important, asJeremiah 17 states “God searches the heart and examines the mind to reward each one according to hisconduct.”Do you see yourself acting as a sakiyr at times? If so, what do you think causes this attitude?2 Cor 9:7 shows that all we do, must be done cheerfully and not under compulsion. Those who followservant leaders do not do things out of manipulation, flattery or guilt.Is there any following you are doing out of manipulation, flattery or guilt? If so, reflect on why andallow the Lord to deal your heart. 20
    • We see that Jesus was so focused on His Father’s will even from childhood. This shows us that we canteach our children the same. Already in Mt 18:3 we see Jesus state that He was about his father’sbusiness.D. True servant-hood is voluntary.The first thing to understand about the biblical concept of bondservants is that it was voluntary. Ourview of servant-hood has been marred by events which have taken place in history and as a result thishas eroded in our minds this powerful biblical metaphor.In 2 Cor 6:11 we see how Paul exchanged all which is valued highly by man, for this servant-hood. Whywould someone do this? He was a love-slave. Remember how a love-slave would say, “Where I am goingto go no one has ever treated me like you do.”Have you come to a point in your life where you have aligned your will to God’s will? Reflect on this fora while.Do you have a puncture in your ear, marking that you are a love-slave? Reflect on this.In Romans 1:14 Paul speaks of being obligated. Once he’d chosen to indenture himself to Christ he wasobligated to carry this out. He did not feel the Lord owed him anything.E. True servant-hood requires inner strength.What images come up in your mind when you think of Jesus?One of the things that amazes me is that many Christians think that Jesus was a wimp. They think thatbeing a servant means one is a wimp. Yet when we look in scripture we are told that the people wereamazed because he taught as one with authority, unlike the scribes and the Pharisees. Therefore, if wewant to be Christ-like, one of the main qualities we need is to walk in authority. Authority and Christ-likeness cannot be separated. Look at how Jesus could be direct: 21
    • “Satan, get behind me” Mt 16:23“Obey what I command you” Jn 14:15“Jesus’ hand of authority is always directed by His heart of compassion and grace” Marc DupontWere you taught servant-hood as a child? Was it effective?How can we train children to be servants?F. True servant-hood involves inner security.Jesus’ security and significance:As a servant, Jesus was whole. When we do not deal with our insecurities the tendency is to compensatein all sorts of ways which are contrary to true servant-hood.The following verses show that a servant knows who he is:Luke 3:22; Ps 2: 8;1 Jn 4:18;1 Cor 3:21-23In John 13 we see that Jesus knew He had come from God. In Jn 14:30 he stated that Satan has nothingin him.G. True Servant-hood involves passing the Servant Test.The servant test is illustrated in the following scriptures:1 Kings 19; 1 Kings 19:21; 2 Kings 3:11d 22
    • We see here that Elisha’s larger ministry began with menial service. It is also important to understandthat a leader continues to serve throughout his or her life.Describe situations where you have had to go through the servant test. Did you pass?It’s important to note that as a leader grows in spiritual authority he must now serve even more peoplein an even greater capacity.A prospective servant-leader indicates that they do not have a servant heart when he or she asksquestions like: • Why am I overlooked every time? • Why should I have to suffer? • Why do people not give me proper appreciation or my rights? • What are other signs that someone is not yet a servant? “In short, the enemy is strong natural servants who have the potential to lead but do not lead, or who choose to follow a non-servant.” -Robert GreenleafAppendix IThe Diako Project1. Planning your serving 23
    • As we attempt to grow as servants we need to ask ourselves the following questions: • Who am I to serve? • How am I to serve? • Where is their pain? • What do they value? • What do they fear?2. The ProjectFor 3 consecutive weeks you need to carry out a specific servant endeavor and then document yourreflections at the end of each week, based on the questions outlined below. In the fourth week yourtask is to influence someone else to do a servant endeavor and then interview them using the samequestions that are outlined below. These questions are to help you in reflecting and not to limit your response: • Describe what your act of service was? • Who did you serve and why? • How did you influence and impact the person you served? • How did you impact and influence anyone else to do the same? • How has this endeavor affected your relationship with the person you served? • Describe your attitude and feelings while serving? • How is this different from the last time you served? (Last week’s endeavor) 24
    • Lesson 4 VisioneeringIntroductionOne of the major heart cries of this generation is the need for visionary leaders: “Give to us clear vision that we may know where to stand and what to stand for – because unless we stand for something, we shall fall for anything”. Peter Marshall (US Presbyterian pastor 1902-1949) Isaiah 46:9-11 Remember the former things, those of long ago; I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me. I make known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. I say: My purpose will stand, and I will do all that I please. From the east I summon a bird of prey; from a far-off land, a man to fulfill my purpose. What I have said, that will I bring about; what I have planned, that will I do. 25
    • I define visioneering as:“the process of receiving and incubating a God-given dream and subsequently making it compellingenough to mobilize others who become passionately engaged in its progressive realization,implementation, and evaluation.”Activity 4.1.What do you think is the impact of this well known vision statement to both employees andcustomers? Levi People love our clothes and trust our company. We will market and distribute the most appealing and widely worn apparel brands. Our products define quality, style and function. We will clothe the world.I. What mindset is necessary to produce a great vision?A. A mindset that has overcome the limitations of its personality. 1.The Analytic or Cool Blue gets mired in details, is rigid and quick to dismiss vision as “pipe dreams”. 2. The Driver or Fiery Red can become over-stretching and put strain on self and/or others. They can be too insistent and dismissive of conflicting input. 3. The Expressive or Sunshine Yellow may have their vision poorly defined. They might find it difficult to settle on one idea. They may ignore practical considerations. 26
    • 4. The Amiable or Earth Green may go for what’s safe. They may be reluctant to rock the boat or disrupt others. They often will prefer familiar routine.B. A mindset that embraces God’s magnitude (Eph. 3:20).C. A mindset that knows that God has already prepared good works for us to do (Eph 2:10).D. A mindset that has confident expectation (Ps. 2:8).E. A mindset that recognizes God’s incomparably great power at work in us (Eph. 1:19).II. What are the attributes of a strong vision?A. A strong vision is God ordained (Is.46:9-11)B. A strong vision is widely shared.C. A strong vision is memorable.D. A strong vision often becomes a conviction.E. A strong vision is attractive, inspiring and motivating.F. A strong vision is worthwhile.G. A strong vision can be broken down into effective goals. Effective goals are characterized by: 1. they are clear and specific 2. they are written down 3. they are measurable 4. they are time-bound 5. they are challenging but attainable 6. they are supported by appropriate rewardsH. A strong vision is achievable albeit challenging.III. What does the vision-making process involve?The vision-making process may consist of aspects of this 5 Step Process: 27
    • Step 1: Building the Foundations • Receiving from God • Acknowledging your history • Building your visioning team • Defining the Values and Purpose Underlying the Vision.Step 2: Visioneering • Creative brainstorming and collating the output. • Identifying those who will “champion” the vision (Initiators).Step 3: Sharing the Vision • Communicating and engaging others • Creating mechanisms to make the vision stickStep 4: Making Strategic Choices • What do we need to start doing? • What do we need to stop doing? • What needs to be unlearned? • Assessing the vision to reality gap – where are we now in relation to where we want to be? • What resources do we have and what challenges/obstacles do we face? • What strategic choices do we now need to make?Step 5: Action Planning • What are the priorities? Who is going to do what and by when?III. What are the major hindrances to visioneering? A. An inability to engage with the abstract future. “Visions are too general and non-specific.” B. Not making time for it. “I have no time for all this visioning.” C. Fear of change. “Why rock the boat.” 28
    • D. Fear of accountability. “I don’t want to restrict myself by writing it down.” E. Confusing results with process. This is where the difference between process and outcomes is unclear in our minds. F. Inability to monitor progress. This happens when you don’t know where you are at with regards to goal achievement. G. Lack of alignment between goals and rewards. Often companies will change their goals but not realign the rewards. H. Not seeing visioneering as a systemic process. It’s a holistic approach where what’s written on the wall is happening down the hall. The vision statement is reinforced by the values, culture, and reward systems. It is seen in what is measured and celebrated throughout the organization.IV. What are the key questions in the monitoring and evaluation of vision alignment?Go through this process, adapted from Ian Mc Cormick, to assist you in monitoring where you are withregards to vision alignment.A. Our Vision 1.What values does your organisation use to guide its behaviour? 2.How widespread is this view in your organisation? 3.What will people be saying about your organization 5 years from now? Suppliers; Customers and Newspapers? 4.What is the vision of your organisation? (What do you intend to become in the next 5 years?)B. Our Mission 1. What is the mission of your organisation? (How do you intend to realize your vision?) 2. What is your reason for existence? 3. Who are your customers? 4. How will you measure your success? 29
    • 5. What are your controlling/regulatory bodies? 6. How are you positioned?C. Our Team 1. What major changes would have to take place before your vision can be fully realized? 2. Highlight what things need to be changed in your organisation? (Both leaders and members) 3. In what ways do your leadership team members complement each other? 4. What are the competence gaps in your current leadership team? 5. If your leadership team were to increase in size, who would the possible team players be, and what value would they add to the team?D. Our organisation 1. List 3 things that give you the greatest satisfaction in the organisation? 2. List 3 things that bring you the greatest dissatisfaction in this organisation? 3. What in your opinion is special and unique about this organisation? 4. How do you think the organisation is seen by those who are not a part of it? 5. What would you like this organisation to be known for in 5 years time?E. Our culture 1. The clarity of our common vision 2. Our sense of mission 3. The leadership style 4. The quality of our training and development process 5. The quality of our orientation process 6. The morale of the people 7. Practising what we preachF. Our Relationships 1. Our internal relationships as a leadership team 2. Our relationship with those we serve 3. The sense of “Us” and “Them” 4. Your sense of belonging 5. The quality of our communications 6. Your own personal growth G. Our Systems 1. Our financial position 2. Our financial systems 3. Our financial integrity 30
    • H. Our Structures 1. The balance between chiefs and Indians 2. The effectiveness of our current organizational structure 3. The sense of liberty 4. The sharing of workI. Our Resources 1. The use of your gifts and skills 2. The use of our buildings 3. The use of our money J. Our Activities 1. The quality of our programmes 2. The quantity of our activities 3. The effectiveness of our activities 4. The alignment of our activities to our vision and values K. People 1. People’s enthusiasm 2. People’s involvement 3. People’s commitment L. Public Awareness 1. Our visibility with the public 2. Our reputation with the public 3. The goodwill we have from the community 4. Our contribution to the community 31
    • Further StudyFor a more comprehensive study on Visioneering see the School of Ministry Vision & Values Course byBill Scheidler. 32
    • Lesson 5 Creating Corporate CultureIntroductionA lot of people do not understand that culture is man-made in the sense that it is formed through eventswhich take place in history in order to help individuals cope with their environment. When we begin toexplore how it has been formed it becomes easier to unlearn it. The redundant organizational rituals beginto be demystified and new rituals formed. This is important because a key role of a leader is to createculture. It is also important for us to also keep in mind that ‘organizational culture’ exists in the broadercontext of our national culture.Organizational culture has a great influence on decision-making and problem-solving at all levels.Therefore, if we want to influence organizational decision-making, we need to first explore theassumptions behind the cultural framework.We are beginning to discover the role of leaders as architects. In the past, there has been the tendency tofocus on building things that are tangible, but more and more it is becoming clear, that leaders have a rolein creating culture.In doing business God’s way its important to know that God values pattern and principle. His kingdomhas a culture and throughout scripture we see God establishing and reinforcing His pattern even when itwould go against the grain. The Kingdom of God is a counter culture. Examine this in the followingverses:2 Tim. 2:2 “….entrust to reliable men who will also be able to teach others also.”Rom. 12:2 “Do not be conformed to the pattern of this world.”Titus 2:1-6 “….In everything set them an example by doing what is good…”Jesus came and created a new culture by challenging the status quo.For lasting change to occur in our organizations, a change in organizational culture becomes necessary. Itis crucial for leaders to know how to bring about cultural transformation to their organizations. In order 33
    • for this to happen, they need to understand what organizational culture is. Therefore, this lesson starts byexplaining what organizational culture is.I. What is Organizational Culture?A. Organisational culture is shared and implicit.Organizational culture is “the set of a shared, taken for granted implicit assumption that a group holdsand that determines how it perceives, thinks about and reacts to its various environments” (Schein,1996). As these environments are continuously changing, the organizational cultures often need tochange too.B. Organisational Culture consists of Values, Norms and Beliefs.C. Organisational culture is often unnoticed until it interfaces with other cultures.Enculturation is the term used to describe how we tend to be unaware of our worldview or culture. ‘Theair is unnoticed by us till we meet another atmosphere’. Eurocentricism or Afrocentricism is a form ofenculturation.D. Organizational culture manifests itself in various forms. 1. Objects (shared things) 2. Talk (shared sayings) 3. Behaviour (shared doings) 4. Emotions (shared feelings)E. Organisational culture operates at different levels.Organizational culture encompasses a wide range of phenomena: 34
    • 1. Surface features: values, rituals, customs, forms of expression 2. Preconscious factors: symbols, ideology, and norms 3. Deep structures: Basic assumptions, worldviews, cognitive and logical systemsHow would you describe your organization’s culture at all three levels?F. Organisational culture often stems from three main sources.Schein (1996) points three sources from which culture springs. 1. Beliefs, values, and assumptions of founders 2. Learning experiences of group members 3. New beliefs, values and assumptions brought by new membersII. What is the function or purpose of organsisational culture?A. Organisational culture gives members an organizational identity.B. Organisational culture facilitates guiding principles for work processes.C. Organisational culture creates a framework for decision-making.D.Organisational culture shapes behaviour by helping members make sense of their surroundings.E. Organizational culture is a good metaphor for communicating lasting change. 35
    • III. In what ways can we categorize corporate culture? There are a variety of metaphors commonly used to describe various types of corporate culture. Outlined below is a construct used by some. A. The Sage: Hierarchy Culture 1. Needs a full cognitive understanding of any change before it will be embraced 2. Influence and power stems primarily from knowledge and understanding 3. Has a strong internal focus maintained through effective procedures and efficient organisation 4. Emphasis on quality is driven by an inner need for quality as much as the external need to satisfy customers. B. The Caregiver: Clan Culture • More emphasis is paid to relationships than to task • Internal communications are informal, sensitive and low key • Staff work individually to task, while working collectively towards a common cause • Management style will be ‘ask’ rather than ‘tell’ – minimal use of ‘command and control’. C. The Creator: Adhocracy Culture • Seeks to inspire and empower staff – any control is indirect • Is a dynamic, sociable and outward looking work environment • Abounds with innovative entrepreneurs • A desire to ‘make it happen’ ensures that change is embraced with open arms. D. The Warrior: Market Culture • Is goal driven and action oriented • Responds quickly and decisively to changes in the market • Values ‘determination and vigour’ ahead of ‘sensitivity and diplomacy’ • Runs a ‘tight ship’ and runs it well.We can also categorize corporate culture by other constructs such as leadership style (Autocratic,paternalistic, consultative, participative, delegative, abdicative.); degrees of control (internal orexternal); the nature of reality; truth; time; space; activity and relationships. 36
    • IV. What is the impact of culture on corporate performance?The culture of an organization will determine its decision-making process and in turn, its overallperformance. A. Culture affects the description of problems and how we come about to solutions. B. Culture affects our view of possibilities. C. Culture affects how we measure, formulate and define success (cognitive maps). D. Culture affects the implementation strategies and how they are carried through. E. Culture affects our reward systems; who we reward and why. F. Culture affects what is tolerated and what is celebrated. G. Culture affects decision-making on promotions and dismissals. H. Culture affects how we allocate resources.How has your organization’s culture shaped your decision-making process?V. How can one diagnose the culture of one’s organization?Earlier on, it was pointed out that culture operates at three levels. We stated that the third level is thelevel of assumptions and worldviews. People share the same world-view when there are sharedassumptions about the more abstract, general, deeper issues mentioned above. As you go throughthese, reflect on your own worldview and culture. Ask yourself what aspects of your organizationalculture have been detrimental to your corporate performance and quality of work life.You can diagnose aspects of your organisation’s culture by answering the following: 1. What beliefs are strongly held? 2. How do parents/leaders teach children/employees to behave? 3. What do people regard as major sins? 4. What do people do in crises? 5. What rituals do people perform? 6. What are the greatest fears people have? 7. Who are the trendsetters? 8. Who are the cultural heroes? 37
    • 9. What is expressed in the art forms of the people? 10. What aspects of the culture are most resistant to change? 11. What are considered to be words of wisdom?What is the prevailing culture in your organization?Describe how these patterns of thought have influenced your organization (negatively or positively).Which of these words below are reflections of organizational Leadership culture of firms you haveworked for or are familiar with? Autocratic, paternalistic, consultative, participative, delegative,abdicative.VI. In what way can a new culture be established in an organization? Albert Einstein: “we cannot solve today’s problems by thinking in the same way we thought when we created them.” Peter Senge: “The problems we face today are the result of yesterday’s solutions.”Its amazing how so many leaders today are attempting to bring about radical change without changingtheir systems radically. There is the tendency to expect a change in output whilst remaining with thesame inputs. A lot of change strategies have only focused on business processes, but often this onlyresults in short-term change. This is simply because those executing these processes are still operatingfrom the same worldviews and paradigms.Schein (1996) outlines a number of culture-embedding mechanisms that leaders can intentionally use tocreate culture. Culture-Embedding Mechanisms 38
    • Embedding Mechanisms Articulation and Reinforcement MechanismsWhat leaders pay attention to, measure, control, Design and structure.and reward on a regular basis.How leaders react to critical incidents and Rites and rituals.organizational crises.Deliberate modeling, teaching, and coaching. Space design, facades, and buildings.Criteria by which leaders allocate rewards and Legends and myths about people and events.status.Criteria by which leaders recruit, select, promote, Formal communication of organizationalretire, and ex-communicate organizational philosophy, values, and creed.members.ConclusionThere is an organizational culture that is developing today. It is characterized by long workinghours, cost reduction, a short-term contract culture, and so-called “stable insecurity” inorganizations. (This is characteristic of the new entrepreneurial contracts within largeorganizations). It is paramount that we understand that we can create culture and do not have toleave it to chance. Understanding organizational culture is therefore a central and foundationalaspect of organizational behaviour.Reflect on your own family or business: • How would you describe the culture of your household/business? What have you done to create this culture, consciously or subconsciously? • If there is a new culture you would like to create in your family/business, what embedding mechanisms can you use to create such a culture? 39
    • Lesson 6 Leading Lasting ChangeIntroductionBusiness leaders take people from A to B. Such movement requires change. We cannot experience newrealities without changing. We therefore cannot speak of leadership without speaking of change,because leaders are managers of change. It is crucial for potential leaders to learn the art of being achange agent. Many people are looking to leaders today in the hope that the leaders will bring change.Effective leaders have learnt the art of transformation, and particularly how to deal with people duringtimes of transition. Many leaders lose their credibility because they fail to carry their followers throughtimes of change. “Nothing endures but change”. Hericlitus“History has demonstrated that the most notable winners usually encountered heartbreaking obstacles before they triumphed. They won because they refused to become discouraged”. BC Forbes “Simply doing more of what worked in the past…will be too incremental. More than that, it will be tooslow. The winner of the future will be those that can develop a culture that allows them to move faster, communicate more clearly and involve everyone in a focused effort to serve more demanding customers”. Jack Welch – General ElectricI. What are some of the major forces that cause change? Forces for change can be put into two categories; external and internal: 40
    • A. There are external forces for change 1. Demographic – age, education, skills, gender, immigration 2. Technological advancement – automation 3. Market changes – mergers and acquisitions, domestic and international competition, recession 4. Social and political pressures – war, values, leadership pressuresB. There are internal forces for change 1. HR problems 2. Management decisionsII. What are the different types of change?Change can move from one area to another as shown in the diagram below: 41
    • Adaptive change Innovative change Radically innovative change As we progress from adaptive change to radically innovative change there is also an increase in • the degree of complexity, cost and uncertainty • potential for resistance to changeList personal examples of these three types of changeIII. What are some key assumptions to have when carrying out change strategies?A. The changing process involves learning something new, as well as discontinuing current attitudes;B. People are the hub of change so it is about people changing; 42
    • C. Resistance to change is found even when the goals are highly desirable;D. For effective change to take place, the new behaviours need to be reinforced;E. Many changes today are radically innovative and as a result, there is greater potential for resistanceto change.IV. What are the components of Leading Change A. Management and awareness of existing corporate norms and politics. B. Inquiring, calculated risk-taking willing to challenge the status quo C. Creation of guiding coalition for change D. Multi-dimensional Systems thinking E. Designing, Monitoring, and Evaluating the change process F. Being Decisive and Tough-Minded G. Determination and resilience H. Empathy and understanding of psycho-social change processes.It is important to know what our strengths and weakness are with regards to the various components ofchange management. Each of these components requires unique ways of processing information.V. Why do people often resist change?A. Low-self-esteem. • Fear of change often stems from a low self-esteem, where individuals doubt their ability to cope with the change.B. Identity issues. • Individuals will resist change if their personal identity is closely tied to the status quo; • Change is enjoyable to some who have no stake in the status quo • Loss of status or job securityC. Fear of the unknown. • Fear of the unknown can keep us from taking promotions or resigning. 43
    • • A key to coping with change is to try out the new before giving up the old. Pilot projects as opposed to wholesale change, are often good because of this approach.D. Poor change management by change agents. • For example, change agents have often made the mistake of thinking humans are just rational and therefore they often forget the emotional aspects of change. As a result they often place too much emphasis on trying to improve their communication of the rational aspect. • Lack of warning or tact • Poor timing • Culture of mistrust • Personality of change agentE. Negative previous experiences of change.Managing change therefore involves an understanding of cultural change, which was discussed in anearlier lesson.F. The impact of change on relationships and current social networks.G. Peer PressureH. Different predispositions to change.People handle change differently based on their predispositions. We need to be aware of the strengthsand weaknesses of our tendencies.1. Analytics/Cool Blues • needs to be convinced that the change makes sense in order to go along with it • looks for a logical basis for the change, become baffled by non-logical factors (e.g. politics) • needs time to think about the change and the impact • will be adaptable to the change as long as personal principles are not threatened • uncomfortable and unwilling to take risks 44
    • • will be challenged by the overwhelming hurdles the change may present2. Amiables/Earth Green • will be open to change that is aligned with their own values • will be very resistant if deeply held (and often unexpressed) values are threatened or compromised • will focus on the actual details of the change and not be attracted to the “what could be” scenarios • will be reflective, open, and willing to listen to all points of view • will be concerned about impact on people during the change • will want the process of change to be people-friendly and inclusive3. Expressives/Sunshine Yellow • will be very willing to try new approaches • often the initiators of change • will want the change to benefit people, and will devise change processes to pull people together • may not have a good sense of their own energy commitments during change, and can become overloaded • will be aware of and responsive to others’ needs during the change • will want to have a sense of being in control and moving forward during the change4. Drivers/Fiery Red • will be prone to introduce change when in a position of control, but can be less comfortable with change when not in control of the process or outcome • will have strongly held views of what ought to happen, which will usually be based on previous experience of what has worked in the past • capable of dealing with multiple factors and complex change situations • will manage change rationally by using planning tools • will seek to impose a structure, striving to eliminate any ambiguity • will support change if there is a convincing rationale or tangible benefit, but may not be inclined to support change when there is no visible problem they can see.Often our predisposition towards change is due to factors based on life experiences. (E.g. how a childlearns to deal with change or ambiguity). List various changes you have had to go through during the last ten years. Categorise them into adaptive, innovative and radical change. 45
    • • How did you cope with each of these transitions? (Include how you felt) • Do you generally deal well with change? If not, why? • Does the way you deal with change vary according to the situation? • What would make you deal with change better? • Think of a time when you have had to lead a change process. This can either be at home or at work. How did you help the people to cope with the transition? What strategies did you use?VI. How do we learn cope with change?A. We cope with change by co-operating with God’s process. (Rom 12:2; 2 Cor. 3:18)B. We cope with change by trusting that God takes us from glory to glory.C. We cope with change by building our capacity in adaptability and resilience. Adaptability and Resilience Radar GraphActivity: Identify your highest and lowest points and discuss. 46
    • Andy LothianD. We cope with change when the reason for our change becomes larger than our resistance ofchange. Vision x Next Step x Motivation > Resistance to change– Gleicher’s model (cited in ‘Organizational Transitions’ by Beckhard, R. & Harris, R., 1987) 47
    • E. We cope with change through education and communication.F. We cope with change through participation and involvement in the change process.When change strategies are being considered, the correct timing is necessary for itsimplementation.Organisational change is less successful when leaders fail 1. To tell employees about the process of change. 2. Provide generous information about the change. 3. Inform employees about the reasons for the change. 4. Have meetings to address them and respond to questions concerning the changes.VII. Why Change Does Lasting Change often not Occur? Expert on leadership and change, John Kotter (1988), has outlined eight reasons why change strategies often fail: A. low sense of urgency for change. B. lack of a guiding coalition responsible for the change. C. lack of vision to guide the process. D. lack of communication of the vision. E. lack of removal of obstacles to change (political dynamics within the organisation). F. lack of short-term wins. G. declaring victory too soon. H. lack of reinforcement the change.It is important to note that change strategies work, but they need to operate on multiple levels, havingboth short-term and long-term results. 48
    • ReferencesKotter, J.P. (1988). The leadership factor. New York: Free Press.Kotter, J.P. (1990) A force for change: how effective leadership differs from management. New York: Thefree PressBennis, W. (2000). Managing The Dream. Reflections on Leadership and Change. Addison-WesleyPublishers.Andrew Lothian (Insights Learning & Development) – Radar Graph; Insights into behavioural preferencesfor change. 49
    • Lesson 7 Managing Power & PoliticsAccording to Handy (1993), power and influence are central to organizations and interactions of allpeople. Handy (1993) views organizations as a fine weave of influence patterns whereby individuals orgroups seek to influence others to think or act in particular ways. Effective leaders have learnt how touse power wisely to influence others. In organizations, managers are entrusted with power in theirrespective positions and are perceived to have authority. However, managers are not the only holders ofpower as individual ability and leadership potential is inherent in many, resulting in many mangers beinginvolved in a continuous struggle to maintain their power and authority.I. What is power?A. Power is “Something that person A has over another person B, to an extent that he can get B todo something B would not other wise do” Dahl (1957).B. Power is linked to influenceInfluence is “the effect of power exerted: a person exercising such power.” (Chambers 20thCentury Dictionary)“The process whereby A seeks to modify the attitudes and behaviors of B” Handy (1993).II. What are the various sources of power?Charles Handy (1993) outlines a number of possible sources of power that give one the ability toinfluence others: A. Physical powerThis is the power of superior force. That of a bully or the tyrant or commander of the army. Infew work organizations is physical power the source of individual influence. No organization hasa right to detain an individual by force (except for those involved in public safety, prison serviceor some mental hospitals). Physical power is really used as a last resort when other sources ofpower appear ineffective.B. Resource powerPossession of valued resource is a useful basis for influence. Another term for it is reward power.This is the power source implicit for most calculated contracts. In order for this kind of power tobe effective: There must be control of the resources, and 50
    • The potential recipient must desire those resources.C. Position powerThis is also known as ‘legal’ or ‘legitimate’ power and comes from one’s position in a group ororganization. This is power residing in the position rather than in the individual. The value of thispower really depends on the value placed by the guarantor of the position. If the occupant of aparticular role either: Does not receive backing from the organization, or the organization is not seen as controlling any desired or coercive resources,Then the occupant will find that influence attempts will fail, because their power source isinvalid. Position power gives the occupant potential control over some invisible assets such asinformation, right of access and right to organize.D. Expert powerHandy (1993) describes expert power as, “The power that is vested in someone because of theiracknowledged expertise.E. Personal powerThis is more generally known as charisma and resides in the person and their personality. It canbe enhanced by position or by expert status.F. Negative powerHandy (1993) points out that all these sources of power can be used legitimately orillegitimately. If they are used in the appropriate domain they are regarded as legitimate. If usedoutside the domain, the power is regarded as disruptive and illegitimate. This is the negative useof power.Negative power is the capacity to stop things from happening, to delay them, to distort them ordisrupt them. Negative power is latent; it does not operate all the time. It operates at times of lowmorale, irritation, stress, or frustration at the failure of other influence attempts. The use ofnegative power breeds lack of trust by the superior for the subordinate.G. Departmental powerCowling et al’s (1988) comment that some departments can have more power than others can beseen in the distribution of perks and resources within an organization, and which departmentstake a more dominant role in meetings and decision-making. 51
    • SELF CHECK QUESTION: Do any of the above aspects of power apply to you in any way?III. What are some unseen methods of influence?The above six power bases allow people to use one or more methods of influence. These can be dividedinto two classes - Overt and Unseen. Overt methods of influence include force, exchange, andpersuasion. Unseen methods of influence include Ecology: This method is available, often neglected, andsometimes abused by every manager. In this instance, ecology is the study of the relationship betweenan environment and its organisms. As politicians have also discovered, we cannot afford to neglect theecology of the organization, or the relationship of the environment to individual behavior or attitudes.Behavior and attitudes occur within an environment that affects them.A. Physical environment.It is possible to manipulate the physical environment in order to somewhat control certain behaviour:1. Noise affects performance on complicated tasks2. Variety relieves monotony, provides stimulation and contributes to improved performance3. Seating patterns tend to affect interaction patterns4. Open-plan offices are popular and improve communications when the work is routine5. Segregation prohibits communication6. Dangerous surroundings increase tension and lower productivityB. Psychological and sociological environment.In the psychological and sociological environments, Handy says that1. Small groups are easier to participate in than large groups2. Specific, challenging but attainable targets tend to produce commitments irrespective of their specific content3. Increased interaction leads to increased sentiments – either favorable or hostile4. Participation increases commitment if the individual considers participation worthwhile and legitimate.Therefore, to adjust the environment in order to remove constraints or facilitate some aspect ofbehavior is indirect influence. In short, ecology sets the conditions for behavior. The effective managerin an organization will check the environment before they act.C. Magnetism. 52
    • Magnetism is the invisible but felt pull of a stronger force, and is the application of personalpower. We have all felt the desire, perhaps sometimes illogical, to work with and for someone.This method of influence is difficult to measure and can be very relative, but it cannot beignored. As leaders, very often the people we attract are those who are like us. As John Maxwell(1998) states, “Whom you get is not determined by what you want. It is determined by who you are…inmost situations; you draw people to you who possess the same qualities you do. That is the lawof magnetism: Who you are is who you attract.”DISCUSSION QUESTIONSWhich methods of influence are predominantly used in your organization?Is there any illegitimate use of power in your organization?IV. What is organizational politics?A. Politics is “the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization.”Bronston and Allen (1977) in Cowling et al (1988).B. Politics often has a distinct result as its goal.“…Organizational politics refers to activities within organizations designed to acquire, develop, or usepower in a conscious way to obtain one’s preferred outcomes or to manipulate a situation for one’s ownpurposes.”Cherrington (1989).Pfeffer (1981) notes that ‘organizations, particularly large ones, are like governments in that they arefundamentally political entities. To understand them, one needs to understand organizational politics,just as to understand governments, one needs to understand government politics.’ 53
    • V. In what areas do organizations tend to be political rather than rational?Some research carried out by Miles (1980) identified several areas where organizations tend tobe political rather than rational: A. Resources There is a direct relationship between the amount of politics and how critical and scarce the resources are. Politics is also encouraged with the entry of new “unclaimed” resources. B. Decisions Ambiguous, uncertain and long-range strategic decisions lead to more politics than routine decisions. C. Goals The more ambiguous and complex the goals become, the more politics there will be. D. Technology and external environment In general, the more complex the internal technology of the organization operating in a turbulent external environment the more like there is to be politics. E. Change Reorganization, planned organizational development, or even unplanned change will encourage political maneuvering.Since these elements are prevalent in our organizations today, one can see why there is so muchpolitics. Miles (1980) states that “in short, conditions that threaten the status of the powerful orencourage the efforts of those wishing to increase their power bases will stimulate the intensity oforganizational politics and increase the proportion of decision-making behaviors that can be classified aspolitical as opposed to rational.”Mintzberg (1983) points out that when these games are carried too far, they turn the wholeorganization into a political cauldron and divert it from its main task. Mintzberg notes thechoices that Hirschman presents to participants in a social system as:Stay and contribute – this is seen as loyaltyLeave – meaning to ‘take my marbles and go’Stay and try to change the system 54
    • As we explore organizational politics it is important to remember that one’s participation in it isoften a reflection of one’s source. Do you see God as your source of promotion or man? Do youtrust him to change situations or are you relying on your own flesh? Manipulative tactics oftentake place when we try to change people or situations apart from the Holy Spirit. Many of ushave been manipulative since childhood and are unaware of it. Having said this, Jesus instructsus to be as wise as serpents and as innocent as doves. There is positive politics, which is whereone uses one’s understanding of the political environment for noble purposes.VI. What are some commonly used political strategies.Once it has been understood that organizations are in reality large political systems, one can seewhy there are many strategies for gaining power within these systems. Some of these strategiesare healthy whilst others are based on manipulation and lack integrity. Nevertheless, it isimportant to be aware of them, partly so that you are not always a victim of them.Luthan, Yulk and Falbe, and Mintzberg have all increased our understanding of commonly used politicalgames and tactics. I have listed a number of these below. As you go through them reflect on which onesyou have seen being used, which ones you have been a victim of and which ones you have sometimesused.A. Some of Luthan’s political strategies for gaining power in organizations. 1. Maintaining maneuverability 2. Promoting limited communication 3. Exhibiting confidence 4. Controlling access to information and persons 5. Making activities central and non-substitutable 6. Creating a sponsor –protégé relationship 7. Stimulating competition among ambitious subordinates 8. Neutralizing potential opposition 9. Making strategic replacements 10. Building personal stature 11. Employing trade-offs 12. Using research data to support one’s own point of view 13. Restricting communication about real intentions 14. Withdrawing from petty disputesB. Yulk and Falbe’s 8 Political Tactics.Yulk and Falbe (1990) recently carried out research on political tactics and derived eight that arecommon in organizations today. These can also be termed influence tactics. 55
    • 1. Pressure tactics – the use of demands, threats, or intimidation to convince you to comply with a request or to support a proposal. 2. Upward appeals – persuading you that higher management, or appeals to higher management for assistance in gaining your compliance with the request approve the request. 3. Exchange tactics – making explicit or implicit promises that you will receive rewards or tangible benefits if you comply with a request of support a proposal, or remind you of a prior favor to be reciprocated. 4. Coalition tactics – seeking the aid of others to persuade you to do something or using the support of others as an argument for you to also agree 5. Ingratiating tactics – seeking to get you in a good mood or to think favorably of the influence agent before asking you to do something 6. Rational persuasion – using logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives 7. Inspirational appeals – making an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideas, or by increasing your confidence that you can do it. 8. Consultation tactics – seeking your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed policy, strategy, or change.C. Mintzberg’s Political Games.Mintzberg (1983), in his comprehensive review of power and politics in organizations, has identifiedthirteen political games that by his definition involve illegitimate use of power, but many of which uselegitimate authority as part of the play. I have outlined just a few of them below:• Games to resist authority The insurgency games – to sabotage the intentions of superiors• Games to counter resistance The counter-insurgency games – more rules, regulations and punishments• Games to build power-bases The sponsorship game – hitching oneself to a useful superior, a star The alliance game – finding useful colleagues The empire game – building coalitions of subordinates The budgeting game – getting control of resources The expertise game – flaunting feigning expertise The lording game – flaunting one’s authority 56
    • Discussion questionIn a group, explore and give examples of how the political strategies mentioned above mayeach manifest in the home, in organizations and in society at large.Highlight why people use them and the consequences thereof. 57
    • Lesson 8 Building an Entrepreneurial CultureIntroductionEntrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. (Wikipedia)The word comes from the French entreprendre which means to undertake. The French word entrepreneur is “one who undertakes or manages”. (Etymology dictionary)As believers we need to know that God is the one who anoints us for business. We need to known that the anointing is not limited to so-called “spiritual” things but that God is our source of true creativity. The following verses highlight this principle.Exodus 35:30-35And Moses said to the sons of Israel, See, Jehovah has called the son of Uri the son of Hur, bythe name Bezaleel, of the tribe of Judah. And He has filled him with the spirit of God in wisdom,in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all kinds of work, and to devise designs, to work ingold, and in silver, and in bronze, and in the cutting of stones to set, and in carving of wood, tomake any kind of skillful work. And He has put in his heart that he may teach, he and Aholiabthe son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. He has filled them with wisdom of heart to work allkinds of work; of the smith, and of the skillful worker, and of the embroiderer, in blue, and inpurple, in scarlet, and in bleached linen, and of the weaver, of those who do any work, and ofthose who work out artful work.Dan. 1:4, 17, 20Sons in whom was no blemish, but who were handsome and skillful in all wisdom; and who hadknowledge and understanding, even those who were able to stand in the kings palace, and towhom they might teach the writing and the language of the Chaldeans…..As for these four boys,God gave them knowledge and skill in all writing and wisdom. And Daniel had understanding inall visions and dreams……And in any matters of wisdom and understanding that the king askedthem, he found them ten times better than all the horoscopists and conjurers who were in all hiskingdom.I. What is the aptitude of an effective entrepreneur?To be an effective entrepreneur one needs to have the following aptitude:A. Calculated risk-takingB. Innovation and CreativityC. Achievement orientation 58
    • D. DeterminationII. Why is there a shortage of entrepreneurs?A. We live in a risk-averse culture.B. We have an education system (including parents), has undermined creativity.C. We give up too easily.D. We do not have enough role models in specific trades.E. We have made climbing the corporate ladder our main focus.F. We are more accustomed to mediocrity than achieving greatness.G. We have succumbed to peer pressure.H. We are unclear about the correct time to embark on a project.III. What are the marks of a God-honouring entrepreneur?The signs of a God-honouring entrepreneur are clearly seen in Proverbs 31. Although thispassage of scripture is often used to describe the marks of a virtuous woman, it is important tonote that this woman was also an entrepreneur.Prov. 31:10-31Who can find a woman of virtue? For her value is far above rubies.The heart of her husband trusts safely in her, so that he shall have no need of plunder.She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life.She seeks wool and flax, and works willingly with her hands.She is like the merchants ships; she brings her food from afar.She also rises while it is still night, and gives food to her household, and a share to her young women.She considers a field, and buys it; with the fruit of her hands she plants a vineyard.She binds her loins with strength, and makes her arms strong.She sees that her merchandise is good; her lamp does not go out by night.She lays her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff.She stretches out her hand to the poor; yea, she reaches forth her hands to the needy.She is not afraid of the snow for her household; for all her household are clothed with scarlet.She makes herself coverings; her clothing is silk and purple.Her husband is known in the gates, when he sits among the elders of the land.She makes fine linen and sells it, and delivers girdles to the merchants.Strength and honor are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to come.She opens her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness.She looks well to the ways of her household, and does not eat the bread of idleness.Her sons rise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praises her.Many daughters have done well, but you excel them all.Favor is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman who fears Jehovah, she shall be praised.Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let her own works praise her in the gates.We can identify 15 key attributes of a God-honouring entrepreneur from this passage:A. They are of noble character and fear the Lord (Prov. 31:10,30). 59
    • B. They are diligent (Prov 31:13, 15, 27).C. They maintain focus on their family (Prov. 31:15,27).D. They take calculated risks (Prov. 31:16).E. They are generous to their workers (Prov. 31:15).F. They run profitable businesses (Prov. 31:18).G. They are not clock-watchers, but are result-oriented (Prov. 31:18).H. They give to the poor (Prov. 31:20).I. They see ahead and plan (Prov. 31:21).J. They are dignified (Prov. 31:22,25).K. They have a positive impact on their spouse and children (Prov. 31:23, 28).L. They keep a guard over their mouths by their choice of words (Prov. 31:26).M. They maintain good customer service (Prov. 31:24).N. They have a good reputation (Prov. 31:31).IV. What are the two psychological contracts?One can also be entrepreneurial whilst working in a large corporation. This is becauseentrepreneurship is a mentality and disposition as opposed to something associated only withnew businesses. In 1977 the Pinchots coined the term “intrapreneurship” to describeentrepreneurship in the context of larger organizations. In this section we will examine theconcept of psychological contracts which describe the nature of an employee’s relationship withtheir organization. Peter Block illustrates how the bureaucratic cycle is formed and reinforced.This can be contrasted with the entrepreneurial cycle that fosters empowerment.A. The Patriarchal ContractThe patriarchal contract has a bureaucratic cycle, where organizations unintentionallyencourage people to choose to maintain what they have, to be cautious and dependent.Have you ever been in such an organization?It is interesting to note that an entrepreneur of some sort started every organization, whether it isa hospital, a government agency, a church or a business. This needed a great act of courage andcreativity, however, as the organization grew, it decided that more structure and control wereneeded. It is also interesting to note at this point, what is termed isomorphism. This is thetendency for organizations in the same field to tend towards becoming similar.What other organizations do you know which have this isomorphic tendency?Is isomorphism empowering or disempowering? Give reasons.Exploring the bureaucratic cycle attempts to answer the question, “How does the spirit thatcreates an organization get diluted?”This cycle has four stages: 60
    • 1. The patriarchal contract: The traditional contract is patriarchal with its top-down, high control emphasis. 2. Myopic self-interest – success is defined in most organizations as moving up the ladder. This often results in superiors using subordinates’ desire to go up the corporate ladder as a means to control them. A hierarchical power-oriented culture breeds hierarchical power-oriented people. 3. Manipulative tactics – Manipulative tactics are tolerated in most organizations and implicitly admired. The common belief is that we have to be manipulative to get to the top. 4. Dependency – The stages mentioned above all feed and reinforce each other in a way that encourages a dependency mentality. This is really the belief that our survival is in the hands of somebody else. Block states that: Our initial willingness to be dependent also helps to create the cycle. After twelve or so years of school systems and family that treat us fundamentally as children, we are conditioned for more of the same. We may not wish to be dependent, but dangle a reward system in front of our eyes and we are ripe for the picking.B. The Entrepreneurial Contract.Alternatively, the entrepreneurial cycle is really about using positive political skills throughacting with autonomy and compassion in service of a vision. The original meaning of politicswas to act in service of society, but it has since lost its meaning. Hence, we only think of thenegative aspect of politics as it has become self-serving. Becoming positively political is to act asif the whole organization were your own. The entrepreneurial cycle begins with: 1. The entrepreneurial contract – the mindset here is to teach people to trust their own instincts and to take responsibility for the success or failure of the organization. 2. Enlightened self-interest – here, success is defined as giving service to customers and other departments as opposed to climbing up the corporate ladder. 3. Authentic tactics – if we believe that this is our business we will feel empowered to act on our own values. This will mean being transparent, sharing control, and taking reasonable risks. This breaks away from a culture that feels one has to be calculating and controlled to move up the ladder. 4. Autonomy – the result of the entrepreneurial contract and service oriented definition of self-interest is this autonomy. This autonomy reduces the need to be controlled and give so much power to those above us. It demands that we own our own actions.V. What are some qualities of creative people?Creativity is a key aspect of the entrepreneurial aptitude. Without creativity your business standsstill as the world changes around you. Humans were created to be creative; this can be seen in 61
    • how small children play, but somewhere in growing up this gets lost. It seems as if our lifeexperiences set patterns for us - patterns that we accept as we continuously run away fromchange. To foster creativity, we need to remove the barriers to it and foster a culture thatstimulates it. The creative person generates new ideas whilst the entrepreneur turns them intoprofits. In developing leaders, we need to foster creativity. Creativity depends on creativequalities, a supportive environment and opportunity. As Christians we have access to God’screative nature. The following are some creative qualities: There is no formula for identifying acreative person, but some are:A. They are independent thinkers. Needing to think through things for themselvesB. They are inquisitive. Having a seemingly unquenchable thirst to understandC. They are iconoclastic. Nonconforming, not wed to the status quoD. They are confident. Feeling they can do something exceptionally wellE. They are determined. Convinced they will find a better way if they persistF. They are learners. Always keen to acquire new knowledge and adapt as a result of itG. They are intuitive. Able to make leaps of imagination, not needing to stick to the factsH. They are open-minded. No rush to decide, wanting to dig deeper and study more anglesVI. What are some keys in fostering an entrepreneurial Culture?A. Remove excessive red-tapeRemove “red tape”, bureaucracy and a risk adverse environment.B. Don’t over-centralise.Organize the business into multiple units free to act on their own as large entrepreneurialbusinesses need to be small at the same time.C. Don’t micro-manage.All employees should be encouraged to show leadership in their fields.Central/top down control needs to be minimal.D. Take risks with your people.If someone can do it 80% as well as you then let them. Efficiency is still required to delivertoday’s products profitably but efficiency becomes bureaucracy when elevated to an end in itself.Being profitable today and simultaneously creating the future requires a balance of efficiencyand entrepreneurial flexibility. 62
    • E. Don’t be a control freak.Learning organizations are those that act without fully knowing where they are going, and thenlearning from experience.F. Leave room for improvisation and surprises.A balance must be struck between strategic planning and improvisation.G. Create an environment that fosters new product development.Set targets like 3M – a certain percentage of next year’s profits must be from new products.H. Draw out the diversity of your team.Don’t be an insecure leader. An entrepreneurial culture encourages diversity – not uniformity.This may mean encouraging employees to disagree with you – not always easy.G. See mistakes as learning opportunities.Taking risks and making mistakes must be rewarded and learned. 63
    • Lesson 9 Managing Your BossIntroductionIt is becoming more and more important to study this topic; managing your boss, for a number ofreasons. Firstly, most managers have been promoted from a technical background and have nomanagement skills, hence, they are far from the ideal boss’ who are easy to work under. Secondly, weare seeing an increasing role of expert power today. This means that more and more young smartindividuals are being promoted because of their expertise regardless of their lack of vast years ofcorporate experience. This means there is more interaction taking place across age and cultural barriers.There is a resultant clash of management styles present in the workplace. By simply looking at somebook titles in the last 15 years it becomes clear that managing one’s boss is a major need in ourorganisations. Each time I mention this topic to executives it’s a winner! Look at these books mentionedbelow:“Managing Up:59 Ways to Build a Career-Advancing Relationship with Your Boss” (Michael & DeborahDobson, 2000)“I Hate My Boss! How to Survive and Get Ahead When Your Boss is a Tyrant, Control Freak, or Just PlainNuts (Bob Weinstein, 1997)It’s easy to see why the word “boss” has so many negative connotations. Although it’s a word which isno longer politically correct to use, it is a word which encapsulates the understanding that there isalways that one (or two or three) person who you report to.Organisations are also starting to appreciate the value of upward influence. This is where people leadfrom the middle. They are seen as sources to learn from and their contribution is valued regardless oftheir position. “Leading Up” is also a term used to describe this phenomenon. It is defined by MichaelUseem as “the act of working with people above you – whether one boss, several bosses, a chiefexecutive, a board of directors or even stockholders – to help them and you get a better job done” 64
    • The upcoming leader of the future has this mindset. He or she wants to influence. He or she lives in aconstant state of tension between wanting to please and obey one’s boss and trusting in one’s instinctsfor the benefit of the company. With all this in mind, let’s examine some key principles in managingone’s boss.I. What does the bible instruct concerning the relationship betweensubordinates and bosses?Colossians 3: 22-25; 4:1 (NKJV)22 Bondservants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh, not with eyeservice, as men-pleasers, but in sincerity of heart, fearing God. 23 And whatever you do, do it heartily, as to the Lord andnot to men, 24 knowing that from the Lord you will receive the reward of the inheritance; for[a] you servethe Lord Christ. 25 But he who does wrong will be repaid for what he has done, and there is no partiality.4:1 Masters, give your bondservants what is just and fair, knowing that you also have a Master in heaven. A. We should obey our bosses (Col. 3:22). B. We should prioritise God as our ultimate authority (Col. 3:23; Col. 4:1). C. We should serve with consistent excellence even when they are not present (Col. 3:22). D. We should do our work from sincere heart motive (Col. 3:22). E. We should conduct our work from a standpoint of the fear of the Lord (Col. 3:22). F. We should be more God-conscious than man-conscious as we go about our daily work (Col. 3:23). G. We should ultimately look to the Lord for the reward of our service. Col. 3:24). H. We should remember that we will have to give account of all wrong doing, even when it goes unnoticed by man (Col 3:25). I. Our bosses are expected to be just and fair (Col. 4:1). J. Our bosses are also ultimately accountable to God for how they treat their subordinates (Col. 4:1). 65
    • II. What does the bible illustrate concerning the attitude of a good subordinate?The experience of Jacob’s work experience in Haran under his uncle Laban is a great example of theattitude of a God-honouring subordinate.Gen 29:7; 31:6, 38-42Genesis 29:7: "Look, the day is still long; it is not yet time to bring in the cattle. Water the sheep and goon grazing."Genesis 31:6: "You know that I have served your father with all my strength." Jacob also described toLaban the kind of work he did for him (Genesis 31: 38-41): "These twenty years that I have been withyou, your ewes and your she-goats have not miscarried their young, and I have not eaten the rams ofyour flocks. That which was torn of beasts I did not bring to you; I bore the loss of it... In the day,scorching heat consumed me, and the frost by night, and my sleep fled from my eyes."Genesis 31:42: “If the God of my father, the God of Abraham and the Fear of Isaac, had not beenwith me, you would surely have sent me away empty-handed. But God has seen my hardship andthe toil of my hands, and last night he rebuked you."Jacob sets a good example for us in seven significant ways: A. He recognized what it meant to do an honest day’s work (Gen.29:7). B. He was not half-hearted about his work, despite how he had been treated (Gen. 31:6). C. He operated with excellence (Gen 31:38-41). D. He did not abuse his authority by taking advantage of his role (Gen. 31:38). E. He was willing to take personal responsibility for losses (Gen 31:38-41). F. He was willing to deliver good results even at the loss of personal comfort. (Gen. 31:41) G. He recognized God as his source and sustainer (Gen. 31:42).III. How should one handle interactions with one’s boss?In the context of question and answer sessions with one’s boss, Hamlin (1988) outlines the dynamics ofpower that take place. She states that the fact that you are called into a questioning session, the factthat he or she can ask you to come, that you will come, and that you must answer questions makes thebalance of power a little different from that in the usual question/answer session after a presentation,where you have just demonstrated your power and continue it by inviting them to ask you for more.Hamlin (1988) goes on to state that the key is to know and study your boss well enough to discover howhe or she deals with his or her power. She outlines a variety of predictable and understandable needs 66
    • which bosses tend to have in the world concerning power. Understanding these may be useful whenhandling questions from them:A. LeadershipIn order to establish and maintain effective leadership, a boss needs to know that he or she is in charge.No matter how flexible, this ‘last word’ leadership must finally be unchallenged.B. High profileLeaders need to be visible to their troops. They tend to rely in part on the visible trappings of theirpower.C. ComparisonSince power is relative in any organisation, your boss may feel powerless before his/her boss. This cancause extra pressure and power-wielding on the staff whenever your boss is in the presence of someonewho wields power over him/her. Also the desire to show his boss he is not too soft on the troops.D. PleasurePower feels delicious to many of us, and as a result there can be the abuse of power for its own sake.E. RespectPower brings with it an automatic respect. This may not always be heartfelt, and is often for the officeand not the person. Nevertheless, the person in charge does get deference from his/her staff and acertain sense of the effect his power has over them.F. FearPeople wield their power unduly when they are afraid they do not have it or are losing it. “Get it donebecause I say so” is a typical ‘retreat to power’ whenever a boss feels unable to deal with a situation orsenses the power slipping away.Therefore whilst your boss’s ego, vulnerabilities and needs may not change, your behaviour is what youare responsible for and what you can change. 67
    • Activity 1Reflect on this statement by Peter Block and assess to what extent it may apply to you.Our initial willingness to be dependent also helps to create the cycle. After twelve or so years of schoolsystems and family that treat us fundamentally as children, we are conditioned for more of the same.We may not wish to be dependent, but dangle a reward system in front of our eyes and we are ripe forthe picking.IV. What factors will influence the degree to which we manage our bosseseffectively? A. Corporate culture B. National cultural factors C. Perceived power D. Personal history E. Entitlement mentality F. Inferiority complexV. How does one develop the art of managing one’s Boss?An art is human creative skill or its application. Managing one’s boss is an art which develops over time.Outlined below are some keys in developing this art. A. Study your boss’ behavioural and personality profile. Make time to try to understand your boss; is weaknesses, strengths and pressures he may face from his boss. In other words, be attuned to your bosss changing needs and issues. B. Aim to meet your boss’ needs as best as you can. You will best meet your needs if you help your boss meet his/hers. If you put your own needs too much to the fore, it may result in manipulation. C. Exceed your boss expectations just as you do your customers. 68
    • D. Find out what would further your boss success - help deliver it.E. Make yourself indispensable by learning what your boss needs to know.This gives you more power to negotiate priorities with difficult bosses.G. Be proactive in giving your boss necessary feedback on your work schedule.Do not simply agree to do more work - ask for something in return - more time on a project, somehelp, other resources.H. Manage your own performance.Initiate regular reviews If not, your boss may not initiate feedback until something goes wrong. It isimportant to be proactive in ones relationship with ones boss.I. Understand your boss problems.Ask your boss what kind of pressures he or she is under, it can make a great difference in yourunderstanding why your boss is not managing you properly.J. Compliment what is working.Give your boss positive feedback on what is working in your relationship. For example, say "Thanksfor your valuable feedback," when he or she gives you a useful response.K. Be a role model.If you want your boss to do certain things, do them yourself. For example, if he or she doesnt listenwell, practice active listening in your interactions. He or she will probably match your positivebehaviour. This sis a subtle way of mentoring your boss.L. Understand the boundaries. 69
    • Let him or her be wrong. Don’t be a martyr or rescuer. Remember that your boss has the right to bewrong or make a mistake. Try to correct something a few times and if it doesnt work, let it go. Youwont always be able to save him or her. 70
    • Lesson 10 Understanding MotivationIntroductionMany organisations today feel that they have failed to motivate their staff. They have tried variousreward management systems, but these continuously fail. What does it take to have a motivated staff?What can leaders do to ensure this? Can we really motivate our staff or should our focus just be on theirbottom-line results. Today many are suggesting that our focus should shift from trying to motivate staffand move instead to getting them to a place where they are self-motivated. With members of ourorganisations having multiple careers and various life crises, can leadership really be responsible fortheir motivation levels? This leaves me with the conclusion that business has so often focused onbalance sheets and income statements without exploring the human element.Today in our nation, people need to ask themselves what motivates them. Is it money, doing the jobwell, recognition, winning, advancement, acceptance? Or would you be happy if only you could work ina nicer environment? If certain things in your organisation were "sorted out" would you work harder?Motivation is the major factor in addressing a person’s willingness to do something. If people areunmotivated they will not have an interest in learning or in applying what they have learned to their jobor performance. All behaviour (except for reflexes like blinking etc) is motivated. Motivation consists ofthe forces that energize, direct and sustain a person’s efforts.I. What is motivation? A. Motivation is a cognitive persistence, the drive, tendency or desire to undertake or complete a task, expand effort and do a quality job. B. Motivation consists of three components. People’s beliefs about their work influences motivation. These beliefs can be broken down into the following: 1. Expectancy: person’s perceived likelihood that their efforts will enable them to successfully attain their performance goals. 71
    • 2. Instrumentality: is the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particularoutcome.3. Valence: is the value the outcome holds for the person contemplating it.For motivation to be high, expectancy, instrumentalities, and total valence of all outcomes must allbe high. A person will not be highly motivated if any of the following conditions exist: • He believes he can’t perform well enough to achieve the positive outcomes that he knows the company provides to good performers (high valence and high instrumentality but low expectancy) • He knows he can do the job. He is fairly certain what the ultimate outcomes will be (a promotion or transfer). However, he does not want those outcomes or believes other, negative outcomes outweigh the positive (high expectancy and high instrumentality but low valence). • He knows he can do the job. He wants several important outcomes (a favourable performance review, a raise, and a promotion). But he believes that no matter how well he performs, the outcomes will not be forthcoming (high expectancy and positive valences but low instrumentality).Therefore increasing motivation we need to: • increase expectancies • identify positively valent outcomes • make performance instrumental toward positive outcomesC. Motivation is categorized into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation 1. Intrinsic rewards are those rewards which are inherent in the job content 2. Extrinsic rewards are factors such as money which are outside the job content. Kohn, Amabile, Burns, Gentry, Wlodkowski and Senge all suggest people are inherently curious, creative and seek optimum challenges that relate to what they value. The major challenge of leadership has often been getting people to do what the leader values and sees. A lot of problems could be solved when leaders study their followers to say what motivates them. Since true followers do so voluntarily, one of the keys is to tap into what motivates them intrinsically. We often have not thought of this because of the many myths we have believed concerning what motivates human beings. 72
    • II. What is the relationship between motivation and needs?We cannot talk about motivating people if we do not include in our discussion, the link betweenmotivation and needs. People are motivated differently because they have different needs. If we are todevelop effective motivation strategies in our organisations, we need to also have a thoroughunderstanding of basic human needs. A. John Adairs model 1. Task accomplishment: Achievement in terms of a common aim tends to build a sense of group identity – the ‘we-feeling’, as some have called it. The moment of victory closes the psychological gaps between people: morale rises naturally. 2. Unity: Good internal communications and a developed team spirit based upon past successes make a group much more likely to do well in its task area, and incidentally provide a more satisfactory climate for the individual. 3. Recognition of individual needs: An individual whose needs are recognised and who feels that he or she can make a characteristic and worthwhile contribution both to the task and the group will tend to produce good fruits in both these areas. B. Alderfer’s Model This model is also useful in helping us see the different categories of needs that people have. Alderfer’s ERG Theory focuses on:: 1. Existence needs: material and physiological 2. Relational needs: Relations with others, sharing thoughts and feelings 3. Growth needs: Motivate people to creatively change themselves and their environment C. McClelland’s Model This model also helps us in a similar way and becomes particularly useful in seeing what primarily motivates one’s followers: 1. Achievement: Accomplishment and goal attainment 2. Affiliation: Desire to be liked by others 3. Power: Desire to influence (personalised power and socialised power) 73
    • It’s important to be aware that these needs differ from country to country. In today’s global economy it is important for multinational companies to consider how their employees may be motivated by different needs: • USA– Achievement and esteem • Greece and Japan - Security • Sweden; Norway, Denmark - Social needsIII. What are we motivating people to do?To motivate workers, managers must know the behaviours they want to motivate people to exhibit. Wewant o motivate workers to A. Join the organisation B. Remain in the organisation C. Come to work regularly D. Perform (high output; high quality) E. Exhibit good citizenship F. Overcoming the common causes of demotivation A highly motivated staff member may put in 60 hours of work in sales, but not reach his or her goals because s/he: 1. does not understand the customer or product 2. is selling inferior products at a high price 3. difficult sales territory 4. is working for a disreputable company Sadly, many organisational leaders are attempting to motivate their staff whilst their organisational environment and culture is very demotivating. Outlined below are some demotivating environments: 1. Company politics 74
    • 2. Unclear expectations 3. Unnecessary rules 4. Unproductive meetings 5. Internal competition 6. Withholding information 7. Criticism 8. Tolerating poor performance 9. Unfairness and under-utilised capabilityIV. How do we facilitate and stimulate motivated performance?A. We encourage motivation by playing our role as effective managers.Effective managers stimulate performance by giving employees what they need for effectiveperformance. Well facilitated performance makes you able but the employee must also be willing.People are willing to work hard if they see a reason to.Hence, people are more motivated to do work: 1. for which they are held responsible 2. if a deadline is put 3. if they are assessed 4. if they are recognised 5. if they are rewarded fairlyB. We encourage motivation by creating a goal-setting culture.Goals should be: 1. acceptable to the employee 2. challenging but attainable 3. specific 4. quantifiable 5. measurable “We’re doing things we didn’t think were possible” Boeing CEO 75
    • C. We encourage motivation by endeavouring to meet people’s needs.D. We encourage motivation by making workers responsible.E. We encourage motivation by creating an atmosphere of trust.F. We encourage motivation by creating an atmosphere where workers are more likely to be self-motivated.In many of our organisations, leadership is controlling and dominating and as a result staff isdemotivated as its creativity is stifled. Humans have a need for growth, expression and creativity. Whenthis is stifled it results in demotivation. The following outlines some cost effective ways to fostercreativity: 1. Make sure people are matched to the right assignments. 2. Give people freedom in how they approach their work. 3. Time pressures can be motivating, however, fake deadlines will promote distrust and overwhelming deadlines will lead to burnout. 4. The proper design of a work team where diversity is the key. 5. Supervisory encouragement to demonstrate that employees’ work is important 6. Organisational support where the structure mandates information sharing, collaboration and ensuring political problems do not fester.G. We encourage motivation by giving workers incentives which are in line with their values.Workers are motivated by incentives which are in line with their values. If the incentives don’t reflecttheir values they become ineffective. Many employees today are demotivated, not because they are notrewarded, but because the rewards are not coherent with their values. Maccoby found that people maydiffer in desired incentives according to their behavioural styles or team roles. He divided them up intofive social character types: 1. Expert: Little value in peer recognition but desires job security, subject mastery and autonomy 2. Helpers: Want to care for people and receive satisfaction making a difference in people’s lives. Values appreciation and extrinsically motivated by feedback 3. Defenders: Controllers and value justice. Energised by opportunities to protect people 4. Innovator: Intrinsically motivated and fuelled by vision. Values an admiring audience, recognition and glory. Extrinsically motivated by factors providing power to achieve goals. 76
    • 5. Self-developers: Fuelled by opportunities to upgrade skill and become authorities. Balance in life is more important than money or success. Responsibility is a reward.H. We encourage motivation by embracing an intrinsic reward management culture.Because work motivation has been dependent traditionally on external rewards, we have notencouraged a culture of self-motivation. Our focus now is not so much on motivating employees, but onfacilitating their own self motivation. Having said this, the real challenge of motivation is not the initialmobilisation but the sustenance of it over a long period. We need to rethink our current rewardmanagement systems base them on quality of work and not just completion of task. If employees aregoing to be motivated we need to encourage an atmosphere of learning.I. We encourage motivation by creating perceived equity.It is important that your employees feel that there is justice ion the work place. The moment a followerdoes not feel fairness has been achieved, it may be negatively affect motivation levels.Equity Theory postulates that when people assess how fairly they are treated, they look at 2 factors:Outcomes/inputs VS others outcomes/inputsThese are not made objectively but are based on subjective perceptions and inequity leads todissatisfaction.Balance can be brought by: • reduction of inputs (or quitting) • increase outcomes • re-evaluation of situation 77
    • Appendix I Key Motivation StatementsRead the following issues to consider in motivation and then answer the following questions:How can your understanding each of the points outlined below change the way you motivate people inyour role as a leader?How does each of the following points reflect a different ethos from that which is practiced at yourworkplace? 1. It is important that there is a close relationship between what you want others to do and some reward. If rewards are not tied to performance then low motivation can be the result. 2. To motivate ones subordinates, one has to understand some basic human needs. Everyone needs to feel important, worth something to the organisation, to belong, to achieve something meaningful, to stand out. 3. Motivation can stem from satisfaction in doing a good job or from recognition by others for our efforts. When individuals become consumed by the need for recognition, it can become shattering when their boss changes and they have someone who views them differently. 4. Money can be a motivator, but only if you value more money and perceive a strong relationship between your effort and reward. 5. Strong motivators are: achieving results, being valued and made to feel important, being included and accepted by an admired group, competing - getting ahead of others, gaining influence and status, earning more money, and opportunities to do things you like. 6. Something can motivate behaviour only if that behaviour leads to it. 78
    • 7. The key is to find out what motivates the people you want to motivate. It may be useful to ask your subordinates to explore times in their work history when they have been motivated or demotivated. Encourage them to explore what caused this.8. Avoid assuming you know what they want.9. Your power to motivate may depend partly on how much others value recognition from you or inclusion by you.10. You can find out what values and characteristics your subordinates admire in their corporate heroes and, if they are agreeable to you, try to develop those traits yourself.11. Although you have a major part to play in motivating your subordinates, the aim should be to have subordinates come to a place where they are self-motivated. 79
    • Lesson 11 Managing PerformanceI. What determines is individual performance?Individual performance is determined by A. Capacity to perform (ability/skills/knowledge) B. Willingness (motivation, attitude, values) C. Opportunity to perform (equipment, working conditions) D. Context: rules, co-workers, work standards, training and evaluation, customers E. Motivation On one hand Can the individual do it? On the other hand Will the individual do it?II. Why is it important for managers to be trained in managing performance? A. Many managers see it as an event and not a process. “Performance management is the process of creating a work environment or setting in which people are enabled to perform to the best of their abilities. Learn more!” It’s a whole system which begins when a job is defined as needed and ends when an employee leaves. B. Many employees are underutilized. C. Performance reviews are often abused or simply misused. D. Performance reviews are a task many managers dislike. 80
    • D. People are inherently motivated by goals as a feedback mechanism.E. There are many tensions and challenges associated with performance reviews. 1. How do they affect income? 2. What do they assess? (Performance, communication or relational maturity). 3. How are they archived and used? 4. How do they assess contribution? 5. How do they affect career development? 6. How do they influence a culture of feedback? How do you reward teams? The challenge of rewarding teams is the balance of individual and team rewards. 7. How honest can one be? F. Ignorance concerning the various types of appraisals. 1. Peer ratings 2. Customer satisfaction ratings 3. Self-appraisal 4. Team leader review 5. 360 Degree assessmentIII. What are some prerequisites for an effective performance managementsystem A. Clear job descriptions Develop Clear job descriptions – they provide a clear framework so the applicants understand the expectations for the position. They are better expressed as outcomes. B. A good job fit. 81
    • C. A shared goal-setting process. Negotiate requirements and accomplishment-based performance standards, outcomes, and measures. D. Adequate support. Provide effective orientation, education and training (job, client and company-related information). E. Ongoing coaching and feedback. F. Effective reward management systems Reinforcing the value of the employee G. A career development plan. H. Strong understanding of motivation in organizations.IV. What are the key steps in conducting effective appraisals? 1. Preparation • Goals/self-appraisal. • To what extent did you achieve your goals • Which have you exceeded • In what areas are you struggling? 2. Conduct the meeting This requires a lot of listening skills. 3. Identify performance gaps 82
    • 4. Finding root causes of the performance gaps 5. Plan to close performance gaps 6. Re-examine performance goals 7. Get it on record 8. Follow-upV. What are some workplace wrongs meriting dismissal? 1. Poor performance 2. Refusing to follow instructions/insubordinate 3. Persistently negative or destructive attitude 4. Abusing sick leave or other privileges 5. Chronic lateness or absenteeismVI. When can you not dismiss? 1. Filing a workers compensation claim 2. Blowing the whistle on illegal company behaviour 3. Reporting or complaining about company violations of occupational safety and health laws 4. Exercising right to belong or not belong to a union 5. Taking time off work to perform a civic duty e.g. voting 6. Taking the day off for a public holiday. 83
    • Lesson 12 Mentoring and CoachingI. What are the functions of mentoring?Mentoring is a developmental process designed to help and guide less experienced employees bysomeone with more experience…a mentorKram has identified two general functions of the mentoring process, which are career functions andpsychosocial functions.A. Career functions1. Sponsorship- actively nominating a junior manager for promotions and desirable positions2. Exposure and visibility- pairing a junior manager with key executives who can provide opportunities3. Coaching- providing practical tips on how to accomplish objectives and achieve recognition4. Protection- shielding a junior manager from potentially harmful situations or senior managers5. Challenging assignments- helping a junior manager develop necessary competencies throughfavorable job assignments and feedbackB. Psychosocial functions1. Role modeling- giving a junior manager a pattern of values and behavior to emulate2. Acceptance and confirmation- providing mutual support and encouragement3. Counseling- helping a junior manager work out personal problems, thus enhancing his or her self-image4. Friendship- engaging in mutually satisfying social interactionII. How do we get the most out of mentoring?The following guidelines have been offered for effective organisational mentoring:1. Train those in the mentoring relationship on how best to use career and psychosocial mentoring. 84
    • 2. Use both formal and informal mentoring, but do not dictate mentoring relationships.3. Diverse employees should be informed about the benefits and drawbacks associated with establishing mentoring relationships with individuals of similar and different gender and race.4. Women should be encouraged to mentor others. Perceived barriers need to be addressed and eliminated for this to occur.5. Increase the number of diverse mentors in high-ranked positions.III. What is coaching?In a sense coaching is an aspect of the mentoring process. Eric Parsloe defines coaching as “a structuredtwo-way process in which individuals develop skills and achieve defined competencies throughassessment, guided practical experience and regular feedback.”The responsibility of the coach is to:A. ObserveB. Identify the problemC. Demonstrate good practiceD. Propose solutionsE. Monitor remedial actionHence, coaching involves helping committed executives achieve their potential, focusing on what theydo everyday on the job and practicing new approaches. It means offering a sounding board forexecutives to try out new ideas. A central aspect of coaching is the art of giving feedback. In the nextsection we explore the concept of feedback further.IV. How can we give effective feedback in managing performance?In a melting pot of cultures it is interesting to note that countries and national cultures differ in theirapproach to feedback. In Europe the Dutch and Swedish people are known for their direct approach inwillingness to give negative feedback whilst the Japanese tend to very careful about saying anything 85
    • which can result in someone else feeling embarrassed or lose face. Since we all have varying degrees ofcomfort with giving or receiving feedback it is important that we look to God’s Word for grounding inthis area. Giving and receiving feedback is very biblical. It is clear from scripture that we ought to seekfeedback and input from others. The following scriptures highlight this principle:Col 3:16Let the Word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom, teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.1 Thess 5:12And, brothers, we beseech you to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and who admonish you,Prov 12:1Whoever loves instruction loves knowledge; but he who hates correction is like a brute animal.2 Tim 3:16-17All Scripture is God-breathed, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness,Gal 6:1Brothers, if a man is overtaken in a fault, you the spiritual ones restore such a one in the spirit of meekness, considering yourself, lest you also be tempted. 86
    • A. D4 Feedback Model – Making feedback safe and effectiveStep 1 Data: What are the facts? What actually happened? Be factual and make irrefutable.Step 2 Depth of Feeling: How do you feel? Focus on your emotions. Again, this is irrefutable.Step 3 Dramatic Interpretation: What is your understanding? What does it mean to you?Step 4 Do: What do you want the person to do about it? Ask what they would do differently? Activity 2Think of up to eight people in your life (in or out of work) that you would like to give feedback. Writedown what the feedback is for each of them.Remember, feedback can be: • Acknowledging Feedback (Positive) • Developmental Feedback 87
    • Name Feedback1.2.3.4.5.6.7.B. Understanding whether the feedback that you have mentioned intended to help the person, or to meet your need. Acknowledging Developmental To help them Build their self esteem Support their development To meet my need Reinforce desired behaviours Change or ‘correct’ behaviour How do you think the Feedback you plan to give will be accepted? Especially the Developmental Feedback? 88
    • C. Understanding the relationship between identity and feedbackWe naturally tend to associate what we do and say with who we are….with our identity.When my identity is wrapped up in my ‘performance’ or in what I do: 1. I will tend to be perfectionistic and strive, and I will not be at rest and at peace. 2. I may project an image of myself that is not true. 3.Correction, critical appraisal, etc., will be offensive to me. I will tend to take it personally, as a personal affront or as an attack on my identity, and it could even feel like rejection. 4. I may tend be a ‘blank slate’ and not have an opinion of myself and what I say or do before I hear from those I perceive to be in authority. When I hear their feedback, I don’t take it as just that...(their opinion that could be wrong), but I take it as law.Feedback is a very positive thing. I should desire critical appraisal, because this is what will cause me tolearn and grow and improve. When I receive critical appraisal, the criticism is not of me, it is ofsomething I said or did, and I am not what I said or did.D. Moving quickly through the five stages in landing feedback. 1. DENIAL – do we actually ‘let it in’? 2. ANGER – with ourselves or with the one giving the feedback 3. RATIONALISATION – seeking to justify and explain 4. ACCEPTANCE – genuinely ‘letting in’ the feedback 5. NEW LEARNING AND CHANGED BEHAVIOUR – consciously and willingly taking action as a result of the feedbackE. Learning art of receiving correction and feedback.We can develop the art of receiving feedback by adhering to the following: 1. Listen, listen, listen and try to understand from an objective perspective 2. Try not to explain, defend, deny, etc. 3. Be open to the perception of others (their perception is their reality), but understand that at the end of the day it is their perception only! 4. Ask for clarification, if needed. 89
    • 5. Receive it and sort through it internally, deciding what is applicable and how it should be applied in future 6. Remember not all feedback is constructive and useful, but we can learn from most things if we want to.F. Creating a culture that values feedback.The following outlines the importance of receiving feedback from subordinates, peers and superiors: 1. For an organisation to breed leaders, it needs to create an environment where individuals are continuously giving and receiving feedback from each other and their environment. 2. Feedback works best when there is already a culture that values feedback. 3. When you look in the mirror, do you see yourself or an ideal image of yourself? It is essential that there is a culture of transparency in our organisations that results in individuals being secure enough to receive negative feedback. 4. In a learning organisation there should be a culture which views negative feedback positively. 5. Negative feedback will highlight points for development. 6. Individuals should be acclimatised to a culture of feedback where they actually look for it and appreciate it when it comes. 7. Critical appraisal given can most often be distilled down to a few manageable themes - it often involves a just few root issues.V. What are the factors influencing the outcome of feedback?Some points to consider: 1. Emotional reactions 2. Inadequate explanation Explain the consequences. What will happen as a result? 3. Overemphasis on the negative Build on the other person’s strengths. It’s easier to swallow a bitter pill if it is coated in honey! 4. Lack of participation 5. The amount of feedback Typically the feedback should include the a) situation, b) their behaviour and c) the impact of their behaviour. Many of us tend to speak in circles to the extent that our hearers feel like their swimming in words. In the end they are confused. 90
    • 6. The timing of the feedback People often hear feedback at a time when they have other baggage. This obviously affects how they hear and perceive what you are saying. If the feedback came at a different time or context their response would be different. 7. The style How something is stated is very important. Does the feedback emphasize their behaviour, an attitude or the person’s identity? Is an unfair judgment being made? There is a difference between saying, “At the final dress rehearsal you were twenty minutes late for the practice and as a result our practice time was shortened.” OR “You are a bad at time management and don’t respect people.” 8. Positive alternative Our feedback needs to be solution oriented. People don’t just want to know what the problem is but are motivated when they see a way out. 9. Motives In giving feedback the heart is one of trying to help the other person. This should be done in humility being aware of one’s own weaknesses. 10. Trust People are more open to feedback when they trust the source of the feedback. In an environment where there is much competitiveness and suspicion, the vital component, trust can be built up using the following tools: 1. Communication Keeping team members informed. Honesty about one’s own problems and limitations. 2. Support Advice, coaching. 3. Respect Actively listening/delegation. 4. Fairness Objective and impartial appraisal. 5. Predictability Keeping both expressed and implied promises. 6. Competence Trust needs to be earned as opposed to demanded.Bryn Hughes gives us a very user-friendly, easy to remember guideline for giving feedback.Actionable Advice should be practical, realistic and something that can be used 91
    • Blame free Tough on issues not on peopleCalm Generally the manner should be cool and not full of emotionDispassionate Factual and objectiveEnlightening Don’t tell people what they already knowFuture-oriented Focus on future not on past to produce changeGenerous Mix positive and negative feedback; keep to a narrow negative agenda 92
    • Lesson 13 Relationship Based SellingIntroduction The world is changing. People say the world is getting flat. This speaks of the impact of globalization. Clients are getting smarter and have many more options today than ever before. They can buy products from almost anywhere in the world and have it delivered in days. Technology is developing faster than before; new models getting onto the market on a daily basis. With all these changes taking place we need to find a superior way of getting clients and keeping them. How do people choose who to buy from? Why should they buy from me or you? In this lesson we will attempt to answer some of these questions. For the biblical Christian the standard must be higher than “making a quick buck”. We must have a more noble purpose than mastering the art of persuading or manipulating a client to make a quick sale. Apart from the fact that these traditional approaches to selling do not result in long-term sales from clients, they are also not God-honouring approaches to business. Reflect for a moment. Are you willing to give away business because you know you can’t do a good job? Or do you do something substandard just for the money? Are you consumed with the desire to make your client succeed or are you blinded by an insatiable need to make money in the short-term. Many do not realize that “your client’s success is your success”. Essentially the sales approach we describe here is a win-win partnership between you the sales person and your client. A sale is not something you pursue, it is something that happens to you while you are immersed in serving your customer. Unknown “You can have everything in life that you want if you will just help enough people get what they want!” -Become a River, Not a ReservoirI. Who is your client or customer? 93
    • A. Your client is anyone you are trying to help succeed. B. Your client is often multiple people. C. Your client is anyone with a problem for which you have a solution. D. Your client is anyone with whom you can enter into a mutually beneficial relationship, helping them to achieve what they consider to be important to them. E. Your client is anyone who has, potentially, the means to acquire or benefit from the services you offer.II. Who is the sales person/consultant? In the new paradigm of sales we do not merely speak of a sales person but a business consultant. Sometimes the term and identity of business consultant encapsulates much more than the traditional mind-set of selling a product. This is why today we are hearing more and more of “account manager” and “business consultant” than “sales reps”. This is because companies are recognizing that sales is a process and not an event. Hence the so-called sales person we are talking about could be A. A technical advisor B. A new business developer C. A sales person D. A client-liaison manager E. A consultant F. A friend G. An interactive webpageIII. What does the sales process involve?The traditional sales paradigm looked something like this: 10% - relating (small talk). 20% - qualifying the customer (are they able to buy from us?) 30% - our presentation 40% - closing the sale (often through trickery, persuasion, coercion and manipulation). 94
    • However, Peter Hart said “The close should be the natural progression of the sale, not the conflict at theend.”The relationship based model popularized by Ben Feldman and others looks something like this: 40% - building trust 30% - identifying needs (emotional and rational) 20% - discussing possible solutions 10% - closing the saleThis model presents a more transparent, servant-hearted approach which we see throughout the bible.Having said this we are not negating the need for a clear process or sales cycle. The difference is the mindsetand attitude behind the process. Generally speaking the selling process will consist of the following: A. Preparing for the sale. A lot needs to be considered in preparation for sales: 1. Managing your self perception and self-image. 2. Setting clear objectives. 3. Connecting with your corporate marketing strategy. 4. Defining your niche. 5. Knowing the support you will need. 6. Confirming your budget. 7. Outlining and ranking your prospects. B. Identifying client needs. C. Proposing and presenting a solution. D. Dealing with buyer resistance. E. Gaining commitment and closing the sale. F. Following-up and following through. 95
    • IV. What are some common hindrances to effective selling? Whilst there are many external factors which affect our effectiveness in selling, I want to focus on the hindrances we bring upon ourselves. A lot of the problems experienced in sales today are due to poor attitudes and inferior skills. It’s important to note that • Right Attitude with Inferior Skills = Inferior Results • Poor Attitude with Superior Skills = Inferior Results Outlined below are various reasons why a lot of our sales strategies fail: A. We blame our clients and others for poor sales. Common excuses we make are: 1. There is too much politics in this company. 2. These people are stingy. 3. They are confused about what they want. 4. I have been put in a difficult sales territory. 5. I can never get to meet the decision makers. 6. My product is inferior. Whilst these “excuses” can be valid reasons so often we dis-empower ourselves by dwelling too much on them. B. We are not action orientated. “Top students sit down and start studying Mediocre students spend a lot of time “preparing” to study. Top salespeople do their planning and preparing during non-selling hours. When selling time comes, they pick up the phone and start calling people.” Zig Ziglar C. We lack the winning edge. D. We don’t know what we are really selling. 96
    • We don’t buy products but products of the product. We buy the products benefits and the solutions it brings. E. We are not profiled to correctly match our clients or product. G. We have not incorporated our sales strategy into the broader corporate strategic process. H. We do not manage our sales people well. I. We are not strong on the personal management aspects of sales. J. We take the rejection of our product as personal rejection. K. We have a lot of mis-expectations in terms of timing of closing a sale. L. We often don’t know how our product is positioned in the market. M. We have not connected with the right people in the client’s organization.V. What is the nature of relationship based selling? A. Relationship-based selling involves understanding yourself as a salesperson. Andy Lothian (Insights) describes the strengths and challenges for sales people according to their personality types. 1.1. Potential Strengths of a Cool Blue (analytic) sales person. 97
    • • Asks excellent fact-finding questions which elicit a comprehensive response • Allows the customer time to reflect and consider options • Demonstrates care by giving attention to detail at all stages of the sales process • Provides accurate and timely data to support her sales proposals • Plays a questioning role within the sales team, ensuring decisions made will have a viable benefit to the business1.2. Potential Challenges for a Cool Blue (analytic) sales person. • May appear cold, dispassionate and severe • May present so much information that the customer loses interest • May ask too many questions and take too long to suggest a solution • May show discomfort with an unstructured meeting and become irritated with customers who appear disorganised and unplanned2.1. Potential Strengths of an Earth Green (amiable) sales person. • Excels at maintaining long-term relationships with customers • Listens well and takes time to establish needs • Gives the customer time and space to come to a decision • Takes a collaborative, partnership approach through the stages of the sale • Brings a voice of reason to the sales team, ensuring new ideas are really in the best interest of the customer2.2. Potential Challenges for an Earth Green (amiable) sales person. • May be seen to be hesitant and lack a sense of certainty in proposing a solution for the customer • May avoid confrontation or delivering a difficult message by sometimes taking the path of least resistance • May appear to lack passion and/or excitement about his products and services • May seem to lack pace3.1. Potential Strengths a Sunshine Yellow (expressive) sales person. • Brings great energy and enthusiasm to his role • Is able to socialise well with customers and make the sales meeting fun and upbeat • Takes a creative approach to solving the customer’s problems • Believes that anything is possible and talks in a compelling way about future possibilities • Brings optimism to the sales team, inspiring others to embrace new ideas and concepts3.2. Potential Challenges for a Sunshine Yellow (expressive) sales person. • May make promises to customers he cannot keep • May lose track of time and turn up late and/or run over 98
    • • May forget the finer details by focusing too much on the ‘big picture’ • May lose interest in the project and fail to follow through completely 4.1. Potential Strengths of a Fiery Red (Driver) sales person. • Sets clear and stretching targets for herself • Is honest and direct with the customer • Presents her products and/or services with absolute certainty that these are the best in the marketplace • Provides a fast response to the customer’s needs • Brings energy and momentum to the sales team 4.2. Potential Challenges for a Fiery Red (Driver) sales person. • May be in a hurry to present a solution without always listening thoroughly to the customer’s needs • May appear intimidating • May sometimes move on to the next big opportunity before finalising the details of the last one • May be so single-minded that she fails to anticipate problems or explore alternative approaches B. Relationship based selling involves understanding and adapting to your client. 1. A Cool Blue client may want a lot of details; strong supporting evidence and detailed research. 2. An Earth Green client may want something safe, reliable, not too flashy, used by many other people. 3. A Sunshine Yellow client may want something fun and showy that will make them stand out. They are likely to get bored and frustrated if you try to give them too much detail about the product. 4. A Fiery Red client if often looking for the biggest, the latest, the fastest, the best….. They are attracted to excellence and love good deals. They hate being taken advantage of or “ripped off”.VI. What are the marks of an effective sales person? Andrew Patricio outlines various components of effective selling at different levels of the sales cycle. We have adapted these to show simply what an effective sales person does. These activities can be used in rating yourself as a sales person: A. In the preparation phase the effective sales person gets the basics right by… 99
    • Being committed to excellence.Loving customers.Being fanatical about service and quality.Developing relationships.Knowing why people should buy from them.Finding a market niche.Developing their credibility.Finding prospects.Not neglecting existing customers.Applying Paretos law - 80% of your sales usually comes from 20% of your customers so ensure that you knowwho the 20% are in your business.Asking for referrals - always remember to ask for referrals.Re-activating old customers. Check your database and contact customers that havent bought from you in awhile.Developing a network of businesses. Associate with people that are potential customers. Customers likebuying from people they know and likeUsing a database.Making use of telesales and mail-shots. Use telesales and mail-shots to open the door to an appointment withyour potential clientUsing the Internet. Very important today! The Internet can be used as a means of sending valuableinformation or a newsletter to your customers via email, or for developing a website where customers canview your products or place orders.B. Before visiting their clients, effective salespeople……Have information about all products, services they offer and their prices.Know exactly what their competitors offer.Have a well-rehearsed basic sales pitch.Ensure that they do as much research as possible about the customers business before calling on the 100
    • customer.Ensure that their products are neat and tidy and well presented.Ensure that they are appropriately dressed.Ensure that they are on time for appointments.Ensure that their written sales presentation, proposal or quotation looks professional.Set specific targets for themselves that they would like to achieve.Motivate themselves to achieve them.Believe in their product.C. Effective sales people are determined to understand the customers needs.They ask questions in order to find out what the customers needs are.They listen to the customer - follow the 70/30 rule: listen 70% of the time and talk 30% of the time. Theyknow that if they talk too much, they will not be able to satisfy their customers needs because they will nothear them.D. Effective sales people take sales presentations seriously and this is seen in how...They ensure that they have a well-structured presentation.They make them memorable by how they creatively communicate the essentials.They sell well the benefits and features of their Products or Services.E. Effective salespeople are skilled in handling objections.F. Effective salespeople know how to close the sale.G. Effective sales people know the importance of follow-up.H. Effective sales people know the art of getting referrals. 1. Gather as much information as possible about the referral. 2. Ask your customers permission to use their name. 3. Ask your customer to help you get an appointment with the referral. 4. Contact the referral as soon as possible. 101
    • 5. Inform the customer about the outcome of the referral. 6. Keep in regular contact with your customers.I. Effective sales people tend to exhibit the following traits. 1. They have a burning desire to achieve. 2. They look and act professional. 3. They radiate confidence. 4. They have a genuine concern for customers. 5. They are enthusiastic and passionate about their product.. 6. They believe in what they are doing. 7. They are excellent listeners. 8. They dont take rejection personally. 9. They search for sales opportunities everywhere. 10.They are eternal optimists. 11.They know how to interpret body language. 12.They network all the time. 13.They work on developing a positive self-image or attitude. 14.They have a sense of humour. 15.They persevere until they succeed. 102
    • Lesson 14 Customer Service ExcellenceI. What is the new paradigm of customer service excellence? Customers Front-line staff Supervisors CEO 103
    • As you can see, this pyramid embraces the biblical principle of servant-hearted leadership. Often this pyramid is reversed in organizations. The advantages of this organizational chart are that: 1. It encourages two-way communication between visitors and connectors. 2. Front-line staff are empowered to be real service heroes. 3. The leadership of the organisation exists to create an enabling environment for all management and frontline staff to serve the client well. 4. We manage the moments of truth well. 5. It reinforces the point that the people who manage the customer’s experience are “key” to the organization Good leaders must first become good servants. Robert Greenleaf Activity 1 Can you answer these questions? - What service are we offering? - To whom are we offering this service? - What are they expecting from me? - Describe an occasion when you have given exceptional service? What was the customer’s response? - What is your unique strength which seems to repeatedly bring customer delight? Keep aware that standards are changing. People are now exposed to global standards so they are now using an international benchmark.II. What are some keys to connecting with customers? A. The Principle of Ownership. Our performance increases when we take ownership. How do you treat guests at home compared to work? “As far as customers are concerned you are the company. This is not a burden, but the core of your job. You hold in your hands the power to keep customers coming back – perhaps even to make or break the company.” Unknown. B. The Principle of Sincerity. 104
    • C. The Wow Factor. D. The Principle of Empathy. E. The Principle of Credibility. F. The Wake Factor. G. The Principle of Win, Win, Win.III. What are some guiding principles for customer service excellence? A. Your customer is the most important visitor you receive at any time in your work period. B. The customer comes first at all times. The customer is not necessarily right all the time but is still king from your perspective. Therefore the customer COMES first: C- Clear messages O- Okay attitude M- Making people feel special E- Energy S- Service under pressure C. The customer is not dependent on you. D. A customer is not an interruption to your work; he or she is the cause of it. E. The customer is not an outsider but an important player. F. Remember that when a customer calls on your services you are not doing him or her a favour. G. Examine the moments of truth. - First impressions matter, and so do last impressions. 105
    • - First four minutes and last two minutes are often “key” in interactions. As mentioned earlier, a moment of truth is any opportunity that a customer has to form an impression, negative or positive, of the organisation. There are three possible customer reactions: 1. Customers will get less than they expect and be disappointed or angry (ie the service is memorable because it is horrible) 2. Customers will get exactly what they expect and therefore it is ‘no big deal’ (ie forgettable because it is natural) 3. Customers get service of a higher quality than they expect and are delighted (ie it is memorable because it’s beyond expectation) Hence the WOW factor What PLUS 1’s are people experiencing when they meet you?III. What are some guidelines for dealing with customer complaints? A. Try to view the world from the customer’s perspective. B. Realise that no matter how good your product or service may be, difficulties or complaints will still arise. C. Have a learning philosophy which views complaints as positive input for improvement. Customer complaints are the schoolbooks from which we learn. Unknown. Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning. Bill Gates D. Develop a written customer service policy. E. Use the complaint as an opportunity to show the client further exceptional service beyond what they expected. Customers don’t expect you to be perfect. They do expect you to fix things when they go wrong. Donald Porter V.P., British Airways 106
    • F. Help to maintain the dignity of the client.IV. What have some well known people said about customer service? Be everywhere, do everything, and never fail to astonish the customer. Macys Motto Do what you do so well that they will want to see it again and bring their friends. Walt Disney Don’t try to tell the customer what he wants. If you want to be smart, be smart in the shower. Then get out, go to work and serve the customer! Gene Buckley, Sikorsky Aircraft Forget about the sales you hope to make and concentrate on the service you want to render. Harry Bullis Here is a simple but powerful rule: always give people more than what they expect to get. Nelson Boswell I wont complain. I just wont come back. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Ad If the shopper feels like it was poor service, then it was poor service. We are in the customer perception business. Mark Perrault, Rally Stores If we don’t take care of our customers, someone else will. Unknown If you don’t genuinely like your customers, chances are they won’t buy. Tom Watson In the world of Internet Customer Service, its important to remember your competitor is only one mouse click away. Doug Warner It starts with respect. If you respect the customer as a human being, and truly honor their right to be treated fairly and honestly, everything else is much easier. Doug Smith Maybe Customer Service should be more than one department. SAP Ad Never underestimate the power of the irate customer. 107
    • Joel RossPeople don’t want to communicate with an organization or a computer. They want to talk to areal, live, responsive, responsible person who will listen and help them get satisfaction.Theo Michelson, State Farm InsurancePeople expect good service but few are willing to give it.Robert GatelyThe customer’s perception is your reality.Kate ZabriskieThe single most important thing to remember about any enterprise is that there are no resultsinside its walls. The result of a business is a satisfied customer.Peter DruckerThe true leader serves. Serves people. Serves their best interests, and in doing so will not alwaysbe popular, may not always impress. But because true leaders are motivated by loving concernrather than a desire for personal glory, they are willing to pay the price.Eugene B. HabeckerThere are no traffic jams along the extra mile.Roger StaubachTheres a place in the world for any business that takes care of its customers--after the sale.Harvey MacKay To my customer. I may not have the answer, but I’ll find it. I may not have the time, but I’ll makeit.UnknownWashrooms will always tell if your company cares about its customers.UnknownWell done is better than well said.Benjamin FranklinWhen you start viewing your customers as interruptions, youre going to have problems.Kate ZabriskieYou are serving a customer, not a life sentence. Learn how to enjoy your work.Laurie McIntoshYou cannot always control circumstances, but you can control your own thoughts.Charles Popplestown 108
    • You’ll never have a product or price advantage again. They can be easily duplicated, but astrong customer service culture can’t be copied.Jerry FritzYour best customers leave quite an impression. Do the same, and they wont leave at all.SAP AdIf you make customers unhappy in the physical world, they might each tell 6 friends.If you make customers unhappy on the Internet, they can each tell 6,000 friends.Jeff BezosGive trust, and youll get it double in returnKees KamiesOne of the deep secrets of life is that all that is really worth doingis what we do for others.Lewis CarolThe goal as a company is to have customer service that isnot just the best, but legendary.Sam WaltonMistakes are the portals of discovery.James JoyceOur greatest asset is the customer! Treat each customer as if they are the only one!Laurice Leitao 109
    • Lesson 15 Recruitment, Selection & RetentionIntroduction It is no accident that one of the Hebrew words for work, avodah, is the same as the word for divine service/worship. God redeems work. Our work is spiritual as we are called to do all we do “as unto the Lord”. When we break the sacred/secular divide we begin understand that God’s principles pertain to all aspects of life. With this understanding it is only natural to conduct the process of recruitment and selection with serious consideration. When Jesus recruited the apostles he first prayed all night carefully selected them individually. Paul the apostle emphasized the importance of testing people and had clearly defined qualifications for leadership. Often in times of recruiting we are employing people to take on certain levels of responsibility which require them to have passed certain tests. We need to take recruitment seriously and give it the time required otherwise wrong decisions can cost us dearly. The bible shows us that if we are faithful with the small we will be entrusted with much. We cannot divorce recruitment and promotion from biblical principles stewardship, faithfulness and responsibility. The key is to get the right people into the right positions at the right time. Recruitment and selection often involve reshuffling people, hence having to deal with a lot of change issues. We have to see this topic in the context of leading lasting change. New people bring change. Every business needs more than buildings and inventory to run, it depends on people. The better the quality of people in your organization, the better the quality of the organization, and the better the quality of products and services. To have the best products and services requires having the best employees available to produce them. To hire the right people is often a lot of work, but the rewards include: • Increased productivity • Improved morale • Better customer satisfaction • Increased revenues • Increased profit 110
    • I. What are the different stages in the process of recruitment and selection? We have outlined below 7 distinct stages in this process. It’s important to see it as a process and many mistakes are made when we isolate the different stages or steps from each other. These steps are generally quite sequential. A. Defining the corporate vision and mission. Before hiring people we have to know where we are going. B. Developing a clear human resource strategy. You have to answer the question: “Who will you need to accomplish the mission and by when will you need them?” In this stage you also define the job requirements – “what will they do?” C. Recruiting. In this stage there are many things to consider. Evaluate the best approach 1. Will it be an internal promotion or transfer from another department? 2. Who is responsible for the recruitment? Is it the CEO, HR or department head? Often there is lack of clarity here. 3. Will you use a recruitment agency? If so, which one? 4. Will you have different recruitment methods for different levels? E.g. head-hunting at a certain level? 5. Will you make use of direct advertising? (email, internet sites, newspapers etc) 6. What type of contract are you recruiting for – permanent, temporary etc? 7. Are you hiring for the job or for the organization (multi-skilling)? Unfortunately many business leaders are not clear with regards to these issues. D. Conducting interviews. 111
    • The purpose of interviews is 1. To get further in-depth information about a candidate’s work skills and experience- straight from the job seeker’s mouth. 2. To assess the candidate’s personality and to determine how that personality will fit into your existing work team. 3. To test on a real-time basis a candidate’s enthusiasm, intelligence, poise, and ability to think quickly. Hence, it is important to make sure the right people are present at the interview. E. Evaluating the candidates. This stage involves short-listing the candidates, conducting assessments, reference checks etc F. Making a decision and offer. Remember to view the entire process from a systemic perspective. In other words, think of the various factors you might need to consider before making an offer. If you treat this as an isolated case you might not set the candidate up to win. For example, have you treated their predecessor well? If not there might be grievances and resentment from the current employees. This might not make it easy for their new boss. G. Retaining those who add value.II. What job related information does the interviewer need to be prepared with? The interviewers need relevant information to assist them in answering the following important questions: 1. What is the Job Description, Key Result Areas or Key Performance Indicators? 2. Do you know precisely what you are hiring them for and are you able to articulate it? If not you might end up hiring a good person who is not good for that specific job. 112
    • 3. What is the job title, and what business unit will they belong to? 4. What will the candidate be responsible for and what tasks will characterize the job? 5. Who will they report to and will report to them? This can be complex in matrix organizations where you play different roles in multiple teams. 6. What is the background leading up to this job opening? 7. How will the individual be compensated (reward management system) including working hours, location etc? 8. Are there any unwritten aspects of the company culture of which the individual needs to be made aware? 9. Who are the people they will interface with on a regular basis? 10. What are the career development and growth opportunities for them? 11. When is the job starting? 12. Are we ready to support them?III. What do you look for when hiring someone? A. Competence B. Education C. Demonstrated success and experience D. Referrals E. Potential F. Passion and enthusiasm G. Character, integrity, and values fit. We also see in scripture that people were appointed into positions and promoted largely due to their integrity: 113
    • “I put in charge of Jerusalem my brother Hanani, along with Hananiah……because he was a man of integrity and feared God more than most men do.” (Neh. 7:2). “If you walk before me in integrity of heart like and uprightness as David your father did, and do all I command and observe my decrees and laws, I will establish your royal throne over Israel forever…”(1 Kings 9:4-5). H. Aptitude There are certain aptitudes necessary for certain roles. For example entrepreneurial roles need people who are high on achievement orientation, calculated risk taking, determination, and creativity. If one does not look at individual aptitude one risks spending a lot of time trying to enhance the performance of someone who does not have the necessary aptitude for the role. I. Versatility, creativity and initiative. J. Existing skills shortage and gaps. In choosing a candidate it is important to hire according to the existing gaps. One should be able to answer the question: “If we were to increase the size of our team what areas of competence would we staff our team with?” K. Work-style The flexible workplace and output based work schedules are becoming more commonplace today. Ask yourself, do the requirements of the job match the lifestyle of the candidate? L. Prayer and leading of the Holy SpiritIV. What are some “red flags” to look out for in a CV? 114
    • Upon evaluating a CV it’s important to be aware of certain things which might require further investigation. 1. Lengthy education but no experience 2. Employment gaps (what were they doing) 3. Patterns of short-term employment 4. Too much personal information and not enough on their skill set. 5. Description of jobs and positions as opposed to actual results achieved. In all of this it’s important to still be aware of discrimination laws. V. What are some common mistakes made in evaluating the suitability of a candidate? 1. Being overly impressed with maturity over youthfulness or the other way round. 2. Confusing quiet, reserved and calm with lack of motivation. 3. Being deceived by the candidate’s ability to play the interview game. 4. Projecting your personal preference onto whoever is going to be working with them. Remember that they need to “click” with their team and not necessarily with you. 5. Personal biases e.g. they remind you of a friend or they have a name of someone you don’t like. 6. Lack of objectivity a. Making decision purely on first impressions. b. Making decisions based on subjective politics. c. Conducting he interview alone, hence, basing your decision on one person only. d. Chemistry alone/gut feel judgment 7. Assuming graduates from specific institutions are automatically the best. 8. Being unaware of the course content of specific degrees. 9. Embracing the “halo effect” – one good quality over-rides all their negative qualities. 10. Hiring out of desperation. 11. Hiring without full investigation. 12. Hiring based too much on potential and not demonstrated success. 13. Not asking the question, “Even though I like this person will others follow them?”VI. What are some guiding principles to consider when giving people work? 115
    • What differentiates a Christian organization from one of the world? What should we look atwhen hiring a member of staff? We can no longer afford to just see organizations as placeswhere people work. The reality is that people spend a very large portion of their waking state atwork. If your workplace is not the right place for you then you are spending the majority of yourtime outside the will of God and are probably living an unhealthy lifestyle. We cannot be outsidethe optimal climate for us and still live healthily – the result is often burnout, which in turn leadsto various moral failings. Like never before, we need to clearly articulate some differencesbetween God’s mindset on staff selection and the world’s.A. Maintain their dignity.The Bible requires that employers even treat slaves humanely. The Bible (Leviticus 25:43) statesregarding a freeman sold into slavery: "You shall not rule over him through rigorous labor."Furthermore, his family has to be provided for (Leviticus 25:41), and his master is not permitted to makehim perform debasing tasks (Leviticus 25:39). Leviticus 25:39) provides examples of demeaning workwhich is not permitted.B. Give them meaningful work.Leviticus 25:43 shows that a master should not assign his slave work that is not purposeful. For example,the master is not permitted to tell his servant to heat up a cup when he does not need it or ask theservant to hoe the vineyard until he returns. Work has to be finite and the master is only permitted toassign work until a specific time or hoe until a particular place. Providing meaningless work or vague andunspecific job requirements takes away a job’s meaning and is therefore not allowed. At a particularconcentration camp an experiment was done to see how people would react to being given meaninglesswork. The result was that someone committed suicide.C. Know that God will reward you for how you have treated your employees.The Bible motivates individuals and employers by making it clear that those who mistreat the helplessare answerable to God (Exodus 22: 20-23; Isaiah 1:23-25; Proverbs 22: 22-23) and those who help themwill be blessed by God (Deuteronomy 15: 7-11; Isaiah 1:17-19; Proverbs 19:17).D. Do not exploit your employees.Be committed to not exploit them (often this happens in the contract – rather think win-win).The Bible states (Leviticus 19:13): "You shall not oppress your fellow and you shall not rob; the wages ofa worker shall not remain with you overnight until morning." We must be careful of worldly hardbargaining techniques. The bible says we must not withhold good from those in need yet there are oftencoercive political strategies used by companies when dealing with their employees. The Bible warns in 116
    • James 2 - exploitation is sin. Why do you hire the people you do? Is it merely to achieve your dream orare you interested in being a vehicle to assist them in their dreams? What are your views on profitsharing?E. Be generous to your employees when they leave.The Bible requires the master to give his or her slave a severance gift known as hanakah. The Biblestates (Deuteronomy 15:13-14): "Do not send him away empty-handed. You shall give him a severancegift from your flocks, from your threshing floor, and from your wine cellar ..." An ethical employershould realize that if the Bible demands that a slave be given a severance bonus after six years of labor,it is certainly appropriate for employers to reward loyal workers who have been with a firm fornumerous years.F. Encourage stewardship.This is necessary if we are to create a culture of accountability, ownership and responsibility.G. Do not be partial.James 2 warns against favouritism. This is why we engage in interviews (objectivity) and performancemanagement.H. Have clear job descriptions which you respect. 1. Job Title. This is significant as it shapes perception. Come up with creative job titles. E.g. Ken Blanchard, coauthor of The One Minute Manager, is the Chief Spiritual Officer of his organization. Brian Yeoman of the University of Texas, Houston, Health Science Center, is his organizations Raging Inexorable Thunder- Lizard Evangelist for Change. 2. Department/ Division. 3. Responsibilities. Should include every task of the position. 4. Required Skill/ Expertise. This should include skills, expertise and year of experience required. 5. Required licenses/ Certifications. Don’t put requirements in this section unless it is essential. Otherwise you could be opening yourself and your company up to a lawsuit. Job descriptions that are too exact may prompt lawsuits. Be sure that your job descriptions contain wording or clauses that allow you to expand tasks as necessary. The most famous of 117
    • these clauses, “and other duties as assigned,” works for many companies, but be sure to get advice from your legal counsel before including this terminology.I. Have a God-honouring reward management system. Your employees always deserve to be paid a fair wage. You can determine this worth by looking at the salaries of employees in similar positions in your geographic area and by determining the relative value of their contributions to your organization. • Are you going to make your basic salaries simply competitive with the going rate for employers in your area – or higher? • Are you going to establish a structured pay scale for specific jobs in your company, or are you going to set salaries on an individual basis, based on the qualities and potential of the person filling the job? • To what extent are the monetary rewards that you offer your employees going to take the form of salary, performance bonuses, or benefits? • Are you going to base the salaries on how well people perform or on other factors such as how long they stay with you or what credentials they bring to the job? • Are you going to award bonuses on the basis of individual performance, tie bonuses to company results, or use a combination thereof?J. Conduct effective interviews.This can be done by: 1. Welcoming the applicant and put him or her at ease. 2. Summarizing the position. 3. Asking a variety of questions. o Why are you here? o What can you do for us? o What kind of person are you? o Can we afford you? 4. Probing the candidate’s strengths and weaknesses. 5. Concluding the interview on an “up” note.K. Give new employees an effective induction and orientation. 1. Make your new hire feel welcome. (The biblical practice of hospitality) 118
    • 2. Provide a sense of place and belonging. 3. Introduce your new employee to the team. 4. Don’t drown your new employee in forms and paperwork. 5. Make the first day a fun day. 6. Give them the support they need. 7. Give them a comprehensive introduction and set them up to win.VII. Why is retention important? A. Intellectual capital is important. B. There is a link between employee tenure and customer satisfaction C. There is a cost to turnover of staff (direct expenses, indirect, opportunity cost etc) D. Employee loyalty drives employee productivity. Having said this in entrepreneurial organizations we grow people and help them see possibilities. These are often fulfilled elsewhere. So turnover is not always a negative thing.VIII. How do you keep the best? It’s important to understand why people stay in your organization. People stay for the following reasons: A. Pride in organization B. Respected supervisor C. Fair compensation D. Affiliation E. Meaningful work F. Growth experienced and growth opportunities. Companies should develop strategies to retain people that add value. People will always leave. The problem is when its only good people that leave. A lot of times good people leave an organization simply because it no longer suits their life stage. Unfortunately this can also happen when an organisaion has inflexible work schedules. I know an organization struggling to retain people from a particular profession 119
    • yet if it had more flexible work schedules this might not be the case. Outlined below are examples ofthis: 1. Reduced time schedules. 2. Seasonal schedules. 3. Compressed schedules.G. Understand why people leave. 1. Company leadership shifts 2. Conflict with immediate supervisor 3. Close friends leave 4. Unfavourable change of responsibilities 5. Problems with work-life balance 6. Conflict between personal values andcoroprate values 7. Discouragement from underperformance (not meeting goals) 8. Lack of appreciation People will always gravitate towards where they are celebrated and not where they are tolerated. Unfortunately this often manifests when the wrong people take credit for something. 9. Unfair treatment or perceived inequityH. Knowing when they are starting to get dissatisfied.The following are signs of job dissatisfaction and disaffection: 1. Change of behaviour (coming late or leaving earlier). 2. Decreased performance. 3. Sudden complaints from a non-complainer. 4. Constant references or comparisons with other companies. 5. Withdrawal behaviour (no longer volunteering for projects or going to social functions with colleagues). 6. Signs of burnout. 120
    • Lesson 16 Dynamics of teamwork Introduction Often a group of people get together and it is up to a leader to transform this group into a high performance team. What happens when a group starts? This initial stage of team development is described in Tuckman’s model as the forming stage illustrated below. When the group initially comes together or when new members join the group: • People tend to be polite, with true feelings withheld from fear of upsetting others or giving the wrong impression. • Each individual in his or her own way will be trying to answer the question “Will I be accepted?” • People will try to avoid controversy or serious topics and ideas will tend to be kept to simple ones. • The group is trying to establish why it is there. Its identity and purpose. • Limited group identity and strong dependence on the leader as individuals each handle their own ambiguities and anxieties. They look to the leader to provide positive direction and remove uncertainty. • Depending on the tolerance for ambiguity and needs and style of the members, this stage of strangers getting together can either be smooth and pleasant or intense and frustrating. At this stage people do not know the answers to some of the crucial team questions like: What value do I add to the team? How do I want to be communicated to? How do I not want to be communicated to? What stresses you? How do you know when you are stressed? What are the shared non-negotiable values of the team? What are your high leverage areas? Peter Drucker says, “Tomorrow’s organizations will be flatter, information-based, and organized around teams.” We are already seeing this trend, not only in our corporate organizations, but also in civil government and in schools. Hence, in this lesson we are going to explore how one can take a team from this initial stage and turn it into a highly cohesive, effective force to be reckoned with.I. What is a team? 121
    • In defining a team it is important to differentiate it from a group: A. A group is: “A number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group (sociology) B. A team is: “A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” The Wisdom of Teams, Harvard Business School Press (1993)II. What does the bible say about teamwork? A. The bible shows us the need to be interdependent (1 Cor. 12:12-26; 1 Cor. 14:26-33; 1 Cor. 11:11; Dan 2:17). B. The bible shows how Jesus modeled and encouraged teamwork (Mark 6:7). C. The bible shows us how non-team approaches are not an option for Christian leaders (2 Cor. 2:12- 13). D. The bible shows us that effective teams have clearly defined roles and specialization (Nehemiah 3). E. The bible shows us that working in a team context can be a source of encouragement and strength (Exodus 17:12). F. The bible shows us the negative consequences of not using a team approach (Prov. 11:14; Prov. 18:1).III. What are the different types of teams? There are various types of teams and depending on the purpose of the team, they will differ in make- up. For example, some teams may need a more autocratic type of leadership (e.g. firemen); whilst others need to draw out the intellectual skills of each member (e.g. consultancy teams). Advice teams: to broaden the information base, for example quality circles. Ad hoc teams are also included in this, such as an annual picnic committee. Production teams: These are low in technical orientation but have high co-ordination with other groups. Project teams. Action teams: sport, surgery teams etc. 122
    • IV. What are the different roles common to most teams? It is important to learn how to use these different role types in such a way that they complement each other. One should also learn how to manage the weaknesses associated with the role types. Most people tend to have one, two or three major team role types. When organizing people into groups and teams, one can use one’s knowledge of these role types to see which combinations will work best. There are times when one has to explore the fit between individuals in a group. This is very significant because many teams have failed in cohesiveness, as there was a conflict in the personalities present. Belbin’s Team Roles are illustrated below: A. PlantIndividualistic, original, creative, imaginative and unorthodox. Concerned with fundamentals rather than detail. Thrusting and uninhibited. Easily offended if ideas criticised. B. Co-ordinator Mature, confident, preoccupied with objectives, disciplined, authoritative, charismatic. C. Shapers Dynamic, outgoing, dominant, extravert, task leaders, needs achievement, headstrong and assertive. Sometimes see team as extension of their own ego. D. Resource investigators Extravert, enthusiastic, communicative, exploring opportunities and developing contacts. Likeable, sociable and gregarious. Get bored without stimulus. E. Implementers Disciplined, reliable, stable, controlled, conservative and efficient. Practical organisers. Concerned with reality and the possible. Can be counted on to do reliably what needs to be done. F. Monitor evaluators A capacity for shrewd judgement, sober, strategic, discerning, introverted, serious, prudent, constructively critical and able to assimilate material objectively. 123
    • G. Completer finishers Painstaking, conscientious, introverted, anxious, reluctant to delegate,unassertive, insist on discipline and focus, great capacity for follow through.H. Team workers Sociable, sensitive, mild, perceptive, and accommodating. Build relationships.Communicate concern and care. Promote unity and harmony.I. Specialists Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Providing knowledge or technical skills. Prioritiesgeared to their area of speciality rather than the team. Sometimes this lead s to the “silo” mentalitywhere they work in isolation.Let’s look at two scenarios:Because of the positioning of the personalities, the combination below is likely to work well.Boss (co-coordinator)Shaper Colleague (resource investigator)Subordinate (team-player)Adversely this combination is not likely to work wellBoss (implementer) Colleague (plant)ShaperSubordinate (monitor/evaluator) 124
    • V. What are the marks of an effective team? A. Effective teams are truly cohesive. Patrick Lencioni describes a truly cohesive team culture as having members who: 1. Trust one another. 2. Engage in unfiltered conflict around ideas. 3. Commit to decisions and plans of action. 4. Hold one another accountable for delivering against those plans. 5. Focus on the achievement of collective results. B. Effective teams have a clear purpose. Effective teams have many informal aspects. Effective teams are participative. Effective teams have members who are good listeners. Effective teams have civilized disagreement in an intellectual compelling atmosphere. Effective teams tend to have consensus decision-making and avoiding of formal voting. Effective teams have open communication. Effective teams have clear roles and work assignments. Effective teams often have shared or “roving” leadership. 125
    • Effective teams have good external relations with other teams. Effective teams have style diversity. Effective teams are characterized by self-assessment. N. Effective teams embrace ALL facets of team dynamics.VI. What are some common hindrances to teamwork? A. An overemphasis on hierarchy and red-tape. Genuine teamwork does not focus on level, hierarchy or status. B. Reward structures that are not team-oriented. You get what you pay for– if you want teamwork, you must reward it. Exhorting team effort while rewarding stars will get you more stars. Most organizations reward individual success, making real teamwork extremely difficult. C. Unhealthy conformity. It is important not to stifle individuality and healthy conflict in the name of teamwork. Avoid ‘groupthink’ by rewarding openness – thank people for bad news and for disagreeing with you. Frowning and being defensive about your views will turn teamwork into conformity. D. Lack of openness. This openness does not mean one should go to the other extreme of accepting endless discussion. Genuine teamwork reduces isolation and makes change less frightening. 126
    • E. Lack of ongoing self-assessment. Effective teams use a process to review regularly how they are doing. F. Too many generalists and not enough specialists. Team members contribute specialist knowledge, but they should be encouraged to be generalists in the way they behave in the team– at different times leading, enhancing harmony, and generating new ideas. G. Low emotional competence. Good leaders understand how team members differ in terms of their personalities and hidden agendas. H. Perpetuating a team environment that is dysfunctional 5 Dysfunctions of a team – Patrick Lencioni: 1. Inattention to Results 2. Avoidance of Accountability 3. Lack of Commitment 4. Fear of Conflict 5. Absence of TrustVII. What can leaders do practically to foster teamwork? 127
    • The affective (emotional) element of groups can be encouraged byincreasing the group cohesiveness. The socio-emotional aspect ofcohesiveness has to do with the feeling and bonding side of the members.On the other hand, the instrumental cohesiveness has to do with themotivational aspects of the members. The following illustrates howcohesiveness can be enhanced. This is useful, as we often do not plan howto build teams; instead we leave them to be ineffective and oftendestructive.A. We can engage in activities that increase the team’s cohesiveness. 1. Socio-emotional cohesiveness Keep the group relatively small. Strive for a favorable public image to increase the prestige of belonging. Encourage interaction and co-operation. Emphasize common characteristics and interests. Point out environmental threats (to rally the group). 2. Instrumental cohesiveness Regular update clarifying group goals. Give each member “a vital piece of the action”. Recognize and reinforce every member’s contribution. Frequently remind them that they need each other to get the job done. Channel each member’s special talents toward a common goal.B. We can engage in teambuilding activities.Teambuilding is needed in order to systematically make teams more effective. The four purposes of teambuilding are as follows: 1. To set goals and priorities 2. To analyze or allocate the way work is performed 3. To examine the way a group is working and its processes 4. To examine relationships among the people doing the workC. We can intentionally create a culture of ownership and self-leadership.Another way in which the instrumental aspect of cohesiveness can be encouraged is through self-leadership. When teams are operating effectively, the potential of each member is starting to bemaximised. This essentially occurs through a culture of empowerment. In order to increase synergy and 128
    • empowerment within an organization, leaders need to understand the process of leading others to leadthemselves. This occurs as follows: 1. Encouraging self-reinforcement (getting them to praise each other) 2. Encouraging self-observation/evaluation 3. Encouraging self-expectation (encouraging them to expect a lot from themselves and the team) 4. Encouraging self-goal-setting 5. Encouraging rehearsal (thinking about and practicing new tasks)D. We can ensure that the team has the authority and tools necessary to accomplish its mission.Leaders can directly impact on the area of design by ensuring that the team is responsible for asubstantial task with clear deliveries, appropriate team-oriented structures are in place; and that thereis appropriate organizational endorsement for the team.E. We can facilitate a training process in team enhancing factors. 129
    • Lesson 17 Managing Conflict Firstly, it’s important to understand that conflict is not a negative thing. We sometimes speak of leveraging conflict because it is something one can view positively if managed well. We all have personal definitions of conflict. When we think of conflict it means something unique for each one of us. Robert (1979) illustrates how the following open-ended statements help you to discover and share your reactions to conflict and your ways of dealing with it. Learning activity Reflect on how you deal with conflict and briefly complete each sentence: 1. The time I felt best about dealing with conflict was when… 2. When someone disagrees with me about something important or challenges me in front of others, I usually… 3. The most important outcome of conflict is… 4. When I confront someone I care about, I… 5. I feel most vulnerable during conflict when… 6. When someone avoids conflict with me, I…. 7. My greatest strength in handling conflict is… 8. I am most apt to confront people in situations such as… 9. When I was growing up, conflict was… 10. My greatest weakness in handling conflict is… 11. When I think about confronting a potentially unpleasant person, I… 12. I sometimes avoid directly confronting someone when…I. What are some common causes of conflict? A. Conflict arises from problems in perception. 130
    • Commonly Found Perceptual Errors Perceptual error Description ExampleHalo A rater forms an overall impression Rating a professor high on the teaching about an object and then uses that dimensions of ability to motivate impression to bias ratings about the students, knowledge, and object communication because we like him or herLeniency A personal characteristic that leads an Rating a professor high on all individual to consistently evaluate dimensions of performance regardless other people or objects in an of his or her actual performance. The extremely positive fashion rater who hates to say negative things about othersCentral tendency The tendency to avoid all extreme Rating a professor average on all judgments and rate people and objects dimensions of performance regardless as average or neutral of his or her actual performance.Recency effects The tendency to remember recent Although a professor has given good information. If the recent information lectures for 12 to 15 weeks, he or she is negative, the person or object is is evaluated negatively because evaluated negatively lectures over the last 3 weeks were done poorlyContrast effects The tendency to evaluate people or Rating a good professor as average objects by comparing them with because you compared his or her characteristics of recently observed performance with three of the best people or objects professors you have ever had in college. You are currently taking courses from the three excellent professors.B. Conflict often stems from an inability to resolve past offences.Research has shown that very few people actively resolve conflict: • 10% Active aggression • <5% Active resolution 131
    • • 70% Passive aggression • 15% Passive avoidanceSmyth, Peter J. (2006). Understanding Yourself and Others, in The Leadership Guide for Health CareProfessionals. Thomas Stewart and Christopher Mazza (Eds.) Oakville, Ontario: J. Hylands and AssociatesInc.B. Conflict occurs more in low trust environments.In most cases trust is slowly frittered away and ends up breaking down for a whole range of reasons: 1. Failure to deliver on promises 2. Hidden expectations about what will be achieved 3. Talking negatively outside meetings 4. Cliques and sub-groups. 5. Lack of communication 6. Not raising problems – rather collecting injusticesWe each have a trust bank account where people make deposits and withdrawals.C. Conflict tends to occur in environments that have become hostile.Hamlin (1988) outlines why people get hostile when it comes to asking questions in a public setting, andhow this can be handled in such a group setting: 1. Passion – we can and do get worked up over issues and some people have less self-control than others. Those who are guided by gut reactions more than logic, whose families were given to more volatile responses, are most prone to this. 2. Fear and threat – Thinking, “My life or work will change because of this message. Maybe I can’t handle it,” causes some real agitation and attendant loss of control. 3. Self-protection – Attacking the messenger is an ancient problem. In an effort to focus on “Whose idea is this anyway?” and “Why should I change?” belligerence and a need to blame someone follow fear and threat. 4. Defensiveness – People sometimes start out calmly enough to discuss something they disagree with, but then lose their cool when they feel outclassed by logic and hard facts, and become defensive, then aggressive. Hostility covers embarrassment. 5. Lack of information – sometimes people build entrenched positions based on bias or one point of view. They can cleave most passionately to this, especially as part of a group. Not having information about the other point of view or the people who have it causes hostility when they are confronted with it. You also draw hostility by simply representing the hated other side. 132
    • 6. Sense of impotence – Feeling unable to halt or change something with its resultant sense of loss of control can have the effect of despair for some and real change for others. 7. Resentment of opposition figures – Images of someone with more power, influence, money, status and information can cause resentment and jealousy to the point of hostility and anger. 8. Isolation – We all need a sense of constituency or identification in a group. Being the only one who feels differently sometimes causes overreaction and anger.II. What does the bible say about conflict? A. The Bible has a clearly defined pattern for conflict resolution between believers. “If your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault, between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained your brother. But if he does not listen, take one or two others along with you, that every charge may be established by the evidence of two or three witnesses. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church. And if he refuses to listen even to the church, let him be to you as a Gentile and a tax collector (Matthew 18:15-17). B. The Bible promotes gentleness. A soft answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger (Prov. 15:1). C. The Bible illustrates wisdom in conflict situations. And the king said, “Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one and half to the other.” Then the woman whose son was alive said to the king, because her heart yearned for her son, “Oh, my lord, give her the living child, and by no means put him to death.” But the other said, “He shall be neither mine nor yours; divide him.” Then the king answered and said, “Give the living child to the first woman, and by no means put him to death; she is his mother.” And all Israel heard of the judgment that the king had rendered, and they stood in awe of the king, because they perceived that the wisdom of God was in him to do justice (1 Kings 3:25-28). D. The Bible instructs to keep our joy even in difficult situations. Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. And let steadfastness have its full effect, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing (James 1:2-4). E. The Bible can be used for direction in conflict situations. All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, (2 Timothy 3:16). F. The Bible highlights that we cannot substitute love with anything else. 133
    • If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am a noisy gong or a clangingcymbal. And if I have prophetic powers, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and if Ihave all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. If I give away all Ihave, and if I deliver up my body to be burned, but have not love, I gain nothing. Love is patientand kind; love does not envy or boast; it is not arrogant or rude. It does not insist on its own way;it is not irritable or resentful; ... (1 Cor. 13:1-13).G. The Bible instructs us to operate in the opposite spirit when harmed.Repay no one evil for evil, but give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all. Ifpossible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all. Beloved, never avenge yourselves,but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says theLord.” To the contrary, “if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him somethingto drink; for by so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.” Do not be overcome by evil,but overcome evil with good. (Romans 12:17-21)H. The Bible highlights that there is a place for rebuking.Pay attention to yourselves! If your brother sins, rebuke him, and if he repents, forgive him,(Luke 17:3).I. The Bible instructs us to operate in humility.At that time the disciples came to Jesus, saying, “Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?”And calling to him a child, he put him in the midst of them and said, “Truly, I say to you, unlessyou turn and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Whoeverhumbles himself like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. “Whoever receives onesuch child in my name receives me, ... (Matthew 18:2-4).J. The Bible places priority on conflict resolution and reconciliation.Leave your gift there before the altar and go. First be reconciled to your brother, and then comeand offer your gift. (Matthew 5:24).K. The Bible shows us that we are blessed for making peace.“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God. (Matthew 5:9)L. The Bible instructs us to be even-tempered good listeners.Know this, my beloved brothers: let every person be quick to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger;(James 1:19) 134
    • M. The Bible instructs to remember who is in authority even in times of conflict. Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment. For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you have no fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what is good, and you will receive his approval, for he is Gods servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out Gods wrath on the wrongdoer. (Rom.13:1-4)III. What are the conflict-handling styles commonly used by people? Depending on our basic personality types we tend to differ in how we handle conflict. As individuals begin to know each other, conflict is very common. As you explore the following conflict styles continue to reflect on your own behavior, and whether your particular style is useful or not. (Go through Appendix I to discover your conflict handling style). Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Styles: A. Avoiding (uncooperative and unassertive): Person neglects his or her own concerns as well as those of the other person by not raising or addressing the conflict issue. B. Accommodating/Obliging (cooperative and unassertive): One seeks to satisfy the other person’s concerns at the expense of one’s own. C. Competing/Dominating (uncooperative and assertive): The opposite of avoiding; one uses whatever seems appropriate to win one’s own position. D. Collaborating/Integrating (cooperative and assertive): The opposite of avoiding; one works with the other person to find a solution that fully satisfies both one’s own concerns and those of the other. E. Compromising (intermediate in cooperativeness and assertiveness): One seeks an expedient middle-ground position that provides partial satisfaction for both parties. 135
    • IV. Which is the appropriate conflict handling style for various situations? A. Competing 1. When to compete/dominate. • When quick, decisive action is needed • On important issues for which unpopular courses of action need implementing • On issues vital to company welfare when one knows one is right • When protection is needed against people who take advantage of non-competitive behaviour 2. Potential negative consequences of competing: • Eventually being surrounded by “yes” people • Fear of admitting ignorance or uncertainty • Distorted perceptions • Reduced communication • Damage to relationship • No commitment from the other person • Having to keep “selling’ or policing the solution during implementation B. Collaborating 1. When to collaborate/Integrate. • When both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised • When the objective is to test one’s own assumptions or better understand the views of others • When there is a need to merge insights from people with different perspectives on a problem • When incorporating others’ concerns into a consensus decision can increase commitment. • When working through hard feelings that have been interfering with an interpersonal relationship 2. Potential negative consequences of collaborating: • Too much time spent on an insignificant issue • Ineffective decisions made from input from people unfamiliar with the situation • Unfounded assumptions about trust C. Compromising 1. When to compromise 136
    • • When goals are moderately important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive modes • When two opponents with equal power are strongly committed to mutually exclusive goals • When temporary settlements are needed on complex issues • When expedient solutions are necessary under time pressure • If a back-up model is needed when collaboration or competition fail2. Potential negative consequences of compromising: • No one fully satisfied • Short-lived solution • A cynical climate through perception of a sell out • Losing sight of the larger issues, principles, long-term objectives, values, and the company welfare by focusing on practicalitiesD. Avoiding1. When to avoid • When an issue is trivial • When there is no chance of getting what you want • When the potential damage of confrontation outweighs the benefits of resolution • When one needs to cool down, reduce tensions, and regain perspective and composure • When the need is to gather more information • When others can resolve the conflict more effectively • When the issue seems symptomatic of another fundamental issue2.Potential negative consequences of avoiding: • Decisions made by default • Unresolved issues • Energy sapped by sitting on issues • Self-doubt created through lack of esteem • Creative input and improvement prevented • Lack of credibility E. Accommodating 1. When to accommodate • When one realizes one is wrong 137
    • • When the issue is much more important to the other person • When “credits” need to be accumulated for issues that are more important • When continued competition would only damage the cause • When preserving harmony and avoiding disruption are especially important • When subordinates need to develop and to be allowed to learn mistakes 2. Potential negative consequences of accommodating: • Decreased influence, respect, or recognition by too much deference • Laxity in discipline • Frustration as own needs are not met • Self-esteem undermined • Relinquished best solutionV. What are some common miscommunication styles in conflict? Discuss which of the following communication styles you use A. The Avoider The avoider refuses to fight. When a conflict arises, he’ll leave, fall asleep, pretend to be busy at work, or keep from facing the problem in some other way. This behaviour makes it very difficult for another to express his feelings of anger, hurt, etc. because the avoider won’t fight back. B. The Guilt Maker Instead of saying straight out that he doesn’t want or approve of something, the guilt maker tries to change his partner’s behaviour by making him feel responsible for causing pain. The guilt maker’s favourite line is: “It’s OK, don’t worry about me…” accompanied by a big sigh. C. The Subject Changer Really a type of avoider, the subject changer escapes facing up to aggression by shifting the conversation whenever it approaches an area of conflict. Because of his tactics, the subject changer and his partner never have the chance to explore their problem and do something about it. 138
    • D. The Mind ReaderInstead of allowing another to honestly express feelings, the mind reader goes into character analysis,explaining what the other person really means or what’s wrong with the other person. By behaving thisway the mind reader refuses to handle his own feelings and leaves no room for the other person toexpress himself.E. The WithholderInstead of expressing his anger honestly and directly, the withholder typically punishes his/her spouseby keeping back something – courtesy, affection, good cooking, humour, sex. As you can imagine, this islikely to build up even greater resentments in the relationship.F. The TrapperThe trapper plays an especially dirty trick by setting up a desired behaviour for his partner, and thenwhen it’s met, attacking the very thing he requested. An example of this technique is for the trapper tosay: “Let’s be totally honest with each other,” and then when the partner shares his feelings he findshimself attacked for having feelings that the trapper doesn’t want to accept.G. The Gunny SackerThis person doesn’t respond immediately when he’s angry. Instead, he puts his resentment into hisgunnysack, which after a while begins to bulge with large and small gripes. Then when the sack is aboutto burst, the gunny-sacker pours out all his pent-up aggressions on the overwhelmed and unsuspectingvictim.H. The Trivial Tyranniser:Instead of honestly sharing his resentments, the trivial tyranniser does things he knows will get hispartners goat: leaving dirty dishes in the sink, clipping his fingernails in bed, belching out loud, turningup the television too loud, and so on. 139
    • I. The Joker Because he’s afraid to face conflicts squarely, the joker kids around when his partner wants to be serious, thus blocking the expression of important feelings. J. The Beltliner Everyone has a psychological “beltline”, and below it are subjects too sensitive to be approached without damaging the relationship. Beltlines may have to do with physical characteristics, intelligence, past behaviour or deeply ingrained personality traits a person is trying to overcome. In an attempt to “get even” or hurt his partner the beltliner will use his intimate knowledge to hit below the belt, where he knows it will hurt. K. The Kitchen Sink Fighter This person is so named because in an argument he brings up things that are totally off the subject (“everything, but the kitchen sink”): the way his spouse behaved last New Year’s Eve, the unmade bed – anything. Taken from Weinstein, et al: Communication SkillsVI. What are some guidelines for dealing with confrontations? A. Have a clear and systematic methodology for dealing with confrontations. 1. Seek first to understand before being understood (Ask for the other view point to be explained) 2. Explain the situation the way you see it 3. Describe how it is affecting performance 4. Agree on the problem 5. Explore and discuss possible solutions 6. Agree on what each person will do to solve the problem 7. Set a date for follow-up if necessary B. Learn to manage your hostility. Hamlin (1988) outlines that in a public setting one of the major goals in confronting hostility and resolving it is to show your audience that you can stay in control of your feelings and your facts, and to 140
    • continue to convince them, even if you are verbally assaulted. Techniques for handling hostility whenanswering questions are outlined below:1. Take a breath2. Identify the hostility3. Understand the anger4. Get out of the personal realm5. Find something common6. Ask for further clarification7. Settle for disagreementAppendix I Learning Activity What is Your Primary Conflict-Handling Style Adapted in part from M A Rahim, “A measure of Styles of handling Interpersonal Conflict” Academy of Management Journal, June 1983, pp 368-76. *Please circle the number that is closest to your response: 1 = rarely 5 = always 1. I argue my case with my co-workers to show the merits of my position. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I negotiate with my co-workers so that a compromise can be reached. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I try to satisfy the expectations of my co-workers. 1 2 3 4 5 4. I try to investigate an issue with my co-workers to find a solution acceptable to us. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I am firm in pursuing my side of the issue. 1 2 3 4 5 141
    • 6. I try to avoid being “put on the spot” and try to keep my conflict with my workers to myself. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I hold on to my solution to a problem. 1 2 3 4 5 8. I use “give and take” so that a compromise can be made. 1 2 3 4 5 9. I exchange accurate information with my co-workers to solve a problem together. 1 2 3 4 5 10. I avoid open discussion of my differences with my co-workers. 1 2 3 4 5 11. I accommodate the wishes of my co-workers. 1 2 3 4 5 12. I try to bring all concerns out in the open so that the issues can be resolved in the best possible way. 1 2 3 4 5 13. I propose a middle ground for breaking deadlocks. 1 2 3 4 5 14. I go along with the suggestions of my co-workers. 1 2 3 4 5 15. I try to keep my disagreements with my co-workers to myself. 1 2 3 4 5Scoring KeyInsert the score you got for each number and then add up the scores in each category.Integrating Obliging Dominating Avoiding CompromisingItem Score Item Score Item Score Item Score Item Score4 3 1 6 2 142
    • 9 11 5 10 812 14 7 15 13Total Total Total Total TotalYour Primary Conflict Handling Style is: ______________(The category with the highest total)Your Back Up Conflict-Handling Style is: _______________(The category with the second highest total)References “Conflict Management: Dyadic Sharing” by Marc Robert in The 1979 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators, edited by John E. Jones and J. William Pfeiffer. San Diego, CA: University Associates, 1979. Steven L. Phillips and Robin L. Elledge (1989) “The Team-building Source Book.” San Diego, California: University Associates 143
    • I. What is communication? A. Communication is simply “getting the message across”. B. All communication involves the following components: • The Sender - who initiates the message. • The Message - the content and form of the communication. • The Receiver - the intended recipient of the message. It’s important to remember throughout this lesson that a large portion of communication is non-verbal. Complete the questionnaire in Appendix I to discover how effective your communication skills are.II. What are the marks of God-honouring communicators? A. They do not lie but are truthful. The Lord detests lying lips, but he delights in men who are truthful (Proverbs12:22). So put away all falsehood and "tell your neighbor the truth" because we belong to each other. (Eph. 4:25) B. They keep a guard on their lips. He who guards his lips guards his soul, but he who speaks rashly will come to ruin (Proverbs 13:3). C. They are gentle, full of grace, consistently speaking healing words. A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger….The tongue that brings healing is a tree of life, but a deceitful tongue crushes the spirit (Proverbs 15:1,4). Let your conversation be always full of grace, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how to answer everyone. (Col. 4:6) 144
    • D. They give appropriate and timely responses. A man finds joy in giving an apt reply-- and how good is a timely word! The heart of the righteous weighs its answers, but the mouth of the wicked gushes evil (Proverbs 15:23, 28). A wise mans heart guides his mouth, and his lips promote instruction. Pleasant words are a honeycomb, sweet to the soul and healing to the bones. (Proverbs 16:23-24). E. They do not use foul or coarse language but words that edify. Dont use foul or abusive language. Let everything you say be good and helpful, so that your words will be an encouragement to those who hear them. (Eph. 4:29). F. They are good representatives of Christ in what they say and do. And whatever you do or say, let it be as a representative of the Lord Jesus, all the while giving thanks through him to God the Father (Col 3:17). G. They are even-tempered keen listeners. My dear brothers and sisters, be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to get angry. If you claim to be religious but dont control your tongue, you are just fooling yourself, and your religion is worthless (James 1:19,26).III. What are some common hindrances to communication? A. The assumption by the sender that the message has been received. B. The sender’s verbal and non-verbal messages not being congruent. C. The sender not making it clear who the recipient is. D. The inability to ascertain whether the recipient understood the message. E. Where communication is hindered by relational complexity. Think of how you communicate with your parents / partner / boss / son / employee / pupil? F. The use of offensive styles of communication. G. Problems in perception H. Prejudice 145
    • I. Shyness and social phobia.Social Phobia is the fear of meeting people and shyness is a set of learned behaviors thatinterfere with relating to people or having successful relationships. If You are Shy . . . 1. You become very nervous when meeting new people or you often avoid situations where new people are present. 2. You keep trying to talk yourself into talking to more people but still are unable to do this. 3. You spend far more time alone than you would like and cannot seem to change this. 4. You often freeze up when talking. Read Appendix III for more signs of shyness.J. Lack of trustThe following questions are to help you explore your own level of trust. Reflect on how this impactsyou when communicating as the sender or receiver. 1. How do you decide whom to trust? 2. How do you decide when to trust? 3. What rules do you have about whom you trust and whom you do not? 4. What are your value equivalents of trust – what does someone have to do in order to be trustworthy or untrustworthy? 5. Do you treat people as basically trustworthy unless you have evidence otherwise? Or do you treat them as basically untrustworthy unless you have evidence otherwise? 6. What evidence do you need? 7. Do you need to see it with your own eyes? 8. Do you believe people are trustworthy if others say so and if so, whose word do you trust? 9. Are there certain environments you trust and others you don’t trust? 10. Do you trust people from some environments and not others? 11. Do you trust a person in one context and not another? 12. Do you decide people are trustworthy by what they do, regardless of where they are or whom they are with? 146
    • 13. Do you pay most attention to a person’s beliefs and values before deciding whether they are trustworthy or do you pay the most attention to the kind of person they are?K. The challenges of cross-cultural communication.A major example of cultural differences can be seen by contrasting high-context and low-context cultures. These differences have a significant impact on communication styles.Our perceptions are largely influenced by our worldview and culture. It is important inthe context of groups to understand this, as much unnecessary conflict can be avoidedthrough recognizing these differences. Cultures can be divided into high and low context. Chinese Korean Japanese Vietnamese Arab Greek Spanish Italian English North American Scandinavian Swiss GermanHigh Context Low-context• Establish social trust first • Get down to business first• Value personal relations and goodwill • Value expertise and performance• Agreement by general trust • Agreement by specific legalistic contract• Negotiations slow and ritualistic • Negotiations as efficient as possible Adapted in part from M. Munter, “Cross-cultural Communication for Managers.” Business Horizons, May-June 1993, Figure 3, p72.Discussion Questions • Where do you think your country lies on this continuum? • With “world globalization”, is it possible to say that there are still exclusively high context cultures and exclusively low context cultures? 147
    • L. Rejection A lot of people suffering from the root of rejection are terrified of situations where they may experience rejection by others. This is especially true of situations involving meeting new people who may be potential friends. 1. Common rejection avoidance strategies: 2. Stay home every night and use the computer or watch TV. 3. Dress in unflattering ways and avoid people 4. Become a workaholic 5. Avoid places or opportunities to meet peopleIV. What are some practical steps one can take in learning to communicateeffectively? A. Learn to be respectfully assertive. Passive Assertive Aggressive CHARACTERISTICS Allow others to Choose for self. Choose for others. choose for you. Appropriately Inappropriately Emotionally honest. Direct, self honest (tactless). dishonest. Indirect, respecting, self Direct, self- self-denying, expressing, straight enhancing. Self- inhibited, In win- forward. Convert expressive, lose situations you win-lose to win-win derogatory. Win- lose. If you do get lose situation which your own way, it is you win. indirect. YOUR OWN Anxious, ignored, Confident, self- Self-Righteous, FEELINGS ON THE helpless, respecting, goal superior, EXCHANGE manipulated. Angry oriented, valued. depreciatory, at yourself and/or controlling. Later: 148
    • others. Later: accomplished. possibly guiltyOTHERS FEELINGS IN Guilty or superior. Valued, respected. Humiliated,THE EXCHANGE Frustrated with you defensive resentful, hurtOTHERS VIEW OF Lack of respect. Respect, trust. Know Vengeful, angry.YOU IN THE Distrust. Can be where you stand Distrustful, fearfulEXCHANGE considered a pushover. Do not know where you standOUTCOME Others achieve their Outcome You achieve your goals at your determined by goal at others’ expense. Your rights above-board expense. Your rights are violated. negotiation. Your upheld; others and others’ rights violated. respected.UNDERLYING BELIEF I should never make I have a I have to put othersSYSTEM anyone responsibility to down to protect uncomfortable or protect my own myself. displeased except rights: I respect myself. others but not necessarily their behaviourAre you more often assertive, aggressive or passive? Complete the questionnaire in Appendix II toexplore how assertive you are. Taken from Weinstein, et al: communication skillsB. Build a culture of trust around you.Many teams fail because of mistrust between individuals; superiors and subordinates. Sadly, thismistrust is often based on misperceptions. It’s important for us to identify mistrust when it is there, andto explore ways of overcoming it. Where there are high levels of mistrust there is more likely to be 149
    • unnecessary conflict, reduced productivity and barriers to change. Where trust levels are high peopletend to give each other the benefit of the doubt.When you think of the concept trust, what feelings begin to surface? What words pop up in your mind?Think of someone you trust. Picture them. What qualities does the picture have?Think of someone you don’t trust. What do you feel?Do you trust yourself?Are you trustworthy?How does all this affect your ability to communicate effectively?Warren Bennis describes four Ingredients that leaders have that generate and sustain trust: 1. Constancy: Whatever surprises leaders may face, they themselves do not create any for the group. Leaders are all of a piece; they stay on course 2. Congruity: Leaders walk their talk. In true leaders there is no gap between theories they espouse and the life they practice. 3. Reliability: Leaders are there when it counts; they are ready to support their co-workers in the moments that matter. 4. Integrity: Leaders honour their commitments and promisesC. Overcome any form of shyness or social phobia. 1. Tune into your self-talk. 2. Get rid of your wrong thinking. 3. Practice daily affirmations. 4. Be willing to step out of your comfort zone. 5. Acknowledge your accomplishments. 150
    • 6. Remember what you’ve done. 7. Start small. 8. Practise confidence. 9. Find something to say. 10. Be a curious listener. 11. Practice, practice, practice.D. Overcome your mis-beliefs:It’s important that we realign or beliefs with the Word of God if we are to become effectivecommunicators.Common Mistaken Beliefs for Shy People and their Counterarguments 1. "If I talk to someone new I will say the wrong think and embarrass myself, it is better not say anything at all." Counterargument to this belief is that you absolutely have no way to know what will happen if you talk to someone new. Also it is certainly not better to avoid saying anything at all. The more practice that you get speaking to others, the better you will get at speaking to others. 2. "I just do not know what to say most of the time." Counterargument: This belief is based on the mistaken assumption that you have to say the "right thing" most of the time and this is not true. There is often not a "right" thing to say. 3. "Other people are just not that interested in me." Counterargument: Can you read minds? This is a generalization. 4. "Other people will reject me and I just will not be able to handle this." Counterargument: Thinking that you cannot handle rejection is a mistaken belief. You can learn with practice to handle rejection and interpret is as a step along the way to success.My Self-Critical Thoughts 151
    • 1. ___________________________________________ COUNTERARGUMENT: ___________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________ COUNTERARGUMENT: ___________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________ COUNTERARGUMENT: ___________________________________________Some New Biblically based Beliefs or Self Statements for You:1. ___________________________________________2. ___________________________________________3. ___________________________________________Appendix I COMMUNICATION SELF-ASSESSMENT SCALEComplete this questionnaire:The scale is aimed at helping you to assess your current communication styles. It will also serve as ayardstick against which you can measure your improvement in communication. You should answer eachquestion by circling the number that best describes the statement as it applies to you over the pastmonth (30 days). 1. never true of me 152
    • 2. hardly ever, rarely true of me 3. equally true and false 4. more true than false, almost always true of me 5. always true of me Never Sometimes Always 1 2 3 4 51) I can speak up and answer questions ……………………………………………..1 2 3 4 52) I can discuss with a teacher/senior a grade/evaluation that I feel is not accurate…1 2 3 4 53) I can ask for the return of borrowed items without being apologetic……………..1 2 3 4 54) I can ask for help from others when I need it ………………….............................1 2 3 4 55) I can tell someone that he/she is doing something that is bothering me………….1 2 3 4 56) I can say ‘no’ and refuse to do something when I really do not feel like it………1 2 3 4 57) I can talk about sex with my spouse ……………………………………………..1 2 3 4 58) I can accept criticism ……………………………………………………………..1 2 3 4 59) I can express my anger directly and honestly without blaming the other person ...1 2 3 4 5 153
    • 10) I can readily admit my mistakes………………………………………………….1 2 3 4 511) I feel comfortable when I have to talk to a group ………………………………..1 2 3 4 512) People tell me I am very easy to talk to ………………………………………….1 2 3 4 513) People like me …………………………………………………............................1 2 3 4 514) I feel people understand me ………………………………………………………1 2 3 4 515) I am able to get my ideas across clearly and simply …………..............................1 2 3 4 5If most of your answers range between 3 and 5 chances are that you communicate your needs well andcan assert yourself.If most of your answers range between 1 and 2 you may need to learn ways of communicating yourneeds openly and honestlyAppendix IIASSESSING YOUR ASSERTIVENESSRemember that assertiveness is not a negative thing. It’s one thing to choose not to confront an issue,it’s quite another thing to be too timid to. Our teaching on assertiveness is not attempting to encouragerudeness but rather to help us to explore why we so often shrink back due to fear of man. Meekness isstrength under control, and is seen when we make a conscious choice to not pursue an issue. However, 154
    • when we find ourselves continuously avoiding possible confrontation we need to ask ourselves whetherwe have a problem with assertiveness.The questionnaire should be completed and then discussed:The exercise could be helpful to participants to pinpoint problem areas, or yield information about areasof strength Never Sometimes Always 1 2 3 4 51) I tend to rely on my own judgement ……………………………………………. 1 2 3 4 52) I have confidence in my own judgement ………………………………………. 1 2 3 4 53) I am aware of what I feel when I am feeling it………………………………….. 1 2 3 4 54) I am honest with myself about what I want and feel…………………………..... 1 2 3 4 55) I express what I feel when I feel it, regardless of other people……………….….1 2 3 4 56) I let others know what I am feeling………………………………………………1 2 3 4 57) I let others know what I am feeling about them……………………………..…..1 2 3 4 58) I am openly critical of others’ ideas, opinions and behaviour, If I disagree……..1 2 3 4 5 155
    • 9) When a person is highly unfair I call it to his attention…………………………..1 2 3 4 510) If I think there is a problem developing in a relationship, I let the other person know what I think……………………………………………………………………….1 2 3 4 511) I insist that my spouse or roommate take on a fair share of household chores…. 1 2 3 4 512) At work, if I think I am being asked to do more than I possibly can I object….. 1 2 3 4 513) If someone asks me a favour which is inconvenient for me to carry out, I tell them so…1 2 3 4 514) If a person has borrowed money (or a book, garment, thing of value) and is overdue in returning it, I mention it …………………………………………………….. 1 2 3 4 515) I insist that my landlord (mechanic, repairman, etc) make repairs, adjustments or Replacements which are his responsibility…………………………………… 1 2 3 4 516) When I discover merchandise is faulty, I return it for an adjustment…………. 1 2 3 4 517) I speak out in protest when someone takes my place in line …………………. 1 2 3 4 518) When a latecomer is waited on before I am, I call attention to the situation … 1 2 3 4 5 156
    • 19) If someone keeps kicking or bumping my chair in a movie or a lecture, I I ask the person to stop……………………………………………………….. 1 2 3 4 520) In a restaurant, when my meal is improperly prepared or served, I ask the waiter/ Waitress to correct the situation…………………………………………………1 2 3 4 521) When I need help, I ask for it……………………………………………………1 2 3 4 522) When I am speaking, I object if someone interrupts ……………………………1 2 3 4 5Items on which there is a low score indicate areas of concern.Appendix IIIFinding Out About Shyness: True or False 1. I find it very difficult to talk to new people. 2. I lack confidence with people. 3. I feel very tense and nervous when I try to initiate a conversation 4. At work I have difficulty talking to other people. 5. I often tense up and forget what I was about to say when trying to talk to someone new. 6. I am especially nervous when talking to someone I would like to date. 7. I often replay entire dialogues in my mind, wishing I had said something different. 8. People see me as very quiet but I do not want to be. 157
    • Lesson 19 A Biblical View of Work“Him we preach, warning every man and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus. To this end I also labor, striving according to His working which works in me mightily.” (Col 1:28- 29).I. What does the word “work” mean? A. The verb means to work, operate or function. B. The noun speaks of something done, deed, action, proceeding, business or military fortification. C. Some New Testament definitions of work. 1. Two nouns are used in the New Testament One of them [Eron] means “work, employment, or task” The other [Ergasia] means “a work or business, a working, performance, craft, diligence. 2. A few verbs are used in the New Testament. They are each translated: [Ergazomai]: to produce, trade [Katergazomai]: to work out, achieve, effect by toil [Poieo]: to make, wrought [Energeo]: effectual, fervent, be might in [Synergeo]: to work together 158
    • Networking is a form of working because you are working things together D. Some Old Testament words associated with work. The Old Testament nouns ascribed to work show us that work comes in many different forms. [Chaqah] – carved work, set a print [Yetser] – imagination [Melakah] – business, goods [Machashabah] – invented [Asah] – deal, prepare, dress [Abiydah] – work, affairs, service [Ma’aseh] – needlework, art [Pa’al] – commit [Pe’ullah] – labourII. What is the nature of work? A. One can be a paid or unpaid worker. It’s important to note that there are forms of unpaid work. For example, students, care-giving, household management etc B. Work was instituted by God before the fall of Man. (Gen. 2:2). C. Work is not a curse. (Gen 2:15; Gen 3:17). 159
    • D. Working is natural. (Ps 104:14, 23). E. We can be anointed for work. (Ex. 31: 1-6; 1 Cor. 15:10). This is seen in Bezalil and Ohiliab in the building of the temple. Some tasks require not only skill but divine unction. F. There are few workers in the Kingdom. (Mt. 9:37). G. Each of us is called to some work. (Eph. 4:16). H. We will have to give account of the quality of our work. (1 Cor. 3: 13; Eph 4:28) I. Our calling is not limited to our job or profession. J. We should respect those who work hard in God’s work. (1 Thess. 5:12-13). K. We should know that workers deserve a fair wage. (1 Tim. 5:18; Luke 10:7).III. How much and how hard should we work? A. God worked for six days then rested on the seventh. (Exodus 23:12). B. We should do all I work to as “unto” the Lord. (1 Cor. 4:12; Col 3: 23-24; Jn. 6:27; Jn. 5:41-44). C. There are consequences to laziness and not working if one is able. (Jer. 48: 10; 2 Thess. 3:10-12; 2 Thess. 3: 6, 15). D. God has called us to be significant by being fruitful. (John 15:16). E. We should be diligent (2 Thessalonians 3: 6-15). 160
    • The Thessalonians lived in the Greek world and the Greeks believed that work was demeaning/degrading because of philosophical dualism where the mind is good and matter is evil. They focused on art, philosophy and politics and lived a lifetime of contemplation of the law. F. Working should be a healthy priority in our lives (Prov. 24:27). Nelson Rockefeller: “I believe that every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation, every possession, a duty.”IV. What is God’s relationship to work? A. It is God’s assignment in the first place. (Jn. 9:4). B. We have to be set apart for the work the Holy Spirit calls us to do. (Acts 13:2). C. God has set aside specific works for us to do. (Eph. 4:12). D. God establishes our works. (Ps. 90:17). E. God notices our works and does not forget them. (Heb. 6:10). F. Jesus has works. (Jn. 9:4; Jn. 4:34). G. God also works. (Ps 19: 1; Jn. 5:17). H. We work together with God. (1 Cor. 3: 9).V. What are the benefits of working? A. Working makes you financially independent and not a burden. (1 Thess. 4:11; 2 Thess. 3:8). B. Working well can result in a good name and recognition in the city. (Prov. 31:31). C. Working well gives you the opportunity to be an example (2 Thess. 3: 7-9). D. Working well often results in more opportunity to give. (Acts 20:33-35). E. Working well helps you to mind your own business and keep out of mischief. (1 Thess. 4:11; 2 Thess. 3:11). F. Working well helps you to influence unbelievers – (1 Thess. 4:11). VI. What are some common excuses for not working? Often we have guardian lies which stop us from working: 1. Someone else will work or bail me out. 2. I am a foreigner and the locals are jealous of me so there are no opportunities. 3. I won’t earn much to make a difference anyway. 161
    • 4. I am tired. 5. I hate interviews. 6. I am waiting for my big breakthrough. 7. I am too old. 8. I am not the right colour in this country. 9. I am afraid of doing the wrong thing. 10. I can’t find anything better than my previous job.VII. What are some wrong attitudes towards work? A. Working just for money. “We goes to work to earn money that we can use to buy the bread that we can eat to give us strength to go to work” B. Working just for fulfillment. C. Producing goods or offering a service that violate your conscience. D. Idolising work. For example the Nazi motto: “Work will redeem Germany” E. Arrogantly seeing your type of job as superior to others. F. Seeing work as punishment or a curse. G. Living just for the weekend. H. Being unwilling to use your potential in your work.VIII. What questions can one ask in assessing one’s work? 1. Are you as God’s instrument easy for Him to use? 2. What baggage are you carrying that is hindering God’s use of you? A spade weighing 100 pounds takes energy to carry. 3. Is your work producing useful goods and services? 4. Have you integrated your faith into your work? 5. Is your work creating work for others? 6. Is your work creating a good social bond? 162
    • 7. What’s your source of joy? Is it promotion, little material things or the Big Picture Activity: Comment on the different types of work you are involved in (low, average, high). Your Work Fulfillment to you Benefit to others Glory to God Paid Voluntary Domestic ChurchIX. What can I pray for when it comes to Christians and work? A. Pray for job creation and against unemployment. B. Pray for wisdom for those in transition. C. Pray for those starting businesses. D. Pray for those experiencing any form of workplace abuse. E. Pray for creativity and innovation. F. Pray for God to establish the works of our hands. G. Pray for wisdom in recruitment, selection and positioning of workers.NB: Please study this lesson in conjunction with School of Ministry Course: Life Management III (Your WorkMatters to God), by Bill Scheidler. 163
    • Lesson 20 Integrity and Ethics in BusinessI. What is Integrity? A. Integrity is moral uprightness, honesty, wholeness, soundness, principle, incorruptibility, trustworthiness. B. The root word, integer, means a whole number, entire, complete in itself. C. The antonym of integrity is guile. This word means – with intent to deceive, treachery, cunning, sly, dishonest, under-handed, misleading, counterfeit, insincere, scheming and double-dealing. In John 1:47 the scripture reads that when Jesus saw Nathaniel approaching, he said of him, “Here is a true Israelite, in whom there is no guile” (nothing false). D. Integrity by implication and essence is the true reflection in a mirror. Without any schism or warp or without any enlargement or reduction, complete, whole and true to itself. Integrity is a moral choice – a choice to walk in the pathway of righteousness every day E. It forms the core of our character. Webster’s dictionary defines character in the following manner: 164
    • Character from Greek charaseein “to scratch” or “engrave” 1. a conventional graphic device placed on an object as an indication of ownership, origin or relationship 2. a. One of the attributes or features that make up or distinguish an individual Luke 6: 43-45: “For there is no good tree which produces bad fruit; nor, on the other hand is there a bad tree which produces good fruit. For each tree is known by its fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns, nor do they pick grapes from a briar bush. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth what is good and the evil man out of the evil treasure brings forth what is evil; for the mouth speaks from that which fills the heart.” “Who we are precedes what we do. If we are fruit-filled people, we will live lives that produce fruit” F. Character and integrity have four components Andy Stanley, in The Next Generation Leader puts it well by stating that our character is the sum total of our: 1. Self-discipline – the ability to do what’s right even if you don’t feel like it 2. Core Values – Principles you live by that enable you to take a moral stand 3. Sense of Identity – a realistic self-image based on who you are in Christ 4. Emotional security – the capacity to be emotionally stable and consistentII. Why is integrity so important? A. It’s a source of moral authority 1. Everyone wears two sets of badges. One visible and one invisible. The visible one is position and title. The invisible one is your moral authority. You cling to it even when it slows you down. 2. Moral authority is the credibility you earn by walking your talk. It is the relationship other people see between what you claim to be and what you really are. 165
    • B. It’s a source of credibility with our followers Credibility comes from the Latin word “credo”, meaning, “I trust in” or “I believe in”. People will follow you because they trust that you can lead them. Why would someone want to follow you? Research has found that a leader’s integrity is the main reason people choose to follow a leader.C. It does not take long to lose a good reputation (Job 2:9)“Are you still holding on to your integrity…in all this Job did not sin in what he said.”D. It is how God assesses to reward us (Jer. 17:10).“I the Lord search the heart and examine the mind to reward a man according to his conduct.”E. God loves it (Proverbs 11:20).“God can’t stand deceivers, but oh how he relishes integrity.”F. It results in generational blessing (Proverbs 20:7).“The just man walks in his own integrity: his children are blessed after him.”G. Integrity brings security (Prov. 10:9).“The man of integrity walks securely.”H. Skill alone is not enough to lead people (Ps.78:72).“And David shepherded them with integrity of heart; with skillful hands he led them.”I. Integrity results in spiritual promotion (Neh. 7:2; 1 Kings 9:4-5). 166
    • “I put in charge of Jerusalem my brother Hanani, along with Hananiah……because he was a man of integrity and feared God more than most men do.” “If you walk before me in integrity of heart like and uprightness as David your father did, and do all I command and observe my decrees and laws, I will establish your royal throne over Israel forever…” J. Integrity protects you (Prov. 25:21). “May integrity and uprightness protect me.” K. Leaders are guided by their integrity (Prov. 11:3). “The integrity of the upright guides them.”III. What have some well known people said about integrity? “Character is the inner form that makes anyone or anything what it is – whether a person, a wine or a historical period……for character is more than a collection of occasional behaviours or a set of good intentions; it is, rather, who we are through and through.” Os Guinness “Every man has three characters. That which he exhibits, that which he has, and that which he thinks he has.” Alphonse Karr “In mathematics an integer is a number that isn’t divided into fractions. Just so, a man of integrity isn’t divided against himself. He does not think one thing and say another, so he’s not in conflict with his own principles.” Arthur Gorden “The way to gain a good reputation is to endeavour to be what you desire to appear.” Socrates “There can be no happiness if the things we believe are different to the things we do.” Freya Stark 167
    • “The glory of great men should always be measured by the means they have used to acquire it.” LA Rochefoucauld. “To know what is right to do and not do it is the worst cowardice.” Confucius “Perfect valour is to do without witness what one would do before all the world.” LA Rochefoucauld.IV. What are some ethical considerations with regards to duties of employers and managers? A. Both management and staff should be a blessing to each other Ruth 2:4 “Now behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they said to him, ‘May the Lord be with you.’” B. We should generate our business by just means. Proverbs 28:16 “A leader who is a great oppressor lacks understanding, but he who hates unjust gain will prolong his days.” C. Employers should practice equity knowing they are accountable to God. Colossians 4:1 “Masters, grant to your slaves justice and fairness, knowing that you too have a Master in heaven.” D. Employers should not lead by threatening their workers. Ephesians 6:9 168
    • “And masters do the same things to them, and give up threatening, knowing that both their Master andyours is in heaven, and there is no partiality with Him.”E. Employers should be willing to serve their employees.John 13:14-17“If I then, the Lord and the Teacher, washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet. For Igave you an example that you also should do as I did to you. Truly, truly, I sat to you, a slave is notgreater than his master; neither one who is sent greater than the one who sent him. If you know thesethings, you are blessed if you do them.”F. Employers should not withhold wages.James 5:1-6“Come now, you rich, weep and howl for your miseries which are coming upon you. Your riches haverotted and your garments have become moth-eaten. Your gold and your silver have rusted; and theirrust will be a witness against you and will consume your flesh like fire. It is in the last days that you havestored up your treasure! Behold the pay of the laborers who mowed your fields, and which has beenwithheld by you, cries out against you; and the outcry of those who did the harvesting has reached theears of the Lord of Sabaoth. You have lived luxuriously on the earth and led a life of wonton pleasure;you have fattened your hearts in the day of slaughter. You have condemned and put to death therighteous man; he does not resist you.”G. Employers should pay wages on time.Leviticus 19:13“…The wages of a hired man are not to remain with you all night until morning.”Deuteronomy 24:14,5“You shall not oppress a hired servant who is poor and needy, whether he is one of your countrymen orone of your aliens who is in your land in your towns. You shall give him his wages on his day before thesun sets, for he is poor and sets his heart on it; so that he may not cry against you to the Lord and itbecome sin against you.” 169
    • V. What are some ethical considerations with regards to duties of workers? A. We should do all our work “as unto the Lord”. Colossians 3:22-25 “Slaves, in all things obey those who are your masters on earth, not with external service, as those who merely please men, but with sincerity of heart, fearing the Lord. Whatever you do, do your work heartily, as for the Lord rather than for men; knowing that from the Lord you will receive the reward of the inheritance. It is the Lord Christ whom you serve. For he who does wrong will receive the consequences of the wrong which he has done, and that without partiality.” B. We should operate from a place of contentment. Luke 3:14 “Don’t take money from anyone by force, or accuse anyone falsely, and be content with your wages”. C. We should honour and respect our employers. 1 Timothy 6:1,2 “Let all who are under the yoke as slaves regard their own masters as worthy of double honor so that the name of God and our doctrine may not be spoken against. And let those who have believers as their masters not be disrespectful to them because they are brethren, but let them serve them all the more, because those who partake of the benefit are believers and beloved…” D. We should be careful who we partner with. Proverbs 29:24 “He who is a partner with a thief hates his own life; he hears the oath but tells nothing.” E. We should not steal from our workplace, suppliers, or customers. Exodus 20:15 170
    • “Thou shalt not steal.”F. We should be submissive to our supervisors in the workplace.1 Samuel 15:23“Rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and insubordination is an iniquity and idolatry…”G. We should not make room for offence and bitterness.Hebrews 12:15-7“See to it that no none comes short of the grace of God; that no root of bitterness springing up causestrouble, and by it many be defiled, that there be no immoral or godless person like Esau, who sold hisown birthright for a single meal. For you know that even afterwards, when he desired to inherit theblessing, he was rejected, for he found no place for repentance, though he sought for it with tears.”H. We should all operate in the sprit of truth.Proverbs 26:20-8“For lack of wood the fire goes out, and where there is no whisperer the fire quiets down. Like charcoalto hot embers and wood to fire, so is a contentious man to kindle strife. The words of a whisperer arelike dainty morsels, and they go down into the innermost parts of the body. Like an earthern vesseloverlaid with silver dross, are burning lips and a wicked heart. He who hates disguises it with his lips, buthe lays up deceit in his heart. When he speaks graciously, do not believe him, for there are sevenabominations in his heart. Though his hatred covers itself with guile, his wickedness will be revealedbefore the assembly. He who digs a pit will fall into it, and he who rolls a stone, it will come back on him.A lying tongue hates those it crushes, and a flattering mouth works ruin.”I. We should be wise in judging of disputes.1 Corinthians 6:2-5“Do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is judged by you, are you notcompetent to constitute the smallest law courts? Do you know that we shall judge angles? How much 171
    • more, matters of this life?…Is it that there is no wise man who will be able to decide between his brethren?” J. We should rely on the Lord for supernatural wisdom. James 1:5 “If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all men generously and without reproach, and it will be given to him. But let him ask in faith without any doubting…” Proverbs 2:1-12 “My son if you will receive My sayings, and treasure My commandments within you, make your ear attentive to wisdom, incline your heart to understanding; for if you cry for discernment, lift your voice for understanding; if you seek her as silver, and search for her as for hidden treasures. Then you will discern the fear of the Lord, and discover the knowledge of God. For the Lord gives wisdom; from His mouth comes knowledge and understanding. He stores up sound wisdom for the upright; He is a shield to those who walk in integrity, guarding the paths of justice, and He preserves the way of His godly ones. Then you will discern righteousness and justice and equity and every good course. For wisdom will enter your heart, and knowledge will be pleasant to your soul; discretion will guard you, understanding will watch over you, to deliver you from the way of evil…” K. We should be peace-makers promoting unity in the workplace. Psalm 133:1 “Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unity!…”VI. What are some ethical considerations with regards to business relationships? A. We should not work in isolation. Proverbs 18:1 “He who separates himself seeks his own desire, he quarrels against all sound wisdom.” 172
    • B. We should strengthen and challenge each other.Proverbs 27:17“Iron sharpens iron, so one man sharpens another.”C. We should maintain a humble, forgiving disposition as true children of God.Romans 12:16-21“Be of the same mind toward one another; do not be haughty in mind, but associate with the lowly. Donot be wise in your own estimation. Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect what is right in thesight of all men. If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men. Never take your ownrevenge, beloved, ‘but leave room for the wrath of God, for it is written, vengeance is mine, I will repay,says the Lord. But if your enemy is hungry, feed him, and if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doingyou will heap burning coals upon his head.’ Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.”D. We should embrace kindness and gentleness.2 Timothy 2:24,25“And the Lord’s bond-servant must not be quarrelsome, but be kind to all, able to teach, patient whenwronged, with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition…”E. We should have a godly attitude toward our competitors in business.Proverbs 24:17,18“Do not rejoice when your enemy falls, and do not let your heart be glad when he stumbles; lest theLord see it and be displeased, and He turn away His anger from Him.”NB Please study this lesson in conjunction with The Work Code of Ethics (Lessons 11&12) LifeManagement III, School of Ministry, by Bill Scheidler. 173
    • Lesson 21 & 22 From Time Management to Personal ManagementEphesians 5:15 - 17“See then that you walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, redeeming the time, because the days are evil. Therefore do not be unwise, but understand what the will of the Lord is.”Redeem your time means to reclaim, recover, retrieve, rescue and regain it. Elizabeth George, speakingof how we have to make the most of our time says “We cannot manage time. We can only manage ourself”As we consider the importance of time management it is necessary to answer the question:“Do you really want to live out God’s plan?” Does your tombstone read died at 21 buried at 70 – existingif living. We cannot separate the discussion of time management from the discussion of purposemanagement.I. What is the nature of time? A. Time is an unseen force. B. Time is an equally distributed resource to everyone. C. Time is constant. D. Our perception of time differs. 1. Sometimes we don’t feel we have enough of it. 2. Sometimes we feel bored and have to “kill” time. E. We often give power to it. We do so by believing myths like “time heals all wounds”. F. There are two major ways to look at time management. 1. Conventional time management (CTM) This consists of scheduling activities (what you do). 2. Inner time management (ITM) This consists of monitoring one’s energy levels determining how one prioritizes activities (how you feel when you are doing what you do). 174
    • G. The use of time determines our productivity. Correct use of time enables us to succeed in our efforts to be both efficient and effective. 1. Efficiency is doing things right - there is minimum wasted effort. 2. Effectiveness is doing the right things – gaining desired results.The secret of successful people is that they shape things which others often see as uncontrollable. Thepurpose of these lessons is to highlight how it is possible to be in charge of your time and to shape itsuse. The skill necessary for this is personal management because we are going beyond the managementof our time to the management of our values and priorities, which in turn determine the use of ourtime.II. What does the bible teach about time management? A. We ought to be wise in our use of time (Ephesians 5:15 – 17). “See then that you walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, redeeming the time, because the days are evil. Therefore do not be unwise, but understand what the will of the Lord is.” B. There is a relationship between using time productively and knowing God’s will for our lives. (Ephesians 5:17) C. The need does not always constitute the call (Mark 6: 30-44). “And the apostles gathered themselves to Jesus and told Him all things, both what they had done and what they had taught. And He said to them, Come aside into a deserted place and rest a little. For there were many coming and going, and they had no opportunity even to eat. And they departed by boat into a deserted place. And the crowds saw them leaving, and many knew Him. And they ran together on foot there, out of the cities. And they went before them and came together to Him. And going out Jesus saw a large crowd. And He was moved with compassion toward them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd. And He began to teach them many things.” D. Our activities should ultimately be directed by the Father’s will (Mark 1: 32-39). “And at evening, when the sun set, they brought all those who were diseased to Him, and those who had been demon-possessed. And all the city had gathered at the door. And He healed many who were sick of different diseases, and cast out many demons. And He did not allow the demons to speak, because they knew Him. And rising up quite early in the night, He went out and went away into a deserted place, and He was praying there. And Simon, and those with him, 175
    • searched for Him. And finding Him, they said to Him, All are seeking You. And He said to them, Letus go into the next towns so that I may proclaim there also. For that reason I came forth. And Heproclaimed in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and cast out demons.”E. There is a time for everything (Ecclesiastes 3:1-8).“To every thing there is a season, and a time for every purpose under the heavens: a time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pull up what is planted; a time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and a time to build up; a time to weep, and a time to laugh; a time to mourn, and a time to dance; a time to throw away stones, and a time to gather stones together; a time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing; a time to get, and a time to lose; a time to keep, and a time to throw away; a time to tear, and a time to sew; a time to keep silence, and a time to speak; a time to love, and a time to hate; a time of war, and a time of peace.”F. God has timing for certain things (Gal 4:4). “But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son.”G. We ought to conserve our energy levels by responsibly delegating certain activities (Exodus18:17-24).“And Moses father-in-law said to him, The thing that you do is not good. You will surely wear away,both you and this people that is with you. For this thing is too heavy for you; you are not able toperform it alone. Listen now to my voice; I will give you counsel, and God will be with you. You befor the people toward God, that you may bring the causes to God. And you shall teach themordinances and laws, and shall make them know the way in which they must walk, and the workthat they must do. And you shall look out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth,hating unjust gain. And place such over them to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds,rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. And let them judge the people at all times. And it shall be, everygreat matter they shall bring to you, but every small matter they shall judge. And make it easier foryourself, and they shall bear with you. If you will do this thing, and God command you, then youshall be able to endure, and all this people shall also go to their place in peace. And Moses listenedto the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said.”H. We should not take the time we have been given for granted (Ps 90:12; Ps 39:4).Ps 90:12 “So teach us to number our days, so that we may bring a heart of wisdom.”Ps 39:4 “O Jehovah, make me to know my end, and the measure of my days, what it is; I know howfrail I am.”I. We all have to give an account for how we used our time on earth (2 Cor. 5:10; Rom. 14:10-12). 176
    • 2 Cor 5:10 “For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may receive the things done through the body, according to that which he has done, whether good or bad.” Rom. 14:10-12 “But why do you judge your brother? Or also why do you despise your brother? For all shall stand before the judgment seat of Christ. For it is written, "As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to Me, and every tongue shall confess to God." So then each one of us will give account concerning himself to God.” Activity Study Gen. 41:25-57 and identify where there are various time management and personal management principles such as goal-setting, priorities, delegation, scheduling, deadlines and lists.III. What are some common time-wasters?Research has found that some top time-wasters are: • Telephone interruptions • Drop-in visitors • Meetings (both scheduled and unscheduled) • Crises • Lack of clear goals and supporting plans • Lack of objectives, priorities and deadlines • Cluttered desk and personal disorganisation • Ineffective delegation and involvement in routine and detailed administration/bureaucracy • Attempting too much at once and unrealistic time estimates • Confused responsibility and authority • Inadequate, inaccurate or delayed information • Indecision and procrastination • Inability to say “No” • Lack of controls, standards and progress reports • Fatigue 177
    • • Lack of self disciplineThis list was created by Dr. R. Alec Mackenzie from the responses of managers in 14 countries over 8years. The vast majority of these managers were employed in corporate organisations.Typically these can be divided into four key groups: 1 Lack of clear, focused goals and associated result-oriented plans 2 Lack of organisation 3 Lack of self discipline (one of the effects, but also a cause of other effects) 4 Outside influencesThere is another category I want to highlight; poor personal management skills. The list below illustratessome time management challenges stemming from limited personal management skills. 1. Scheduling less important work before more important work. 2. Starting a job before thinking it through. 3. Leaving jobs before they are completed. 4. Doing things that can be delegated to another person. 5. Doing things that can be delegated to modern equipment. 6. Doing things that actually arent a part of your real job. 7. Keeping too many, too complicated, or overlapping records. 8. Handling too wide a variety of duties. 9. Failing to build barriers against interruptions. 10. Allowing conferences and discussions to wander. 11. Conducting unnecessary meetings, visits, and/or phone calls. 12. Chasing trivial data after the main facts are in. 13. Socializing at great length between tasks.ActivityThink about your own list of time wasters. Take a few moments now to create your own “time wasters”list.IV. What are some practical ways to effectively manage time? 178
    • A. Focus on the things that give you maximum results (high leverage activities).Steven Covey speaks of the sphere/circle of influence and sphere of concern. Our sphere of concernconsists of all those things we are concerned about whilst our sphere of influence consists of thosethings we can shape. A lot of us spend far too much time worrying about things we cannot influenceinstead of investing our time (which is a limited resource) into those things we can influence. Thismodel encourages us to grow our sphere of influence.The matrix below shows the continuums of control and concern in our lives and the resultantimpact on our inner time management. The Matrix 179
    • IN CONTROL Routine Discipline Self Mastery OF HAVE Off Purpose Steady On Purpose INFLUENCE Implementation OVER LITTLE OR Apathy Disempowered Deep Resentment NO Frustration INFLUENCE OVER HAVE LITTLE OR HAVE SOME PASSIONATE NO CONCERN CONCERN ABOUTFocus your energy on those things you can change and your ‘circle of influence’ will grow.B. Prioritize the big rocks in your life.“Those who are to succeed give the majority of their time to their priority projects.” 180
    • What are the “big rocks” in your life – the things that really matter to you?Do you block off time to invest each week for the “big rocks” in your life?If you did this as a first step, could the “pebbles” and “sand” items still get completed during your week? 181
    • Robert J McKair said, “The reason most major goals are not achieved is that we spend too much of ourtime doing 2nd things first.Jesus had some big rocks in His life and it’s important that we follow His example. Luke 2:49:“ I must be in my fathers house” What are your musts? Are they on your timetable? If not how can you monitor your progress? C. Take time out to plan your daily routine and activities. The Oxford dictionary defines planning as “Arranging or working out details before hand.” Time management consists of certain details. Some quotes on the power of planning: “Those who do not plan their time have decided that time; events and circumstances will rule them.” “Those who plan their time and keep to it succeed.” “To tell who a man’s God is, see whose appointments he keeps faithfully.” “Anything that is not put on a timetable is a thing that you have decided does not need to happen.” D. Create To-Do Lists. 1. Your lists should define the time required for each activity. When creating these lists, remember Parkinson’s Law: work expands to fill the time allotted to it. 2. List activities in order of priority. 182
    • Remember our human tendency is to focus on the urgent at the exclusion of the important. 3. In your list highlight both the process and the result you want to achieve. Focusing only on results might not make the quantity of work-load clear. 4. Check off completed activities. Human beings are goal-oriented. You will recognize your progress and feel productive. 5. Include appointments with yourself in your diary or to-do list. Often we disrespect our values and priorities by only valuing activities which have to do with other people. However, having some quiet time is an important activity to schedule into your daily routine. 6. By the end of the day create a new list including what you have not been able to do. E. Develop Stop-To-Do Lists. Often we fail to accomplish our mission because we have been distracted by many things (which are often good things in themselves). Stop-To-Do Lists include things which we simply have to stop doing in order to accomplish our mission. F. Conduct a body inventory. Are you sleeping well/eating/energy levels? Are you being honest with people and exercising healthy boundaries? If not it might be highlighting that you are not emotionally healthy. G. Practice the art of delegation. Are you a “control freak” who struggles to delegate? H. Manage telephone calls effectively. 1. Determine the best time of day for calls. 2. Prepare information in advance. 3. Manage length of calls. I. Combine related meetings where possible. We often find ourselves engaging in a series of one-on-one meetings discussing the same thing largely due to lack of planning for a combination of these meetings. J. Overcome procrastination.V. How does one overcome procrastination? 183
    • There are a number of reasons why people procrastinate, ranging from perfectionism – waiting for thatperfect time when you can do it perfectly or just sheer laziness. Regardless of the cause it is useful toembrace specific habits which help to destroy procrastination. A. Give yourself deadlines. Remember that moderate pressure motivates while extreme pressure debilitates. B. Don’t avoid difficult problems or situations. Sometimes it’s better to deal with them first so that you can look forward to the easier ones. C. Break up the large “mountains” into small, manageable hills. D. Beware of perfectionism. Just get started, you can always refine things later. E. Remember that there is no perfect time to start. Writers know that you write a book one page at a time and instead of waiting for the perfect time it’s often best to just start. F. Be honest with yourself about how you view the task. Often people will procrastinate in a passive-aggressive manner because they are actually opposed to the activity but too afraid to face it. G. Develop systems to help you to avoid procrastination. 1. You can set times or deadlines for responding to emails (E.g. within 12 hours or having a set time each day for responding to emails). 2. Don’t pick up paperwork more than once but make a decision the first time you see it.VI. What are some common signs of unhealthy Work Life Balance?There is a disease called “hurry sickness” prevalent in a lot of big cities today. It is this tendency to beunhealthily busy. Unfortunately it also results in sickness and disease. In their book, Restoring Margin toOverloaded Lives, Richard A. Swenson and Karen Lee-Thorp outline some common signs of anoverloaded life. o I live on Caffeine o I’m often irritable o I worry a lot o I take tranquillizers o I take antidepressants o I avoid people when possible o My brain is tired o I forget things frequently o I feel like things are slipping out of control 184
    • o I don’t expect things to get better anytime soon o I have trouble making decisions o I am jumpy o I have trouble falling asleep at night o I wake up after just a few hours, but I don’t feel rested o I hate having to get out of bed in the morning o I don’t care about much anymore o I’m on survival mode o Sometimes I have so much coming at me that I go blank o I have high blood pressure o I get chest pains o My pulse races throughout much of the day o I have acid stomach o I have an ulcer o My bowels are either too loose or too tight (or some of both). o My neck muscles are tense o I get headaches o I use food to calm myself o I don’t care about eating o I get frequent infections o I have a rash o I get short of breath easily o My hands perspire o My hands are cold and clammy o I have a nervous tic o I clench my teeth o I lose my temper suddenly o I drive aggressively o I shop compulsivelyOverload is serious as it affects us mentally, physically, and behaviourally. It affects our relationshipswith other people and with God.ActivityWhich of the following symptoms of overload are true in your life? € I’m not having much fun. € I don’t have much time to care for other people’s needs. € I don’t have much time to care for my own needs. € The people closest to me (family, friends) aren’t feeling loved by me. € God would have to shout – and run – to get my attention. € I resent people who ask for my help.VII. How prevalent is an unhealthy work life balance? 185
    • Millions of UK workers are likely to be suffering from depression and panic attacks because theyare so stressed out by their jobs.This is one of the key findings of the latest 24-7 survey - a national research project conducted by the,Leicestershire, and the universities of Keele, Coventry and Wolverhampton. Available from www.24-7survey.co.uk.The internet-based poll has found that two thirds of respondents had been made ill by work, with 48%of these suffering from depression, and 43% suffering from anxiety or panic attacks.Among the other findings were: • Eight in 10 people have a problem juggling the competing demands of work and home. • Eight in 10 workers feel that at times they cannot cope with the demands placed upon them. • Women (69.6%) were even more likely to feel this way than men (63%) although both figures have increased in the last 12 months. • Many people work over their contracted hours (one in 10 does a minimum of 49 hours a week, while only one in 100 is contracted to do so). Most do so to keep up with their workloads. • More than half of workers find their daily commute adds to the stress of their day. • Stressed workers were 9 times more likely to make a mistake at work. • A third of employees resent the hours they work, and more than a quarter miss family and social occasions for work. • One in five do not see as much of their children as they would like, feel their marriage or partnership has been damaged by work and are left too tired for sex.On a positive note more than half of workers ensure work does not dominate their lives, feel morefulfilled when busy and enjoyed the challenges of their jobs.Despite the higher stress levels, women generally feel more positive about work than men. Almost threequarters of bosses are sympathetic to time off or changes to work schedules to help deal with family orcaring responsibilities. 186
    • The survey was divided into a number of sections covering a range of topics from demographic datathrough to health, lifestyle, national policy and legislation. Some 3,300 workers took part this year andthe findings of the survey will now be distributed all over the world to help companies and otherorganisations formulate better policies and practices for their workforces.VIII. What are some practical things one can do to maintain healthy work lifebalance?Molly Gordon, an expert in work life balance, uses some interesting analogies to illustrate variousdimensions of self-care to ensure healthy work life balance. I have adapted this and outlined it below. 1. Make a list of things that fill your tank. 2. Make a list of things that are akin to getting the oil changed in your car. 3. List those things that are the equivalent of getting a car wash.How about doing this exercise with your spouse, a close friend, or with the whole family as thebasis for setting priorities for the future? How would establishing these priorities affect yourability to enjoy work life balance?It’s important that we are honest with ourselves when it comes to our motivation for busyness.Some people are out of balance because of greed, or as a way to cover up their laziness, or theiregos or merely being a people pleaser. Whatever causes one to be out of balance needs to bedealt with so that one is free to truly honour God with one’s time. 187
    • Lesson 23 Managing MeetingsWe spend a lot of time at our workplaces, and a large portion of that time is spent in meetings. If these are noteffectively administered this has a huge impact on our motivation levels and general productivity.Unfortunately business schools do not always teach us how to manage meetings. In this very practical lessonwe explore various ways in which meetings can be better managed.I. Why do people find workplace meetings “challenging”? A. The wrong people are present. 1. No decision-makers 2. No quorum 3. Important departmental representation omitted. 4. Having a group meeting which would have been more effective 1-on-1. B. People are given very short notice with regards to the meeting. C. Meetings often run far too long. D. No minutes of the meeting are taken, hence there is no accountability. 1. No accountability for deliverables. 2. No accountability for resolutions made. E. Incorrect timing of the meeting. 1. Often meetings are timed to suit only the chairperson but not the attendees. 2. Often meetings take place at a time of day when everyone is distracted with other demands. 3. Often meetings take place prematurely with everyone ill prepared. 4. Often group meets before significant 1-on-1 meetings with key stake-holders. F. Ineffective minutes are taken. 188
    • Minutes should focus on the resolutions made, the individuals responsible for delivery and the deadlines set. Unfortunately minutes often try to keep a record of discussions as opposed to resolutions. Hence, it becomes a tedious task to record them and read them.G. Late or non-existent agenda for the meeting. 1. A late agenda still helps to bring focus to the meeting but people are often ill prepared for the discussion. 2. Having no agenda can frustrate many who need to know where the meeting is going. Having an agenda gives one peace of mind.H. Unclear start and finish time. I. Continuously bringing up issues which were resolved in previous meetings. J. A single individual dominating a meeting. K. Lack of preparation. L. Doing work in the meeting which could have been done individually. M. No decisions made in the meeting. To solve this one can divide the agenda into 1. Issues requiring a decision 2. Issues just for discussion 3. Information sharing (presentations). In a lot of meetings it is unclear whether an issue is just for discussion or whether one needs to drive towards a resolution. N. Group Think. Group think is a phenomenon where members of a group second guess each other resulting in the true individual perspectives not being shared. 189
    • O. Too much unnecessary detail. There are many issues that can be dealt with by a sub-committee and often the solution lies in giving executive summaries at meetings. P. An Ineffective chairperson. Q. Tardiness. R. Too many meetings. S. Poor conditions in meeting room. 1. Too hot (no aircon). 2. Working through meal times with no food - people are hungry and unproductive. 3. Meeting room situated where there is a lot of noise or visual distractions. T. The meeting is illegitimate. Often meetings are called where there is no authority to call the meeting Sometimes meetings are called to discuss a matter which has been sanctioned for a different group to tackle. U. The purpose of the meeting is unclear.II. What are some useful guidelines for running meetings efficiently?Here are some guidelines used by Research International, a large research organization in Johannesburg. Intheir guidelines they also make use of a template which assists employees in administering effectivemeetings:To ensure meetings are speedy, decisive and a valuable use of your time and the business’ time, make sureyou stick to the following – whether you’re a participant, organiser or ‘chair’. 190
    • Clarity Input Output Purpose Actions & decisions: Agenda Who & when Preparation required by How they’ll be followed up attendees How & where they are being recorded Speed Turn up on time – obvious stuff but how many of us arrive 5-10 minutes late? If you can, start the meeting on time even if everyone’s not there Put a timing against each of the agenda items Keep focused – don’t let meetings overrun Think about how long the meeting needs to take – with a focused agenda, could it be 30 minutes instead of an hour? Decisive Be clear on what decisions need to be made and be prepared to contribute positively to discussions to get them agreed Remember we’re aiming for alignment over consensus. Team Are the right people at the meeting? Make sure you know why you’re attending and what you’re contributing Meetings don’t work because of one person – ensure everyone makes a contribution and has their say Contemporary Each meeting is an opportunity to inject some new thinking into ‘the way we do things around here’ Integrity Meetings aren’t passive events: Turn up! Be constructive Keep your attention on the meeting vs your blackberry, mobile etc etc… If you’ve committed to an action – do it!III. What is a useful template for running a meeting? 191
    • InputPurpose:Agenda:Participants:Preparation needed:OutputDecisions made:Actions Owner Deadline 192
    • IV. In what ways can the effective governance of meetings be incorporated intocorporate culture?Outlined below are some guidelines for governance of meetings used by an organization I worked for.Although we did not stick to this 100%, the guidelines helped to create a culture of effectively runningmeetings. We subsequently incorporated these guidelines into the Office Procedures manual.The issue of Authority and Responsibility i.e. decision making power and measure of rule ought to bedefined for every meeting held at this organization.The following different types of meetings are identified to be operating at this organisation • Board Meetings – Board of Directors meetings for purposes of policy setting, strategic planning and direction • Management Meetings – e.g. Executive, Events, Admin, Day-to-day operational meetings. • Committee Meetings – Departmental meetings for purposes of co-ordination and communication • Work Group Gatherings – Ad-hoc meetings, appointed Sub-Committee meetings for purposes of event planning, trouble-shooting & monitoring progress 193
    • The following 12 procedures and guidelines have been adopted for purposes of governance of meetingsheld at this organization. 1. Authority to call meetings – Approval ought to be obtained by the respective authority. An agreed Chairman and Purpose of the meeting should be clearly defined 2. In order to ensure that Information is being Communicated Upwards, Minutes should necessarily be submitted to a higher authority 3. An itemized Agenda & Agreed Purpose of a meeting should be sent to all members due to attend a meeting 4. The Required Notice Period for a meeting within this organization is between 7 and 14 days dependent on the nature of the meeting 5. The Starting and Finishing Time of a meeting ought to be stated on the agenda or advised to members before any meeting commences 6. The Chairperson is responsible to Call a Meeting to Order, without Delay. Accordingly a 10 Minute Late Arrival Time Rule, also applicable to the Chairperson, is prescribed for all meetings i.e. A meeting may be adjourned as a result of late arrival of members. 7. The 100% Quorum Principle prescribed for all meetings – Any apologies are to be given directly to the Chairperson, preferably 24 hours prior to any meeting. Whenever apologies are tendered, an empowered representative is to be nominated for each meeting i.e. any proxy appointed in place of a member who has decision making power and is expected to exercise that power at the meeting 8. All Cell Phones are to be put on to silent mode during meetings 9. Preparation for Meetings– It will be taken that all minutes have been read before a meeting and that members are accountable and prepared to answer for assigned responsibilities 10. Planning dairies or task schedulers are to be brought to all meetings for planning purposes 11. Reports Tabled at Meetings • All project proposals; financial statements and like-reports for consideration at a meeting should be pre-circulated no less than 3 working days prior to a meeting for study purposes. One page update or feedback reports should be pre-circulated no less than 24 hours before the meeting • An Executive Summary concerning the purpose of any Report being tabled for consideration should necessarily be included with the Report i.e. Any Report being presented to a meeting for consideration ought to be presented for the purposes of adoption, verification or approval 12. Minutes – Copies, Confidentiality & Distribution • All members are responsible to bring their own Copies of the Minutes of the previous Meeting and the Agenda of the current Meeting to a meeting. It is recommended that copies of minutes be personally identified by name to ensure good stewardship of minutes at meetings • All minutes should be marked as Private and Confidential • Confidentiality & Security of Minutes should be is of primary importance No copies of minutes should be left at the photocopy machine or at any central printing station nor should any minutes be left lying around for any other reason 194
    • Staff working in Open Plan Office workstations should be alert to the possibility of Minutes being viewed by passers by. Screen savers with passwords are recommended• All minutes are to be Distributed within 2 working days of the meeting. Upon the receipt of a copy of the Minutes of a meeting, it is recommended that a confirmation or acknowledgement of receipt be communicated to the secretary accordingly.• Acceptable Means of Distribution of Minutes include e-mail and hard copy dependent on individual requested preference specified at a first meeting. Any communication details should be provided at a first meeting and any subsequent changes should be advised to the secretary, as soon as possible. 195
    • Lesson 24 Managing Resources in Turbulent Times ‘Recessions are a period of opportunity…During recessions, large companies abandon marginallyprofitable customers and small businesses can get those customers. And recessions are healthy. Theyreward a history of fiscal responsibility. They discipline the economy for its excesses. And the great thingabout recessions is, they end.’ Pearce.There are various fundamentals businesses can focus on during these times? • Fundamentals that cause success don’t change. • Turbulent times can help businesses to focus and have a time of pruning • Utilising whatever cash available to preserve wealth by building asset side of balance sheet • Reducing expenses side of income statement • Reducing costs created by liabilities side of balance sheetIn this lesson we show how this can be achieved by embracing a 4 pronged approach of 1. Strategic Cost-cutting 2. Cash-flow Management 3. Revenue Preservation Strategy 4. Maintaining High Staff Morale (see lesson on Motivation)I. What are some of the challenges in South Africa’s Economic FoundationsIt’s important to note that these factors are typically of many developing countries around the world. A. Consumerism Too much spending and too little saving over last 20yrs. B. Credit dependency No delayed gratification. Spending money you don’t have to buy what you don’t need. 196
    • C. Weakening infrastructure Infrastructure not growing fast enough for economic growth. D. Implosion Same power, medical, water systems as 10 yrs ago for much bigger economy 1. Rich/Poor Gap Widening 2. Fewer are carrying economy 3. Tax regimes 4. High cost of utilities 5. High social taxes E. Weakening educational infrastructure and skills base The global economy is largely built on information and knowledge. South Africa and other developing nations need to start adding value to raw materials. All of this has an impact on • Brain drain to more competitive markets. • Inflation • Infrastructure • Poverty alleviation • Crime F. External FactorsII. What does the bible instruct about resource management? A. Maintain a correct perspective of riches (Rev. 3:18; Prov. 22:1-4). 197
    • Rev 3:18 I counsel you to buy from Me gold purified by fire, so that you may be rich; and white clothing, so that you may be clothed, and so that the shame of your nakedness does not appear. And anoint your eyes with eye salve, so that you may see. Prov. 22:1-4 A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches; and loving favor rather than silver or gold. The rich and poor meet together; Jehovah is the maker of them all. A prudent one foresees the evil and hides himself, but the simple pass on and are punished. By humility and the fear of Jehovah are riches and honor and life.B. Do not love money (1 Tim. 6:10). It’s important to remember that you can have a lot of money and not love it and having little money does not mean you do not love the little you have. 1Ti 6:10 For the love of money is a root of all evils, of which some having lusted after, they were seduced from the faith and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.C. Trust in God and see Him as your source (Mark 10:17-21; Prov. 3:5-10; Phil 4:19). Mar 10:17-21 And when He had gone out into the way, one came running up and kneeled to Him, and asked Him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? And Jesus said to him, Why do you call Me good? No one is good except one, God. You know the commandments: Do not commit adultery, do not kill, do not steal, do not bear false witness, do not defraud, honor your father and your mother. And he answered and said to Him, Teacher, all these I have observed from my youth. Then Jesus, beholding him, loved him and said to him, One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have and give it to the poor, and you shall have treasure in Heaven. And come, take up the cross and follow Me. Pro 3:5-10 Trust in Jehovah with all your heart, and lean not to your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge Him, and He shall direct your paths. Do not be wise in your own eyes; fear Jehovah and depart from evil. Healing shall be to your navel and marrow to your bones. Honor Jehovah with your substance, and with the first-fruits of all your increase; and your barns shall be filled with plenty, and your presses shall burst with new wine. Php 4:19 But my God shall supply all your need according to His riches in glory by Christ Jesus. 198
    • D. Honour the Lord with your substance (1 Chron. 29:2-10; Luke 21:1-4; Prov. 3:9-10). 1Ch 29:2 -10 And I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God the gold for things of gold, and the silver for things of silver, and the bronze for things of bronze, the iron for things of iron, and wood for things of wood, onyx stones, and stones to be set, and also stones of antimony, and stones of many colors, and every precious stone, and stones of alabaster, in abundance. And also, because I have delighted in the house of my God, out of my own treasure of gold and silver I have given to the house of my God over and above all that I have prepared for the holy house, three thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the houses; the gold for things of gold, and the silver for things of silver, and for all kinds of work by the hands of skillful workers. And who is willing to consecrate his service this day to Jehovah? And the chiefs of the fathers, and the rulers of the tribes of Israel, and the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, with the rulers of the kings work, offered willingly. And they gave for the service of the house of God five thousand talents of gold and ten thousand darics, and ten thousand talents of silver, and eighteen thousand talents of bronze, and one hundred thousand talents of iron. And he who had precious stones gave to the treasury of the house of Jehovah by the hand of Jehiel the Gershonite. And the people rejoiced, because they offered willingly, because with perfect heart they offered willingly to Jehovah. And David the king also rejoiced with great joy. And David blessed Jehovah before all the congregation. And David said, Blessed are You, Jehovah, the God of Israel our father, forever and ever. Luk 21:1-4 And looking up, He saw the rich men casting their gifts into the treasury. And He also saw a certain poor widow casting two lepta in there. And He said, Truly I say to you that this poor widow has cast in more than all of them. For all these have cast in to the offerings of God from their abundance, but out of her poverty she has cast in all the living she had. Pro 3:9-10 Honor Jehovah with your substance, and with the firstfruits of all your increase; and your barns shall be filled with plenty, and your presses shall burst with new wine.E. Acknowledge the real value of your money (Leviticus 27:25). Lev 27:25 And all your judgments shall be according to the shekel of the sanctuary, twenty gerahs shall be the shekel.F. Don’t make riches your goal (1 Tim. 6; Prov. 23:4-5). 199
    • Pro 23:4-5 Do not labor to be rich; cease from your own understanding. Will your eyes fly on it? And it is gone! For surely it makes wings for itself; it flies into the heavens like an eagle.G. Think ahead, take initiative and be diligent (Prov. 6: 4-11). Pro 6:4-11 Do not give sleep to your eyes or slumber to your eyelids. Deliver yourself as a gazelle from the hunters hand, and as a bird from the hand of the fowler. Go to the ant, sluggard; consider her ways and be wise; who, having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provides her food in the summer and gathers her food in the harvest. How long will you sleep, O sluggard? When will you arise out of your sleep? A little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to lie down; so shall your poverty come as one who travels, and your need like an armed man.H. Give to the poor (Deut 15:1-18; Prov. 19:17). Pro 19:17 He who has pity upon the poor lends to Jehovah, and He will reward his dealing to him.I. Beware of the bondage debt may bring (Prov 22:7). Pro 22:7 The rich rules over the poor, and the borrower is servant to the lender.J. Beware of the temptations associated with both wealth and poverty (Prov. 30:7-9). Pro 30:7-9 I have asked two things from You; do not deny them before I die; remove far from me vanity and a lying word; give me neither poverty or riches; tear for me my portion of bread, lest I be full and deceive, and say, Who is Jehovah? Or lest I be poor, and steal, and violate the name of my God.K. Be a faithful steward of what you currently have (Mt. 25:28-30). You might end up enjoying the benefits of reverse wealth redistribution. Mat 25:28 -30 Therefore take the talent from him and give it to him who has ten talents. For to everyone who has, more shall be given, and he will abound. But from him who has not, even that which he has shall be taken away from him. And throw the unprofitable servant into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 200
    • L. Maintain a generous disposition (Acts 20:35). Plan your giving and not just your getting. Act 20:35 I have shown you all things, that working in this way we ought to help the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, It is more blessed to give than to receive.III. How can a small business cut costs and increase revenue? A. Medium term cost-cutting. 1. Spend cash on things that reduce costs e.g. telephone monitoring, vehicle tracking, appraisal systems to enhance productivity. 2. Embrace industry specific guideline ratios e.g. cost-revenue ratios 3. Spend on necessary research and development to help to adjust to recession environment products 4. Spend less on overheads and shift to direct costs B. Long-term measures Assess long-term loans and leases etc to see how to lower them. C. A culture of cost-cutting 1. Celebrate it and reward it 2. Ask 3 or 4 times WHY before spending 3. Ask how spending will increase productivity, reduce costs or increase revenue 4. Staff right-sizing while being aware of demoralisation and legalities D. Revenue maximisation strategies. 201
    • 1. In short-term focus on quick turn over products and services e.g. cash products. 2. Short-term revenue cycle (e.g. from 30 days to 14 days). 3. Provide Incentives for sales team to push these products. 4. Introduce prepaid products. 5. In mid-term consider diversifying products, customers even country (export). 6. Keep an ear for emerging opportunities whilst being careful of short-term fads. 7. Remember that recessions end so stay focused on your long-term goal.IV. How can small businesses develop effective cash-flow management?The objective in recession is to remain cash-flow positive. It’s important to remember that you can be inbook profitability but still shut down due to cash-flow problems. Essentially, cash-flow management isabout collecting money faster than you pay it out. The presence of cash in your business can be themake or break of your business. Hence, we have outlined below various ways in which small businessescan develop an effective cash-flow management culture. A. Make use of market related bank accounts. Make use of market related accounts for surplus cash and build your savings portfolio B. Require payment sooner, upfront or even in advance. C. Request for a deposit. D. Allow clients to use credit cards. . E. Don’t pay sooner than you have to. Pay on time but if you are given 30 days then why not take advantage of the free loan so that you have the benefit of your cash longer. F. Make sure your invoices are correct. 202
    • Errors on invoices take up a lot of unnecessary time and result in payment delays. G. Invoice upon delivery as opposed to using a set schedule. H. Bill more often. I. Give discounts for prompt payments. J. Maintain a live cash-flow at all times. This is an estimation of your company’s cash position at a given time. K. Get to know your clients’ accounts departments. L. Manage your expenses. M. Manage you accounts receivable.Acknowledgements:Section I & III of this lesson were adapted from Dumi Nkala’s unpublished research notes on “The Stateof the Economy” – 2008. 203
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