Microsoft Word - BGW Complete Student_ With Answers


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Microsoft Word - BGW Complete Student_ With Answers

  1. 1. Business God’s Way Paul Nyamuda Student Manual 1
  2. 2. Lesson 1 Knowing YourselfI. What does knowing yourself consist of?Knowing yourself consists of: A. Knowing what you value. B. Knowing what you stand for. C. Knowing your key attributes. D. Knowing your key roles. E. Knowing your goals. F. Knowing your strengths. G. Knowing your limitations H. Knowing your stress triggers and button-pushers. I. Knowing your convictions and preferences. J. Knowing your individual style.Activiyy 1.1.Make a list of 5-8 key attributes you would like to identify yourself with:I am…………………………I am…………………………I am…………………………I am…………………………I am…………………………I am………………………… 2
  3. 3. I am…………………………I am…………………………Activity 1.2. What is your behavioural profile?1. Cool Blue; High Compliance; AnalyticPossible Characteristics – cautious, rigid, sober, pessimistic, reserved, unsociable, quiet, task andthinking oriented.2. Fiery Red; High Dominance; DriverPossible Characteristics – touchy, restless, aggressive, excitable, changeable, impulsive, goal-oriented, optimistic, active, task and thinking oriented.3. Sunshine Yellow; High Influence; ExpressivePossible Characteristics - Sociable, outgoing, talkative, responsive, easygoing, carefree, lively,people and feeling orientation.4. Earth Green; High Steadiness; AmiablePossible Characteristics – Passive, careful, thoughtful, peaceful, controlled, calm, even-tempered, people and feeling orientation.Most of us are a mixture of these but will tend to have one which is more dominant than theothers. The goal is to be able to recognize and then adapt and connect with various styles. Eachstyle has gifts it brings to team settings but also has over-extensions and liabilities. It is good forus to be aware of these in ourselves and in others.II. Why is it important to know yourself? A. Knowing yourself helps you to focus. B. Knowing yourself helps you to set boundaries. C. Knowing yourself helps you to navigate in decision-making. D. Knowing yourself helps you shape other’s expectations of you. E. Knowing yourself helps you to hire complementary people. F. Knowing yourself helps you in clarifying your goals. 3
  4. 4. G. Knowing yourself helps you in managing stress. H. Knowing yourself helps you in pacing yourself.III. What are some things that shape our self-concept? A. Our self-concept is shaped by our upbringing. B. Our self-concept is shaped by our education. C. Our self-concept is shaped by our culture and worldview. D. Our self-concept is shaped by our (positive and negative) experiences. E. Our self-concept is shaped by our interpretation of events. F. Our self-concept is shaped by our revelation of God’s nature and character.Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable--if anything is excellent or praiseworthy--think about such things. Php 4:8Meditating on the scriptures outlined in the section below will assist you in the process of havinga healthy biblical self-concept.IV. What has changed because I am in God? A. I have been transformed in Christ. • I have been crucified with Christ (Gal 2:20) • I am reconciled to God (Rom 5:11) • I am justified (Rom 5:1) • I am completely forgiven (Col 1:14) • I have been transferred from Satan’s domain to the Kingdom of Christ (Col 1:13) • I have received the Spirit of God (1 Cor 2:12) • I am free from condemnation (Rom 8:1) • I have been given the mind of Christ (1 Cor 2:16) • I am a stranger to this world (1 Pet 2:11) • I am an enemy of the devil (1 Pet 5:8) B. I have an inheritance in Christ. 4
  5. 5. • I have Christ’s righteousness (Rom 5:19; 2 Cor. 5:21)• I am a joint heir with Christ, sharing His inheritance with Him. (Rom 8:17; Gal 4:7)• I have been given great and precious promises by God (2 Pet 1:4)• I am blessed with every spiritual blessing (Eph 1:3)• I have been given spiritual authority (Luke 10:19)C. I have a unique relationship with God.• I am a child of God - He is my father (John 1:12; 1 John 3:1,2)• I may approach God with boldness and freedom (Eph 3:12)• I have peace with God (Rom 5:1)• The Holy Spirit lives in me (1 Cor 3:16)• I am a temple in which God dwells (1 Cor 3:16)• I am a branch on Christ’s vine (John 15:1, 5)• I am Christ’s friend (John 15:5)• I am united to the Lord, one spirit with Him (1 Cor 12:27)• I am God’s workmanship (Eph 2:10)D. I have a significant position in God.• I am hidden with Christ in God (Col 3:3)• I am Christ’s ambassador (2 Cor. 5:20)• I am one of God’s living stones, being built up in Christ as a spiritual house (1 Pet 2:5)• I am a prince in God’s kingdom (John 1:12; 1 Tim 6:15)• I have direct access to God through the Holy Spirit (Eph 2:18)• I am the salt of the earth (Matt 5:13)• I am the light of the world (Matt 5:14)• I am chosen by Christ to bear fruit which remains (John 15:6)• I am God’s co-worker (2 Cor 6:1; 1 Cor 3:9)• I am a minister of the new covenant (2 Cor 3:6)• I am a minister of reconciliation (2 Cor 5:18,19)• I am an expression of life in Christ (Col 3:4)• I am a member of Christ’s body (1 Cor 12:27)E. I can feel secure in God.• I have access to the wisdom of God (James 1:5)• I am helped by God (Heb 4:16)• I am tenderly loved by God (Jer 31:3)• I am the sweet fragrance of Christ to God (2 Cor 2:15)• I am chosen by God, holy and dearly loved. 5
  6. 6. • I am born of God, and the evil one cannot touch me (1 John 5:18) • I have been made complete in Christ (Col 2:10) • I cannot be separated from the love of God (Rom 8:35)V. How do I change the way I see my business?A. I change the way I see my business by identifying the current paradigms.A paradigm is 1. A mental model 2. A way of seeing 3. A frame of reference 4. A filter through which one sees the worldB. I change the way I see my business by shifting from incorrect paradigms?A paradigm shift occurs when the established way of thinking fails to provide effective solutionsenabling us to achieve our goals. 1. A paradigm shift requires true repentance from mindsets that are not God-honouring. 2. A paradigm shift involves embracing a learning culture. 3. A paradigm shift involves thinking outside the box from time to time. 4. A paradigm shift requires a culture that entertains the questioning of its current reality. 5. A paradigm shift requires a culture that allows for creativity and innovation. 6. A paradigm shift requires a culture that is flexible in its outlook. 7. A paradigm shift requires a maturity that is not emotionally tied to the current practices. 8. A paradigm shift involves asking the right questions in order to generate the right solutions.Albert Einstein once said that we cannot solve today’s problems by thinking in the same way wethought when we created them. In other words, for lasting change to occur, we need to shiftparadigms.Activity 1.3Wayne Cordeiro has developed an interesting DESIGN to assist people in discovering their lifepurpose. Reflect on the questions below to examine your preference.DESIGN for life purpose D – What do you DESIRE? 6
  7. 7. E- What have been your positive and negative EXPERIENCES? S- What are your SPIRITUAL GIFTS? I-What is your INDIVIDUAL STYLE? G- What is your GROWTH PHASE? – Do you need mentorship/training or ready to launch out? N- What are your NATURAL ABILITIES?Activity 1.4The Passion TestAnswer the following questions to crystalise your work preferences. 1. What do you do that is almost effortless from your perspective but seems like a daunting task to others? 2. In what arena do people consider you to be the “go-to” person? 3. What do you enjoy about your current job? 4. What do you wish you could delegate? 5. What do you do that elicits the most praise and recognition from others? 6. What environments do you look forward to working in? 7. What kind of advice do people seek from you? 8. What environments do you avoid? 9. If you could focus more of your time and attention on one or two aspects of your job, what would they be? What one subject can you enjoy talking about for many hours? 10. What specific concerns preoccupy your mind, breaking into whatever else youre thinking about? 11. What do you most enjoy doing for others? 12. Lets pretend youve reached the end of your life, and youre in heaven looking back on it. Whats the one thing you want to be most happy about having done or having been? 13. Who out there in the world have you come to care about the most? Who do you most want to help, enable, or reach? 14. In light of your strengths, weaknesses, gifts and passions, describe your optimal working environment. • What kind of people would you enjoy working with? • Would you want to work as part of a team or on your own? • Would you want to travel? If so, how much? • Would you enjoy a highly structured environment? • Would you work better in a loosely structured environment? 15. In light of your strengths, weaknesses, gifts and passions, what kind of things would you want to be responsible for? • Do you see yourself in management, sales, marketing? • Would you enjoy working with numbers, people or both? • What kind of assignments would you enjoy tackling? • Would you enjoy a job that requires a great deal of writing? • Would you enjoy a job that requires verbal skills?Acknowledgements: 1. DESIGN is adapted from Doing Church as a Team, Wayne Cordeiro(1998, Honolulu, New Hope). 7
  8. 8. Lesson 2 The Nature of Leadership Activity 2.1 I would like you to reflect for a while on your childhood and early working years: Make a list of the leaders you followed? What was it about each of these people that inspired you to follow them? What, in your opinion was the prevailing leadership philosophy that impacted you in your upbringing? List the strengths and weaknesses of such a way of thinking? Activity 2.2. How do you view those in authority? How have your past experiences played a part in developing this view of authority figures? How has your view of authority influenced your approach to leading?Warren Bennis: “ We need to move to an era in which leadership is an organizational capabilityand not an individual characteristic that a few individuals at the top of the organisation have.”I. What are some common tensions that business leaders face? A. Principle-based leadership VS Localised contextual leadership approaches. B. Vision VS current reality. C. Facilitation of leadership development VS Accountability for results. D. Detailed Knowledge of corporation VS hands off empowerment. E. Maintenance of stability VS leadership and leverage of change. F. Clarity VS Management of ambiguity. 8
  9. 9. G. Maintenance of competitive edge VS employee satisfaction and well-being. H. Experience VS Education VS Competence. I. Counsel VS Personal Gut-feel judgmentII. What are some common problems with business leaders today? A. Many leaders have limited leadership to a particular personality type, usually the charismatic personality. B. Many leaders have limited leadership to a position. C. Many leaders are greatly skilled in a discipline but ineffective at leading people. D. Many leaders are effective in gaining followers but ineffective in developing leaders. (Exo 18:13-17) E. Many leaders are ineffective at replacing themselves. F. Many leaders are blinded by their desire to climb the corporate ladder at all cost. G. Many leaders do not have a balanced lifestyle. H. Many leaders think in terms of making money in the short-term at the expense of building organizations that last.III. What are some signs of an unhealthy leadership environment? A. An environment where people are reprimanded for authenticity (Telling it as it is) B. An environment where leaders stay silent or lie about things that matter. C. An environment where leaders can not give reasons for corporate cultural practices. D. An environment where leaders fear challenging the status quo. E. An environment where leaders are out of touch with customer needs and don’t move beyond preserving the inherited institution. F. An environment where feedback focuses on failure rather than a learning culture being created. G. An environment where the performance culture is judgmental and not participative and supportive. 9
  10. 10. H. An environment where leadership goals are continuously unclear resulting in succumbing to the long entrenched expectations of followers. I. An environment where leaders are not being fueled by purpose but only by needs. J. An environment where leaders are unaware of the quality of their employees, followers and future leaders. K. An environment where people are discouraged from thinking for themselves. L. An environment where people do not grow as persons (in skill, in intellect and relationship etc). M. An environment where people do not see God as their source of promotion.IV. What is the difference between good leaders and great leaders in business? Activity 2.3 Do you have in you any of this false humility? Describe some situations where you have you shied away from having people follow you? What belief structures in your mind led you to this resistance to influencing people? What do you think was Satan’s strategy in this? Have you repented (changed your mind) with regards to these beliefs? If not, spend time with God at this point and write down what you hear him say to you.John 14:12 I tell you the truth, anyone who has faith in me will do what I have been doing. He will do even greater things than these, because I am going to the Father.Anyone with followers is a leader. But legends are different. I define a legend as leaders wholeave a legacy. Their influence lives on. Legends are great leaders. They stand out because theyhave that edge that differentiates them. In a number of key areas legends differ from leaders. Ihave identified seven key dimensions in which legends differ from leaders. 10
  11. 11. From Leaders to Legends Dimension Leaders Legends1 Managing Relations Leaders are always moving ahead, Legends are clear about who they which is necessary for followers. give their best to. They have very However, it is possible to be a leader clear relational standards and and still a man pleaser. One can be a priorities. They are willing to change leader and still manipulated. These the nature of their relationships. people end up winning battles but not They understand that if your eye the war. They end up popular for a causes you to sin, pluck it out. They period but not achieve greatness. are so consumed with their cause that they will not allow themselves to get distracted by high maintenance relationships which don’t take them to their destination. They are able to say no. They are not man pleasers. You can’t manipulate them. They don’t have a strong need for approval from men.2 Managing Ambiguity Leaders will often struggle with The mind of a legend works ambiguity. We sometimes only see a differently. Legends can entertain single dimension in a leader. They are ambiguity. We can see this in God’s bold, or they are intelligent etc. nature. There is the kindness and severity of God. Jesus came with grace and truth. Legends somehow have multiple dimensions we see in them. For example, Jim Collin’s Level 5 leaders have a self effacing humility whilst at the same time embracing a bull-dog tenacity. Legends will often have interesting combinations e.g. great intellect coupled with the ability to learn from a child. Great talent coupled with extraordinary humility. Great humour and ability to laugh at themselves combined with extraordinary contemplative ability.3 Managing Choices Leaders make choices. These however The summation of their legendary are not always consistent with their status is seen in choices they make. cause. In order to get followers they They consistently make choices sometimes compromise their values. aligned to their values and vision. This is not compromised. The nature of their wisdom is that they know what to do next. It may involve tough, unpopular choices, but they make them. This ability to make the right decisions when it matters, ends up distinguishing them.4 Managing Time Leaders can manage time well, but that Legends manage their purpose. In so does not necessarily mean they are doing they manage their time well. doing the right thing. This is because their activities and daily habits are aligned to their cause, their vision and values. 11
  12. 12. 5 Managing Weakness Leaders often try to be great all- Legends have learned to be honest rounders. They are often in denial about their weaknesses with no concerning their weaknesses. The result shame. They put their strengths to is that they put a lot of effort into being work and manage around their average. weakness. They hire according to their weakness. They understand that we are not called to socialize or team build along the lines of least resistance. They do not see themselves more highly than they ought. They can end up attracting the best in the world and they become the greatest cheerleaders.6 Managing Failure Leaders are often experts at covering up Legends acknowledge failure but their failures. They might react by have a way of learning from it and overcompensating for their failures putting it behind them and without acknowledging them. Others embracing the future. Paul describes dwell so much on past failure that they this as a mark of maturity. A do not embrace their future. righteous man can fall 7 times but Discouragement gets the better of them. still get up. This type of perseverance is necessary for shift from leader to legend.7 Managing Learning Leaders acquire lots of knowledge but Legends are passionate learners. don’t always learn. Learning is the They do not limit their learning to acquisition of knowledge resulting in a formal environments but have change of mind and change of behavior. multiple sources of learning. They Passion for knowledge is not the same are extremely inquisitive, and adjust as a passion for learning. their behavior based on their findings. They understand that the organizations which are the most competitive are the ones which learn fastest. V. How do you gain credibility as a leader? Kouzes and Posner suggest that credibility has three aspects to it: Integrity, Competence and Inspiration. You will find that your reasons for people following you will probably be able to fit into these three categories. A. Integrity B. Competence C. Inspiration. It’s important to remember that BOTH Integrity and Competence are important in leadership. 12
  13. 13. And David shepherded them with integrity of heart; with skillful hands he led them. (Psalms 78:72) Activity 2.4 Reflect for a while on your level of integrity. Are you an example of authenticity? – This can be summed up in the word candour; “what you see is what you get?” When we discuss candour we see that there are levels of truth; with God, yourself and others: Integrity: How truthful are you with God? How truthful are you with yourself? How truthful are you with others? (In word and presentation) Competency: What competencies/skills do you have which you can sharpen? What is your action plan for increasing your competencies? How can such an endeavour increase your credibility? State with whom. Inspiration: Why do you think Jesus was so inspiring? What does the bible say about why people were amazed by Him? What can you do to become a little more inspiring?Having said all these important things about leadership, in the next lesson we will look atservant-hood. If we talk about leadership without talking about servant-hood we have missed thebiblical approach to leadership development no matter how stimulating our theories sound.Please note a number of things here. When the mother of James and John asks for her sons to bepromoted, Jesus says to her; you do not know what you are asking. Many believers today areasking God for spiritual promotion but He is asking them the same thing “Do you know whatyou are asking? Are you able to drink the cup I have drunk.” In the next lesson we will explorehow to create a servant-leadership culture in the workplace. 13
  14. 14. Appendix I – Leadership ResearchI asked a group of approximately 102 participants from 40 companies (many Blue Chip) to divide into 13 groups and give 5 keystrategies/leadershifts (Changes in leadership approach) necessary in South African business leadership. This took place on 14/15September 2008. The following were the responses I received.Group 1 • Boundaryless (no silos) • Positioning right people • People seen as an asset not an expense • Performance ownership program (POP). Parking bay issues. • Live and die for values (uncompromising customer service, integrity, winning through teamwork, professionalism, passion for brand, effective communication, long-term customer relations)Group 2 • Communication (feedback) • Empowerment (with accountability) • Implementation (not just good ideas) • Clear purpose and direction • Fairness and transparency (with diversity)Group 3 • Reduce power distance (interact beyond problems) • Encourage ownership (knowing the bigger picture) • Getting feedback • Integrity • Behaving how you want others to • Showing commitmentGroup 4 • People are important and must be seen as an asset • Knowing your team so you can influence them (profiling) • Knowing your powerbase (using influence and not position power/pulling rank) • Authenticity (being an example) • Vulnerability (not being afraid to expose your weakness, although do so with discretion) • Knowing how to play chess (positions of people etc)Group 5 • Strategy formulation (multidirectional not top down) • People empowerment (not centralized, not delegating) • Breaking from mediocrity (celebrating innovation) • Role clarity (not jumping lines of command, role ambiguity)Group 6 • Break away from patriarchal contract • Break away from hierarchical approach • Create feedback culture (including implementing feedback) • Celebrating and including all in your success • Leaders stepping back so team can enjoy success • Establishing brave leadership 14
  15. 15. • Moving from a blame shifting cultureGroup 7. • Clarifying vision (knowing your values) • Grooming your leaders • Integrity (benefiting the company and not just you) • Growing in leadership and not just management • Long-lasting legacy sustainable after you leave • Mutual respect in team setting (caring) • Maintaining and building trust • CredibilityGroup 8 • Accountable (not blaming saying it’s not my role) • Having strength analysis (being passionate) • Being able to adapt and fit your environment/surroundings. • Knowing where to cut your losses the last one standing. • Give credit where it’s due. • Increase in risk taking. Have more risk takers. • Do the insights colour profiles. (Personality/behavioural profiles)Group 9 • Choosing the right people o People whose values align with the organization o Then motivation followsGroup 10. • Empowering culture • Embracing real growth and not just change • Decisiveness • People lower down the organization need to know the Y factor (Big picture, Making vision stick)Group 11. • Responsibility • Risk-taking • Communicating the vision • Right people in right places • Working to people’s strengths • Integrity of input • Feedback and communicationGroup 12. • Education (continuous learning) • Ready to change • The big picture, overall goals (knowing what to share or not to share)Group 13. • Non-punitive environment (exploring why people mess up) • Encouraging ownership • Creating a positive culture or else the culture creates itself by default • Leaving a legacy • Diversity • A people oriented culture 15
  16. 16. Lesson 3 Embracing Servant LeadershipIntroductionWhen discussing the issue of servant-hood we can categorise our discussion into two:The inner attitudes of serving and the outer service of a servant. For the sake of our study in this manualwe will focus on the attitude of a servant. The issue of being a servant leader is really an issue of innerattitude. Our focus is not so much on what someone does but on who they are. It is one thing to do actsof kindness, it is quite another to be a kind person. When you are a kind person, everything you do isstamped with kindliness. It’s the same with being a servant leader; it’s your nature as opposed to actsyou do from time to time depending on how you are feeling.When you hear the word “servant” what do you think of?From what you know about servant-hood, would you say you have taken on the nature of a servant or isit something you simply add on to your daily life?Because of our various backgrounds and experiences, we all have a different picture of what itmeans to be a servant. But what was in Jesus’ mind when he said we must be a servant of wewant to be great? Let’s explore some biblical definitions of servant-hood.I. What is a servant?A. A servant is someone at the complete disposal of another.The Hebrew word Ebed means a person who is at the complete disposal of another (Gen.24:1 – 67). Thisapplies to a slave who has given up personal rights in order to serve his master.B. A servant is someone who works 16
  17. 17. Abad is another Hebrew word which generally means to work. In Gen 2:5; 3:23, it uses the wordmeaning a person who tills the ground.C. A servant is willing to do menial tasks (Ex 28:35-43)Sharath means a doer of menial and insignificant tasks. In Ex 28: 35 – 43 we see priests referred to as asharath.How wiling are you to do menial and seemingly insignificant tasks?Are there any tasks that you see as being beneath you? Perhaps you force yourself to do them, but stillfeel embarrassed in your heart. Reflect on this for a while.D. A servant is bonded to something (Rom 1:1; Phil 1:1; Titus 1:1)The word doulos is used in the Greek. It signifies bondage. It speaks of a servant who has willinglybonded himself to a master by some legal obligation. Paul refers to himself as this in his letters: Rom1:1; Phil 1:1; and Titus 1:1. It’s important to be a servant of Christ. If you are not bonded to Christ youwill be bonded to something else.What are you in bondage to? Jesus is our model for servant-hood. He was not a pushover. It is interesting that this is the specific thinghe says we must emulate; “Come to me, for I am gentle and humble in heart”. He also commands us toserve like he did. In Philippians we are told we need to have the same attitude as Jesus specificallyspeaking of how he humbled himself.Some may think this is an impossible task but the reality is that Christians are empowered to serve. Read1 Pet 4:10,11b. Sometimes people do not serve because they feel they will get no recognition for it butin Rev 2:19 we see that Jesus notices it.E. A servant has a target or directionWhat do you think is important to the Lord out of all your activities? Which ones does the Lord reallynotice? 17
  18. 18. We can make a choice concerning who we will serve; God or Satan. We will always be serving in eithercamp. The following scriptures illustrate this:2 Cor 11: 14-15: serving Satan2 Cor 6: 3: serving God1 Tim 4: 6: serving Christ2 Cor 11:23: servant of the gospel2 Cor 3: 6: servant of the new covenantCol 1:25 a servant of the churchThe questions to answer are:What or who are you serving?Who or what have you had to stop serving?F. A servant can be trusted.Warren Bennis describes four ingredients that leaders have that generate and sustain trust:1. Constancy: Whatever surprises leaders may face, they themselves do not create any for the group.Leaders are all of a piece; they stay on course.2. Congruity: Leaders walk their talk. In true leaders there is no gap between theories they espouse andthe life they practice.3. Reliability: Leaders are there when it counts; they are ready to support their co-workers in themoments that matter.4. Integrity: Leaders honour their commitments and promises. 18
  19. 19. II. What are the marks of true servant-hood?A. True servant-hood is a key aspect of Christ-likeness.Key scriptures in the example of Jesus:Luke 12:37; Luke 22:27; Jn 13; Mark 10 43; Jn 12:24-26; Phil 2:8Are you a servant in terms of your thinking, your emotions and your will? Sadly, many are servantsonly in part.B. True servant-hood requires death to self.The “kenosis” is the divine self-emptying of the Son of God, and because of this, we also who are in Himcan do the same; empty of ourselves. Tom Marshall states that “ in the Incarnation Jesus created aservant nature, and became a servant, and that through our incorporation in him in His death andresurrection we can come in touch with and into union with that nature.”In verse 6 of Phil 2 we see that we need to give up any grasping. What have you been grasping?Look at the following examples and discuss Jesus’ view of status. Luke 14:8-11; John 13:12-15. What didJesus do with status?In becoming a servant we need to first overcome man’s ways. This really means, dying to self. Jn12:24,25.What aspects of self do you have to die to?God’s ways are fundamentally different from man’s ways (Is 55:10,11). We are told in Romans 12:1-2;do not conform to the pattern of this world. 19
  20. 20. Study the following scriptures with regards to this and ask God to work His word in you. Let the worddwell richly within you:Mt 16:24; Col 3:3; 1 Cor. 6:19-20Before you can truly serve others you have to be a bondservant of Christ. This is an essential part ofservant leadership and is necessary if the nature of our service is going to be pure. If not, our service willalways have a hook on it. In other words we will serve people in order to get something out of it.What are the different motives people can have for serving?C. True servant-hood involves purity of motive.Another word which is translated as servant is the Hebrew word Sakiyr. This is a person who works forwages by day or by year. This was a hireling who could not eat the Passover of the master’s family (Ex12:3 – 45). The aim of the believer should be to forsake being a Sakiyr and move to a place where one isa love-slave. Leviticus 25:39 –42. A Sakiyr was not worth nearly as much as a love-slave was to hismaster. Sadly, in the church today we have many Sakiyrs. They serve God only for what they can get outof it. Their mindset is “God and the whole world owe me everything”. The Love-slave has a differentmindset, “I owe God everything, and He owes me nothing”. When we come to this place, we placeourselves at God’s disposal and He can use us mightily. The motivation of a servant is so important, asJeremiah 17 states “God searches the heart and examines the mind to reward each one according to hisconduct.”Do you see yourself acting as a sakiyr at times? If so, what do you think causes this attitude?2 Cor 9:7 shows that all we do, must be done cheerfully and not under compulsion. Those who followservant leaders do not do things out of manipulation, flattery or guilt.Is there any following you are doing out of manipulation, flattery or guilt? If so, reflect on why andallow the Lord to deal your heart. 20
  21. 21. We see that Jesus was so focused on His Father’s will even from childhood. This shows us that we canteach our children the same. Already in Mt 18:3 we see Jesus state that He was about his father’sbusiness.D. True servant-hood is voluntary.The first thing to understand about the biblical concept of bondservants is that it was voluntary. Ourview of servant-hood has been marred by events which have taken place in history and as a result thishas eroded in our minds this powerful biblical metaphor.In 2 Cor 6:11 we see how Paul exchanged all which is valued highly by man, for this servant-hood. Whywould someone do this? He was a love-slave. Remember how a love-slave would say, “Where I am goingto go no one has ever treated me like you do.”Have you come to a point in your life where you have aligned your will to God’s will? Reflect on this fora while.Do you have a puncture in your ear, marking that you are a love-slave? Reflect on this.In Romans 1:14 Paul speaks of being obligated. Once he’d chosen to indenture himself to Christ he wasobligated to carry this out. He did not feel the Lord owed him anything.E. True servant-hood requires inner strength.What images come up in your mind when you think of Jesus?One of the things that amazes me is that many Christians think that Jesus was a wimp. They think thatbeing a servant means one is a wimp. Yet when we look in scripture we are told that the people wereamazed because he taught as one with authority, unlike the scribes and the Pharisees. Therefore, if wewant to be Christ-like, one of the main qualities we need is to walk in authority. Authority and Christ-likeness cannot be separated. Look at how Jesus could be direct: 21
  22. 22. “Satan, get behind me” Mt 16:23“Obey what I command you” Jn 14:15“Jesus’ hand of authority is always directed by His heart of compassion and grace” Marc DupontWere you taught servant-hood as a child? Was it effective?How can we train children to be servants?F. True servant-hood involves inner security.Jesus’ security and significance:As a servant, Jesus was whole. When we do not deal with our insecurities the tendency is to compensatein all sorts of ways which are contrary to true servant-hood.The following verses show that a servant knows who he is:Luke 3:22; Ps 2: 8;1 Jn 4:18;1 Cor 3:21-23In John 13 we see that Jesus knew He had come from God. In Jn 14:30 he stated that Satan has nothingin him.G. True Servant-hood involves passing the Servant Test.The servant test is illustrated in the following scriptures:1 Kings 19; 1 Kings 19:21; 2 Kings 3:11d 22
  23. 23. We see here that Elisha’s larger ministry began with menial service. It is also important to understandthat a leader continues to serve throughout his or her life.Describe situations where you have had to go through the servant test. Did you pass?It’s important to note that as a leader grows in spiritual authority he must now serve even more peoplein an even greater capacity.A prospective servant-leader indicates that they do not have a servant heart when he or she asksquestions like: • Why am I overlooked every time? • Why should I have to suffer? • Why do people not give me proper appreciation or my rights? • What are other signs that someone is not yet a servant? “In short, the enemy is strong natural servants who have the potential to lead but do not lead, or who choose to follow a non-servant.” -Robert GreenleafAppendix IThe Diako Project1. Planning your serving 23
  24. 24. As we attempt to grow as servants we need to ask ourselves the following questions: • Who am I to serve? • How am I to serve? • Where is their pain? • What do they value? • What do they fear?2. The ProjectFor 3 consecutive weeks you need to carry out a specific servant endeavor and then document yourreflections at the end of each week, based on the questions outlined below. In the fourth week yourtask is to influence someone else to do a servant endeavor and then interview them using the samequestions that are outlined below. These questions are to help you in reflecting and not to limit your response: • Describe what your act of service was? • Who did you serve and why? • How did you influence and impact the person you served? • How did you impact and influence anyone else to do the same? • How has this endeavor affected your relationship with the person you served? • Describe your attitude and feelings while serving? • How is this different from the last time you served? (Last week’s endeavor) 24
  25. 25. Lesson 4 VisioneeringIntroductionOne of the major heart cries of this generation is the need for visionary leaders: “Give to us clear vision that we may know where to stand and what to stand for – because unless we stand for something, we shall fall for anything”. Peter Marshall (US Presbyterian pastor 1902-1949) Isaiah 46:9-11 Remember the former things, those of long ago; I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me. I make known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. I say: My purpose will stand, and I will do all that I please. From the east I summon a bird of prey; from a far-off land, a man to fulfill my purpose. What I have said, that will I bring about; what I have planned, that will I do. 25
  26. 26. I define visioneering as:“the process of receiving and incubating a God-given dream and subsequently making it compellingenough to mobilize others who become passionately engaged in its progressive realization,implementation, and evaluation.”Activity 4.1.What do you think is the impact of this well known vision statement to both employees andcustomers? Levi People love our clothes and trust our company. We will market and distribute the most appealing and widely worn apparel brands. Our products define quality, style and function. We will clothe the world.I. What mindset is necessary to produce a great vision?A. A mindset that has overcome the limitations of its personality. 1.The Analytic or Cool Blue gets mired in details, is rigid and quick to dismiss vision as “pipe dreams”. 2. The Driver or Fiery Red can become over-stretching and put strain on self and/or others. They can be too insistent and dismissive of conflicting input. 3. The Expressive or Sunshine Yellow may have their vision poorly defined. They might find it difficult to settle on one idea. They may ignore practical considerations. 26
  27. 27. 4. The Amiable or Earth Green may go for what’s safe. They may be reluctant to rock the boat or disrupt others. They often will prefer familiar routine.B. A mindset that embraces God’s magnitude (Eph. 3:20).C. A mindset that knows that God has already prepared good works for us to do (Eph 2:10).D. A mindset that has confident expectation (Ps. 2:8).E. A mindset that recognizes God’s incomparably great power at work in us (Eph. 1:19).II. What are the attributes of a strong vision?A. A strong vision is God ordained (Is.46:9-11)B. A strong vision is widely shared.C. A strong vision is memorable.D. A strong vision often becomes a conviction.E. A strong vision is attractive, inspiring and motivating.F. A strong vision is worthwhile.G. A strong vision can be broken down into effective goals. Effective goals are characterized by: 1. they are clear and specific 2. they are written down 3. they are measurable 4. they are time-bound 5. they are challenging but attainable 6. they are supported by appropriate rewardsH. A strong vision is achievable albeit challenging.III. What does the vision-making process involve?The vision-making process may consist of aspects of this 5 Step Process: 27
  28. 28. Step 1: Building the Foundations • Receiving from God • Acknowledging your history • Building your visioning team • Defining the Values and Purpose Underlying the Vision.Step 2: Visioneering • Creative brainstorming and collating the output. • Identifying those who will “champion” the vision (Initiators).Step 3: Sharing the Vision • Communicating and engaging others • Creating mechanisms to make the vision stickStep 4: Making Strategic Choices • What do we need to start doing? • What do we need to stop doing? • What needs to be unlearned? • Assessing the vision to reality gap – where are we now in relation to where we want to be? • What resources do we have and what challenges/obstacles do we face? • What strategic choices do we now need to make?Step 5: Action Planning • What are the priorities? Who is going to do what and by when?III. What are the major hindrances to visioneering? A. An inability to engage with the abstract future. “Visions are too general and non-specific.” B. Not making time for it. “I have no time for all this visioning.” C. Fear of change. “Why rock the boat.” 28
  29. 29. D. Fear of accountability. “I don’t want to restrict myself by writing it down.” E. Confusing results with process. This is where the difference between process and outcomes is unclear in our minds. F. Inability to monitor progress. This happens when you don’t know where you are at with regards to goal achievement. G. Lack of alignment between goals and rewards. Often companies will change their goals but not realign the rewards. H. Not seeing visioneering as a systemic process. It’s a holistic approach where what’s written on the wall is happening down the hall. The vision statement is reinforced by the values, culture, and reward systems. It is seen in what is measured and celebrated throughout the organization.IV. What are the key questions in the monitoring and evaluation of vision alignment?Go through this process, adapted from Ian Mc Cormick, to assist you in monitoring where you are withregards to vision alignment.A. Our Vision 1.What values does your organisation use to guide its behaviour? 2.How widespread is this view in your organisation? 3.What will people be saying about your organization 5 years from now? Suppliers; Customers and Newspapers? 4.What is the vision of your organisation? (What do you intend to become in the next 5 years?)B. Our Mission 1. What is the mission of your organisation? (How do you intend to realize your vision?) 2. What is your reason for existence? 3. Who are your customers? 4. How will you measure your success? 29
  30. 30. 5. What are your controlling/regulatory bodies? 6. How are you positioned?C. Our Team 1. What major changes would have to take place before your vision can be fully realized? 2. Highlight what things need to be changed in your organisation? (Both leaders and members) 3. In what ways do your leadership team members complement each other? 4. What are the competence gaps in your current leadership team? 5. If your leadership team were to increase in size, who would the possible team players be, and what value would they add to the team?D. Our organisation 1. List 3 things that give you the greatest satisfaction in the organisation? 2. List 3 things that bring you the greatest dissatisfaction in this organisation? 3. What in your opinion is special and unique about this organisation? 4. How do you think the organisation is seen by those who are not a part of it? 5. What would you like this organisation to be known for in 5 years time?E. Our culture 1. The clarity of our common vision 2. Our sense of mission 3. The leadership style 4. The quality of our training and development process 5. The quality of our orientation process 6. The morale of the people 7. Practising what we preachF. Our Relationships 1. Our internal relationships as a leadership team 2. Our relationship with those we serve 3. The sense of “Us” and “Them” 4. Your sense of belonging 5. The quality of our communications 6. Your own personal growth G. Our Systems 1. Our financial position 2. Our financial systems 3. Our financial integrity 30
  31. 31. H. Our Structures 1. The balance between chiefs and Indians 2. The effectiveness of our current organizational structure 3. The sense of liberty 4. The sharing of workI. Our Resources 1. The use of your gifts and skills 2. The use of our buildings 3. The use of our money J. Our Activities 1. The quality of our programmes 2. The quantity of our activities 3. The effectiveness of our activities 4. The alignment of our activities to our vision and values K. People 1. People’s enthusiasm 2. People’s involvement 3. People’s commitment L. Public Awareness 1. Our visibility with the public 2. Our reputation with the public 3. The goodwill we have from the community 4. Our contribution to the community 31
  32. 32. Further StudyFor a more comprehensive study on Visioneering see the School of Ministry Vision & Values Course byBill Scheidler. 32
  33. 33. Lesson 5 Creating Corporate CultureIntroductionA lot of people do not understand that culture is man-made in the sense that it is formed through eventswhich take place in history in order to help individuals cope with their environment. When we begin toexplore how it has been formed it becomes easier to unlearn it. The redundant organizational rituals beginto be demystified and new rituals formed. This is important because a key role of a leader is to createculture. It is also important for us to also keep in mind that ‘organizational culture’ exists in the broadercontext of our national culture.Organizational culture has a great influence on decision-making and problem-solving at all levels.Therefore, if we want to influence organizational decision-making, we need to first explore theassumptions behind the cultural framework.We are beginning to discover the role of leaders as architects. In the past, there has been the tendency tofocus on building things that are tangible, but more and more it is becoming clear, that leaders have a rolein creating culture.In doing business God’s way its important to know that God values pattern and principle. His kingdomhas a culture and throughout scripture we see God establishing and reinforcing His pattern even when itwould go against the grain. The Kingdom of God is a counter culture. Examine this in the followingverses:2 Tim. 2:2 “….entrust to reliable men who will also be able to teach others also.”Rom. 12:2 “Do not be conformed to the pattern of this world.”Titus 2:1-6 “….In everything set them an example by doing what is good…”Jesus came and created a new culture by challenging the status quo.For lasting change to occur in our organizations, a change in organizational culture becomes necessary. Itis crucial for leaders to know how to bring about cultural transformation to their organizations. In order 33
  34. 34. for this to happen, they need to understand what organizational culture is. Therefore, this lesson starts byexplaining what organizational culture is.I. What is Organizational Culture?A. Organisational culture is shared and implicit.Organizational culture is “the set of a shared, taken for granted implicit assumption that a group holdsand that determines how it perceives, thinks about and reacts to its various environments” (Schein,1996). As these environments are continuously changing, the organizational cultures often need tochange too.B. Organisational Culture consists of Values, Norms and Beliefs.C. Organisational culture is often unnoticed until it interfaces with other cultures.Enculturation is the term used to describe how we tend to be unaware of our worldview or culture. ‘Theair is unnoticed by us till we meet another atmosphere’. Eurocentricism or Afrocentricism is a form ofenculturation.D. Organizational culture manifests itself in various forms. 1. Objects (shared things) 2. Talk (shared sayings) 3. Behaviour (shared doings) 4. Emotions (shared feelings)E. Organisational culture operates at different levels.Organizational culture encompasses a wide range of phenomena: 34
  35. 35. 1. Surface features: values, rituals, customs, forms of expression 2. Preconscious factors: symbols, ideology, and norms 3. Deep structures: Basic assumptions, worldviews, cognitive and logical systemsHow would you describe your organization’s culture at all three levels?F. Organisational culture often stems from three main sources.Schein (1996) points three sources from which culture springs. 1. Beliefs, values, and assumptions of founders 2. Learning experiences of group members 3. New beliefs, values and assumptions brought by new membersII. What is the function or purpose of organsisational culture?A. Organisational culture gives members an organizational identity.B. Organisational culture facilitates guiding principles for work processes.C. Organisational culture creates a framework for decision-making.D.Organisational culture shapes behaviour by helping members make sense of their surroundings.E. Organizational culture is a good metaphor for communicating lasting change. 35
  36. 36. III. In what ways can we categorize corporate culture? There are a variety of metaphors commonly used to describe various types of corporate culture. Outlined below is a construct used by some. A. The Sage: Hierarchy Culture 1. Needs a full cognitive understanding of any change before it will be embraced 2. Influence and power stems primarily from knowledge and understanding 3. Has a strong internal focus maintained through effective procedures and efficient organisation 4. Emphasis on quality is driven by an inner need for quality as much as the external need to satisfy customers. B. The Caregiver: Clan Culture • More emphasis is paid to relationships than to task • Internal communications are informal, sensitive and low key • Staff work individually to task, while working collectively towards a common cause • Management style will be ‘ask’ rather than ‘tell’ – minimal use of ‘command and control’. C. The Creator: Adhocracy Culture • Seeks to inspire and empower staff – any control is indirect • Is a dynamic, sociable and outward looking work environment • Abounds with innovative entrepreneurs • A desire to ‘make it happen’ ensures that change is embraced with open arms. D. The Warrior: Market Culture • Is goal driven and action oriented • Responds quickly and decisively to changes in the market • Values ‘determination and vigour’ ahead of ‘sensitivity and diplomacy’ • Runs a ‘tight ship’ and runs it well.We can also categorize corporate culture by other constructs such as leadership style (Autocratic,paternalistic, consultative, participative, delegative, abdicative.); degrees of control (internal orexternal); the nature of reality; truth; time; space; activity and relationships. 36
  37. 37. IV. What is the impact of culture on corporate performance?The culture of an organization will determine its decision-making process and in turn, its overallperformance. A. Culture affects the description of problems and how we come about to solutions. B. Culture affects our view of possibilities. C. Culture affects how we measure, formulate and define success (cognitive maps). D. Culture affects the implementation strategies and how they are carried through. E. Culture affects our reward systems; who we reward and why. F. Culture affects what is tolerated and what is celebrated. G. Culture affects decision-making on promotions and dismissals. H. Culture affects how we allocate resources.How has your organization’s culture shaped your decision-making process?V. How can one diagnose the culture of one’s organization?Earlier on, it was pointed out that culture operates at three levels. We stated that the third level is thelevel of assumptions and worldviews. People share the same world-view when there are sharedassumptions about the more abstract, general, deeper issues mentioned above. As you go throughthese, reflect on your own worldview and culture. Ask yourself what aspects of your organizationalculture have been detrimental to your corporate performance and quality of work life.You can diagnose aspects of your organisation’s culture by answering the following: 1. What beliefs are strongly held? 2. How do parents/leaders teach children/employees to behave? 3. What do people regard as major sins? 4. What do people do in crises? 5. What rituals do people perform? 6. What are the greatest fears people have? 7. Who are the trendsetters? 8. Who are the cultural heroes? 37
  38. 38. 9. What is expressed in the art forms of the people? 10. What aspects of the culture are most resistant to change? 11. What are considered to be words of wisdom?What is the prevailing culture in your organization?Describe how these patterns of thought have influenced your organization (negatively or positively).Which of these words below are reflections of organizational Leadership culture of firms you haveworked for or are familiar with? Autocratic, paternalistic, consultative, participative, delegative,abdicative.VI. In what way can a new culture be established in an organization? Albert Einstein: “we cannot solve today’s problems by thinking in the same way we thought when we created them.” Peter Senge: “The problems we face today are the result of yesterday’s solutions.”Its amazing how so many leaders today are attempting to bring about radical change without changingtheir systems radically. There is the tendency to expect a change in output whilst remaining with thesame inputs. A lot of change strategies have only focused on business processes, but often this onlyresults in short-term change. This is simply because those executing these processes are still operatingfrom the same worldviews and paradigms.Schein (1996) outlines a number of culture-embedding mechanisms that leaders can intentionally use tocreate culture. Culture-Embedding Mechanisms 38
  39. 39. Embedding Mechanisms Articulation and Reinforcement MechanismsWhat leaders pay attention to, measure, control, Design and structure.and reward on a regular basis.How leaders react to critical incidents and Rites and rituals.organizational crises.Deliberate modeling, teaching, and coaching. Space design, facades, and buildings.Criteria by which leaders allocate rewards and Legends and myths about people and events.status.Criteria by which leaders recruit, select, promote, Formal communication of organizationalretire, and ex-communicate organizational philosophy, values, and creed.members.ConclusionThere is an organizational culture that is developing today. It is characterized by long workinghours, cost reduction, a short-term contract culture, and so-called “stable insecurity” inorganizations. (This is characteristic of the new entrepreneurial contracts within largeorganizations). It is paramount that we understand that we can create culture and do not have toleave it to chance. Understanding organizational culture is therefore a central and foundationalaspect of organizational behaviour.Reflect on your own family or business: • How would you describe the culture of your household/business? What have you done to create this culture, consciously or subconsciously? • If there is a new culture you would like to create in your family/business, what embedding mechanisms can you use to create such a culture? 39
  40. 40. Lesson 6 Leading Lasting ChangeIntroductionBusiness leaders take people from A to B. Such movement requires change. We cannot experience newrealities without changing. We therefore cannot speak of leadership without speaking of change,because leaders are managers of change. It is crucial for potential leaders to learn the art of being achange agent. Many people are looking to leaders today in the hope that the leaders will bring change.Effective leaders have learnt the art of transformation, and particularly how to deal with people duringtimes of transition. Many leaders lose their credibility because they fail to carry their followers throughtimes of change. “Nothing endures but change”. Hericlitus“History has demonstrated that the most notable winners usually encountered heartbreaking obstacles before they triumphed. They won because they refused to become discouraged”. BC Forbes “Simply doing more of what worked in the past…will be too incremental. More than that, it will be tooslow. The winner of the future will be those that can develop a culture that allows them to move faster, communicate more clearly and involve everyone in a focused effort to serve more demanding customers”. Jack Welch – General ElectricI. What are some of the major forces that cause change? Forces for change can be put into two categories; external and internal: 40
  41. 41. A. There are external forces for change 1. Demographic – age, education, skills, gender, immigration 2. Technological advancement – automation 3. Market changes – mergers and acquisitions, domestic and international competition, recession 4. Social and political pressures – war, values, leadership pressuresB. There are internal forces for change 1. HR problems 2. Management decisionsII. What are the different types of change?Change can move from one area to another as shown in the diagram below: 41
  42. 42. Adaptive change Innovative change Radically innovative change As we progress from adaptive change to radically innovative change there is also an increase in • the degree of complexity, cost and uncertainty • potential for resistance to changeList personal examples of these three types of changeIII. What are some key assumptions to have when carrying out change strategies?A. The changing process involves learning something new, as well as discontinuing current attitudes;B. People are the hub of change so it is about people changing; 42
  43. 43. C. Resistance to change is found even when the goals are highly desirable;D. For effective change to take place, the new behaviours need to be reinforced;E. Many changes today are radically innovative and as a result, there is greater potential for resistanceto change.IV. What are the components of Leading Change A. Management and awareness of existing corporate norms and politics. B. Inquiring, calculated risk-taking willing to challenge the status quo C. Creation of guiding coalition for change D. Multi-dimensional Systems thinking E. Designing, Monitoring, and Evaluating the change process F. Being Decisive and Tough-Minded G. Determination and resilience H. Empathy and understanding of psycho-social change processes.It is important to know what our strengths and weakness are with regards to the various components ofchange management. Each of these components requires unique ways of processing information.V. Why do people often resist change?A. Low-self-esteem. • Fear of change often stems from a low self-esteem, where individuals doubt their ability to cope with the change.B. Identity issues. • Individuals will resist change if their personal identity is closely tied to the status quo; • Change is enjoyable to some who have no stake in the status quo • Loss of status or job securityC. Fear of the unknown. • Fear of the unknown can keep us from taking promotions or resigning. 43
  44. 44. • A key to coping with change is to try out the new before giving up the old. Pilot projects as opposed to wholesale change, are often good because of this approach.D. Poor change management by change agents. • For example, change agents have often made the mistake of thinking humans are just rational and therefore they often forget the emotional aspects of change. As a result they often place too much emphasis on trying to improve their communication of the rational aspect. • Lack of warning or tact • Poor timing • Culture of mistrust • Personality of change agentE. Negative previous experiences of change.Managing change therefore involves an understanding of cultural change, which was discussed in anearlier lesson.F. The impact of change on relationships and current social networks.G. Peer PressureH. Different predispositions to change.People handle change differently based on their predispositions. We need to be aware of the strengthsand weaknesses of our tendencies.1. Analytics/Cool Blues • needs to be convinced that the change makes sense in order to go along with it • looks for a logical basis for the change, become baffled by non-logical factors (e.g. politics) • needs time to think about the change and the impact • will be adaptable to the change as long as personal principles are not threatened • uncomfortable and unwilling to take risks 44
  45. 45. • will be challenged by the overwhelming hurdles the change may present2. Amiables/Earth Green • will be open to change that is aligned with their own values • will be very resistant if deeply held (and often unexpressed) values are threatened or compromised • will focus on the actual details of the change and not be attracted to the “what could be” scenarios • will be reflective, open, and willing to listen to all points of view • will be concerned about impact on people during the change • will want the process of change to be people-friendly and inclusive3. Expressives/Sunshine Yellow • will be very willing to try new approaches • often the initiators of change • will want the change to benefit people, and will devise change processes to pull people together • may not have a good sense of their own energy commitments during change, and can become overloaded • will be aware of and responsive to others’ needs during the change • will want to have a sense of being in control and moving forward during the change4. Drivers/Fiery Red • will be prone to introduce change when in a position of control, but can be less comfortable with change when not in control of the process or outcome • will have strongly held views of what ought to happen, which will usually be based on previous experience of what has worked in the past • capable of dealing with multiple factors and complex change situations • will manage change rationally by using planning tools • will seek to impose a structure, striving to eliminate any ambiguity • will support change if there is a convincing rationale or tangible benefit, but may not be inclined to support change when there is no visible problem they can see.Often our predisposition towards change is due to factors based on life experiences. (E.g. how a childlearns to deal with change or ambiguity). List various changes you have had to go through during the last ten years. Categorise them into adaptive, innovative and radical change. 45
  46. 46. • How did you cope with each of these transitions? (Include how you felt) • Do you generally deal well with change? If not, why? • Does the way you deal with change vary according to the situation? • What would make you deal with change better? • Think of a time when you have had to lead a change process. This can either be at home or at work. How did you help the people to cope with the transition? What strategies did you use?VI. How do we learn cope with change?A. We cope with change by co-operating with God’s process. (Rom 12:2; 2 Cor. 3:18)B. We cope with change by trusting that God takes us from glory to glory.C. We cope with change by building our capacity in adaptability and resilience. Adaptability and Resilience Radar GraphActivity: Identify your highest and lowest points and discuss. 46
  47. 47. Andy LothianD. We cope with change when the reason for our change becomes larger than our resistance ofchange. Vision x Next Step x Motivation > Resistance to change– Gleicher’s model (cited in ‘Organizational Transitions’ by Beckhard, R. & Harris, R., 1987) 47
  48. 48. E. We cope with change through education and communication.F. We cope with change through participation and involvement in the change process.When change strategies are being considered, the correct timing is necessary for itsimplementation.Organisational change is less successful when leaders fail 1. To tell employees about the process of change. 2. Provide generous information about the change. 3. Inform employees about the reasons for the change. 4. Have meetings to address them and respond to questions concerning the changes.VII. Why Change Does Lasting Change often not Occur? Expert on leadership and change, John Kotter (1988), has outlined eight reasons why change strategies often fail: A. low sense of urgency for change. B. lack of a guiding coalition responsible for the change. C. lack of vision to guide the process. D. lack of communication of the vision. E. lack of removal of obstacles to change (political dynamics within the organisation). F. lack of short-term wins. G. declaring victory too soon. H. lack of reinforcement the change.It is important to note that change strategies work, but they need to operate on multiple levels, havingboth short-term and long-term results. 48
  49. 49. ReferencesKotter, J.P. (1988). The leadership factor. New York: Free Press.Kotter, J.P. (1990) A force for change: how effective leadership differs from management. New York: Thefree PressBennis, W. (2000). Managing The Dream. Reflections on Leadership and Change. Addison-WesleyPublishers.Andrew Lothian (Insights Learning & Development) – Radar Graph; Insights into behavioural preferencesfor change. 49
  50. 50. Lesson 7 Managing Power & PoliticsAccording to Handy (1993), power and influence are central to organizations and interactions of allpeople. Handy (1993) views organizations as a fine weave of influence patterns whereby individuals orgroups seek to influence others to think or act in particular ways. Effective leaders have learnt how touse power wisely to influence others. In organizations, managers are entrusted with power in theirrespective positions and are perceived to have authority. However, managers are not the only holders ofpower as individual ability and leadership potential is inherent in many, resulting in many mangers beinginvolved in a continuous struggle to maintain their power and authority.I. What is power?A. Power is “Something that person A has over another person B, to an extent that he can get B todo something B would not other wise do” Dahl (1957).B. Power is linked to influenceInfluence is “the effect of power exerted: a person exercising such power.” (Chambers 20thCentury Dictionary)“The process whereby A seeks to modify the attitudes and behaviors of B” Handy (1993).II. What are the various sources of power?Charles Handy (1993) outlines a number of possible sources of power that give one the ability toinfluence others: A. Physical powerThis is the power of superior force. That of a bully or the tyrant or commander of the army. Infew work organizations is physical power the source of individual influence. No organization hasa right to detain an individual by force (except for those involved in public safety, prison serviceor some mental hospitals). Physical power is really used as a last resort when other sources ofpower appear ineffective.B. Resource powerPossession of valued resource is a useful basis for influence. Another term for it is reward power.This is the power source implicit for most calculated contracts. In order for this kind of power tobe effective: There must be control of the resources, and 50
  51. 51. The potential recipient must desire those resources.C. Position powerThis is also known as ‘legal’ or ‘legitimate’ power and comes from one’s position in a group ororganization. This is power residing in the position rather than in the individual. The value of thispower really depends on the value placed by the guarantor of the position. If the occupant of aparticular role either: Does not receive backing from the organization, or the organization is not seen as controlling any desired or coercive resources,Then the occupant will find that influence attempts will fail, because their power source isinvalid. Position power gives the occupant potential control over some invisible assets such asinformation, right of access and right to organize.D. Expert powerHandy (1993) describes expert power as, “The power that is vested in someone because of theiracknowledged expertise.E. Personal powerThis is more generally known as charisma and resides in the person and their personality. It canbe enhanced by position or by expert status.F. Negative powerHandy (1993) points out that all these sources of power can be used legitimately orillegitimately. If they are used in the appropriate domain they are regarded as legitimate. If usedoutside the domain, the power is regarded as disruptive and illegitimate. This is the negative useof power.Negative power is the capacity to stop things from happening, to delay them, to distort them ordisrupt them. Negative power is latent; it does not operate all the time. It operates at times of lowmorale, irritation, stress, or frustration at the failure of other influence attempts. The use ofnegative power breeds lack of trust by the superior for the subordinate.G. Departmental powerCowling et al’s (1988) comment that some departments can have more power than others can beseen in the distribution of perks and resources within an organization, and which departmentstake a more dominant role in meetings and decision-making. 51
  52. 52. SELF CHECK QUESTION: Do any of the above aspects of power apply to you in any way?III. What are some unseen methods of influence?The above six power bases allow people to use one or more methods of influence. These can be dividedinto two classes - Overt and Unseen. Overt methods of influence include force, exchange, andpersuasion. Unseen methods of influence include Ecology: This method is available, often neglected, andsometimes abused by every manager. In this instance, ecology is the study of the relationship betweenan environment and its organisms. As politicians have also discovered, we cannot afford to neglect theecology of the organization, or the relationship of the environment to individual behavior or attitudes.Behavior and attitudes occur within an environment that affects them.A. Physical environment.It is possible to manipulate the physical environment in order to somewhat control certain behaviour:1. Noise affects performance on complicated tasks2. Variety relieves monotony, provides stimulation and contributes to improved performance3. Seating patterns tend to affect interaction patterns4. Open-plan offices are popular and improve communications when the work is routine5. Segregation prohibits communication6. Dangerous surroundings increase tension and lower productivityB. Psychological and sociological environment.In the psychological and sociological environments, Handy says that1. Small groups are easier to participate in than large groups2. Specific, challenging but attainable targets tend to produce commitments irrespective of their specific content3. Increased interaction leads to increased sentiments – either favorable or hostile4. Participation increases commitment if the individual considers participation worthwhile and legitimate.Therefore, to adjust the environment in order to remove constraints or facilitate some aspect ofbehavior is indirect influence. In short, ecology sets the conditions for behavior. The effective managerin an organization will check the environment before they act.C. Magnetism. 52
  53. 53. Magnetism is the invisible but felt pull of a stronger force, and is the application of personalpower. We have all felt the desire, perhaps sometimes illogical, to work with and for someone.This method of influence is difficult to measure and can be very relative, but it cannot beignored. As leaders, very often the people we attract are those who are like us. As John Maxwell(1998) states, “Whom you get is not determined by what you want. It is determined by who you are…inmost situations; you draw people to you who possess the same qualities you do. That is the lawof magnetism: Who you are is who you attract.”DISCUSSION QUESTIONSWhich methods of influence are predominantly used in your organization?Is there any illegitimate use of power in your organization?IV. What is organizational politics?A. Politics is “the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization.”Bronston and Allen (1977) in Cowling et al (1988).B. Politics often has a distinct result as its goal.“…Organizational politics refers to activities within organizations designed to acquire, develop, or usepower in a conscious way to obtain one’s preferred outcomes or to manipulate a situation for one’s ownpurposes.”Cherrington (1989).Pfeffer (1981) notes that ‘organizations, particularly large ones, are like governments in that they arefundamentally political entities. To understand them, one needs to understand organizational politics,just as to understand governments, one needs to understand government politics.’ 53
  54. 54. V. In what areas do organizations tend to be political rather than rational?Some research carried out by Miles (1980) identified several areas where organizations tend tobe political rather than rational: A. Resources There is a direct relationship between the amount of politics and how critical and scarce the resources are. Politics is also encouraged with the entry of new “unclaimed” resources. B. Decisions Ambiguous, uncertain and long-range strategic decisions lead to more politics than routine decisions. C. Goals The more ambiguous and complex the goals become, the more politics there will be. D. Technology and external environment In general, the more complex the internal technology of the organization operating in a turbulent external environment the more like there is to be politics. E. Change Reorganization, planned organizational development, or even unplanned change will encourage political maneuvering.Since these elements are prevalent in our organizations today, one can see why there is so muchpolitics. Miles (1980) states that “in short, conditions that threaten the status of the powerful orencourage the efforts of those wishing to increase their power bases will stimulate the intensity oforganizational politics and increase the proportion of decision-making behaviors that can be classified aspolitical as opposed to rational.”Mintzberg (1983) points out that when these games are carried too far, they turn the wholeorganization into a political cauldron and divert it from its main task. Mintzberg notes thechoices that Hirschman presents to participants in a social system as:Stay and contribute – this is seen as loyaltyLeave – meaning to ‘take my marbles and go’Stay and try to change the system 54
  55. 55. As we explore organizational politics it is important to remember that one’s participation in it isoften a reflection of one’s source. Do you see God as your source of promotion or man? Do youtrust him to change situations or are you relying on your own flesh? Manipulative tactics oftentake place when we try to change people or situations apart from the Holy Spirit. Many of ushave been manipulative since childhood and are unaware of it. Having said this, Jesus instructsus to be as wise as serpents and as innocent as doves. There is positive politics, which is whereone uses one’s understanding of the political environment for noble purposes.VI. What are some commonly used political strategies.Once it has been understood that organizations are in reality large political systems, one can seewhy there are many strategies for gaining power within these systems. Some of these strategiesare healthy whilst others are based on manipulation and lack integrity. Nevertheless, it isimportant to be aware of them, partly so that you are not always a victim of them.Luthan, Yulk and Falbe, and Mintzberg have all increased our understanding of commonly used politicalgames and tactics. I have listed a number of these below. As you go through them reflect on which onesyou have seen being used, which ones you have been a victim of and which ones you have sometimesused.A. Some of Luthan’s political strategies for gaining power in organizations. 1. Maintaining maneuverability 2. Promoting limited communication 3. Exhibiting confidence 4. Controlling access to information and persons 5. Making activities central and non-substitutable 6. Creating a sponsor –protégé relationship 7. Stimulating competition among ambitious subordinates 8. Neutralizing potential opposition 9. Making strategic replacements 10. Building personal stature 11. Employing trade-offs 12. Using research data to support one’s own point of view 13. Restricting communication about real intentions 14. Withdrawing from petty disputesB. Yulk and Falbe’s 8 Political Tactics.Yulk and Falbe (1990) recently carried out research on political tactics and derived eight that arecommon in organizations today. These can also be termed influence tactics. 55
  56. 56. 1. Pressure tactics – the use of demands, threats, or intimidation to convince you to comply with a request or to support a proposal. 2. Upward appeals – persuading you that higher management, or appeals to higher management for assistance in gaining your compliance with the request approve the request. 3. Exchange tactics – making explicit or implicit promises that you will receive rewards or tangible benefits if you comply with a request of support a proposal, or remind you of a prior favor to be reciprocated. 4. Coalition tactics – seeking the aid of others to persuade you to do something or using the support of others as an argument for you to also agree 5. Ingratiating tactics – seeking to get you in a good mood or to think favorably of the influence agent before asking you to do something 6. Rational persuasion – using logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives 7. Inspirational appeals – making an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideas, or by increasing your confidence that you can do it. 8. Consultation tactics – seeking your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed policy, strategy, or change.C. Mintzberg’s Political Games.Mintzberg (1983), in his comprehensive review of power and politics in organizations, has identifiedthirteen political games that by his definition involve illegitimate use of power, but many of which uselegitimate authority as part of the play. I have outlined just a few of them below:• Games to resist authority The insurgency games – to sabotage the intentions of superiors• Games to counter resistance The counter-insurgency games – more rules, regulations and punishments• Games to build power-bases The sponsorship game – hitching oneself to a useful superior, a star The alliance game – finding useful colleagues The empire game – building coalitions of subordinates The budgeting game – getting control of resources The expertise game – flaunting feigning expertise The lording game – flaunting one’s authority 56
  57. 57. Discussion questionIn a group, explore and give examples of how the political strategies mentioned above mayeach manifest in the home, in organizations and in society at large.Highlight why people use them and the consequences thereof. 57
  58. 58. Lesson 8 Building an Entrepreneurial CultureIntroductionEntrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. (Wikipedia)The word comes from the French entreprendre which means to undertake. The French word entrepreneur is “one who undertakes or manages”. (Etymology dictionary)As believers we need to know that God is the one who anoints us for business. We need to known that the anointing is not limited to so-called “spiritual” things but that God is our source of true creativity. The following verses highlight this principle.Exodus 35:30-35And Moses said to the sons of Israel, See, Jehovah has called the son of Uri the son of Hur, bythe name Bezaleel, of the tribe of Judah. And He has filled him with the spirit of God in wisdom,in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all kinds of work, and to devise designs, to work ingold, and in silver, and in bronze, and in the cutting of stones to set, and in carving of wood, tomake any kind of skillful work. And He has put in his heart that he may teach, he and Aholiabthe son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. He has filled them with wisdom of heart to work allkinds of work; of the smith, and of the skillful worker, and of the embroiderer, in blue, and inpurple, in scarlet, and in bleached linen, and of the weaver, of those who do any work, and ofthose who work out artful work.Dan. 1:4, 17, 20Sons in whom was no blemish, but who were handsome and skillful in all wisdom; and who hadknowledge and understanding, even those who were able to stand in the kings palace, and towhom they might teach the writing and the language of the Chaldeans…..As for these four boys,God gave them knowledge and skill in all writing and wisdom. And Daniel had understanding inall visions and dreams……And in any matters of wisdom and understanding that the king askedthem, he found them ten times better than all the horoscopists and conjurers who were in all hiskingdom.I. What is the aptitude of an effective entrepreneur?To be an effective entrepreneur one needs to have the following aptitude:A. Calculated risk-takingB. Innovation and CreativityC. Achievement orientation 58