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    Romantics Romantics Document Transcript

    • THE ROMANTIC PERIOD POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES Romantic Period began with the 1789 French Revolution and ended with the 1832 Parliamentary reforms. In this time, England changed from an agricultural to an industrial nation. In the September Massacre, French aristocrats were punished by the new invention, the guillotine. Napoleon Bonaparte takes charge of France in 1804, and after a 22 year war with England he was defeated by the English navy. The Industrial Revolution marked the emergence of factories and machines, and the increase in the production of goods. In laissez-faire economics, the government’s “hands off ” approach led to the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer. THE TERM “ROMANTIC” Romantic signifies looking backward and forward, and also beginnings and endings. The Romantics wanted to recompense for the destruction of youth optimism caused by England’s resistance to change. MEANINGS OF “ROMANTIC” 1. A fascination with youth and innocence, in which one grows up and learns to trust emotions and sense of will and identity 2. A stage in the development of societies, in which people need to question tradition and authority in order to imagine better 3. A need for people’s stronger awareness of change and trying find ways to adapt to that change INTERRELATIONSHIP OF NATURE, THE MIND, AND THE IMAGINATION 3 DIFFERENT VIEWS OF NATURE The Ecological view - nature is the agent of death The Enlightenment view - nature is beautiful The Romantic view - nature and the human mind act upon each other ROMANTICISM Romanticism: a time of change, capturing youth and innocence, and questioning society The Romantics: also known as the nature poets, they were inspired by nature, thrived on the idea of the imagination, and prized idealism: a quest for change; comparable to the American Transcendentalists. Lyrical Ballads by Samuel Coleridge and William Wordsworth started the whole Romantic Period. It inspired change and was written in a different style than commonly seen.
    • William Wordsworth was the first born and last to die of the Romantics. He defined many elements of romanticism. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH DAFFODILS “Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings; it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility.” - William Wordsworth In the poem, a man is walking and seems overwhelmed by many daffodils dancing in the breeze in the field. He doesn’t realize the daffodils’ true beauty until later, sitting around with a vacant mind. In relation to Wordsworth’s quote, he was in a state of tranquility when suddenly the daffodils came back to him, inspiring powerful feelings about the field. Then he writes them down. ODE: INTIMATIONS OF IMMORTALITY FROM RECOLLECTIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Meaning of the title: our memories from childhood give us signs of immortality later in life. In this poem, the term “intimations” refers to signs, hints, or clues. Wordsworth capitalizes words like Child, Children, and other products of nature in order to signify their importance. STANZAS 1-4: DEVELOPING THE PROBLEM The man in Wordsworth’s poem is contrasting his relationship with nature as a child to his relationship as a man and realizes that nature hasn’t changed, it’s him. He has lost the innocence of childhood in nature: the wonder, awe, and curiosity. Stanza 4 in particular points out many beautiful things in nature but he can’t see the amazement. He has lost something from his childhood. STANZAS 5-8: RESISTING Stanza 5: Our soul existed in Heaven before our bodies. He concludes that the soul is eternal both before and after birth, and as we grow up we lose the soul eternal before us. Stanza 6: The “Nurse” is Earth. Earth does what it can to make us forget where we came from and the life before. Stanza 7: Children grow up fast by pretending to be adults, which helps the adults lose connection to nature. Stanza 8: Childhood, or Children, are referred to as the “Philosopher,” the “Prophet,” and the “Seer blest.” STANZAS 9-11: ACCEPTING AND GROWING In these stanzas, he comes to accept what has happened to him. Stanza 10: Compensation for the things he has lost - knowing that he had the connection once and it’s still there, and adults have a higher capacity when seeing someone suffer (compassion towards others), the hope of everlasting life,
    • and knowing that wisdom comes with age. Stanza 11: Celebratory of his discoveries TINTERN ABBEY SAMUEL COLERIDGE CHRISTABEL KEY IDEAS The virtuous of the world saves the wicked Good vs. Evil Important absences of people The color white Use of snakes and other reptiles The bedroom scene PART ONE It’s midnight. Christabel walks into the woods to pray because her knight lover is away. She comes upon a woman in white, and skin whiter than her clothing behind an oak tree. Geraldine says she was kidnapped by men on white horses, and Christabel invites her inside the castle for protection. Clues Geraldine is Evil 1. Christabel’s dog growls at them as they pass 2. Geraldine was weaker outside the castle because she could not enter uninvited; once in the premises, she feels better 3. Geraldine sinks to the floor once Christabel lights a lamp 4. Geraldine’s eyes light up (scarily), and they pass a fireplace which only briefly emits a flame 5. Geraldine refuses to pray with Christabel once inside the castle PART ONE, CONTINUED Christabel offers wine that her (dead) mother made. The spirit of the mother is still around. Geraldine talks to something not physically present - we assume she is telling Christabel’s mother to leave. Geraldine tells Christabel to undress and get in bed. As Christabel can’t sleep, she turns and sees something horrific on Geraldine. Geraldine gets into bed with Christabel and imposes a spell on her that does not allow her to tell anyone about Geraldine’s body deformity (or whatever it is). PART TWO Christabel first notices that something is wrong when she sees that Geraldine looks better than she did the night before. Christabel verbally says that she has sinned, because she let evil in the house. Sir Leoline, Christabel’s father, recollects knowing Geraldine’s supposed father, Lord Roland. They haven’t talked in several years because of a rumor. Leoline thinks that Geraldine would be a good tool to rekindle their friendship. Leoline sends for Bracy the Bard to go to Roland and tell him about Geraldine.
    • Bracy recounts a dream he had that night about an evil in the forest that he wanted to sing away. A dove named Christabel was moaning under the oak tree in the forest as a snake strangles her. Bracy woke up at midnight. Leoline takes the dream to mean the dove is Geraldine and the snake represents the kidnappers. It is enough to convince Leoline to provide protection for Geraldine. Geraldine crosses her arms around her chest and Christabel sees snake eyes. Christabel desperately asks her father to get rid of Geraldine, in her mother’s name. Leoline is ashamed of Christabel’s behavior and thinks she is jealous. He then walked away from Christabel, who is on the floor, and went away with Geraldine. PART TWO CONCLUSION Coleridge talks about a little child, the father’s love for the child, and cruelties of love and the relationship. RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER Coleridge’s framing device for this poem is the Wedding Guest, apparent in the beginning, end, and sometimes in the middle. The mariner’s “glittering eye” keeps the Guest interested. PART ONE The mariner and the crew are sailing towards the South Pole. They come across an Albatross, which is important because it is capitalized. When the Albatross stays around, the ice melts and the wind blows them away from their misery. The Albatross is then seen as a good omen, but the mariner shoots it down for no reason. PART TWO The crew is mad at first, but then the breeze was favorable and the fog they were in was lifted. But by praising the mariner’s deed, the crew also became accountable to the consequences. Eventually they were out at sea with no more breeze, a pounding sun, and nothing to drink. The crew cursed the mariner and forces him to wear the Albatross around his neck. PART THREE The mariner sees a ship with only ribs and two figures, who we find out are Death and Life-in-Death. Death and Life-in-Death are gambling; Death wins the crew and Life-in-Death wins the mariner. Life-in-Death represents a punishment worse than Death itself. PART FOUR The mariner realizes that even in death, the crew is beautiful while the creatures on the sea are “slimy.” The mariner tries to pray, but his heart cannot get the prayer out. At night, looking out at the sea, he sees the creatures dancing in the light and now considers them beautiful. When he realizes this the Albatross falls off his neck and he’s able to pray again. PART SEVEN The mariner knows who to tell about his story because he can pick out people who need to hear it. The lesson is that the best prayer is the appreciation of nature.
    • PERCY SHELLEY HYMN TO INTELLECTUAL BEAUTY ODE TO THE WEST WIND TO A SKYLARK JOHN KEATS WHEN I HAVE FEARS THAT I MAY CEASE TO BE The basic fear in this poem is the fear of dying. Keats knows that he will end up dying from tuberculosis and this poem is very relatable to his life. It is written in Shakespearean sonnet form. 1st quatrain: he will not have time to write what he wants to write 2nd quatrain: he’s worried he won’t be able to find his own great love 3rd quatrain: he’s talking to his lover, worried that he won’t be able to see her anymore Couplet: he knows he will be alone, and comes to an understanding that love and fame are not the most important things in life ODE ON A GRECIAN URN Keats makes the point that the urn is poetry in itself. He is talking to the urn (an apostrophe). The urn depicts a pastoral scene, with men/gods chasing the women, who are loathing towards the men. A man on the urn is playing music. Keats notes that unheard sounds are sweeter because it’s whatever he imagines it to be. Though the men will never get the girls, the girls will always be young and the men/gods will always have love since the carving/painting will forever remain on the urn. THE EVE OF ST. AGNES