Intro To English Nouns

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  • 1. The how, the why, the wherefore Nouns
  • 2. Nouns
    • The name of anything
    • Can usually be found by putting the article in front of it.
    • Dog
    • “ The” dog? Yes.
    • Flee
    • “ a” flee? No.
  • 3. Common vs. Proper
    • There are two classes of Nouns Common and Proper
    • A Common Noun is a name which may be applied to any one of a kind or class of objects as boy, child, book, radiation.
    • A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person place people or thing as Charles, Cincinnati, The French, The Sun.
    • Man  Barack Obama
    • City  Los Angeles
    • Dog  American Staffordshire Terrier
  • 4. Abstract, Concrete,
    • An Abstract Noun is noun that cannot be sensed in any way; e.g. love, hate, sin, joy, etc.
    • A Concrete Noun is a noun that can be sensed; e.g. dog, stick, tree, etc.
  • 5. Gender
    • There are four genders:
    • The Masculine Gender denotes males; as, father, uncle, king, governor, etc.
    • The Feminine Gender denotes females; as, mother, aunt, queen, governess, etc.
    • The Common Gender denotes either males or females or both; as, parent, children, bird, cattle, etc.
    • The Neuter Gender denotes neither males nor females; as, stove, city, pen, ink, tree, house, etc.
  • 6. Person
    • The First Person denotes the speaker .
    • I , John, was in the isle that is called Patmos
    • Many evils beset us mortals.
    • The Second Person denotes the person addressed .
    • James , you be more careful
    • Your dog is a good fellow.
    • The Third Person denotes the person or object spoken of .
    • Milton was a poet
    • Rome was an ocean of flame
    • I am reading Tennyson's Poems
  • 7. Number
    • There are two numbers, singular and plural.
    • The Singular Number denotes but one; as, apple, flower, boy, girl, etc.
    • The Plural Number denotes more than one; as, apples, flowers, boys, girls, etc.
    • Collective nouns are plural but spelled singularly; as, flock, jury, herd, etc.
  • 8. Noun Functions
    • Nouns can play three basic functions in a sentence:
    • Subject,
    • Object,
    • Predicate nominative.
    Some refer to these as “Subject Complements”.
  • 9. Nouns as subjects Joe built the house Joe built the house, after he had finished his swim. “ What a great idea!” yelled Joe.
  • 10. Nouns as Objects Joe built the house. We were hiding under the road. Joe built what? Try asking “what?” “ house” is the object of the verb “built”. Under what? “ road” is the object of the preposition “under”. Any verb that has an object is called Transitive .
  • 11. Nouns as Predicate Nominatives We are good people. “ are ” is a linking verb. Linking verbs do not take objects. They are ALWAYS intransitive. “ We are” what? Hence, “people” is the predicate nominative of the verb “are”.
  • 12. Case
    • Nouns have three cases:
    • Nominative,
    • Possessive,
    • Objective.
    News Flash: You cannot determine the case of a noun from its spelling!
  • 13. Nominative Case RULE: A noun is in the nominative case when its function is either subject or predicate nominative (sometimes called “subject complements”). Joe built the house. “ Joe” is the subject of the verb “built”. It is nominative case. “ house” is the object of the verb built. It is not nominative case.
  • 14. Nominative Case Cont. Joe is a good feller. Linking verb “ Feller” cannot be an object because linking verbs never take objects. Feller is a predicate nominative and is therefore in the nominative case. NEWSFLASH: Many people will identify “feller” as the object of the verb “is” forgetting that “is” is a linking verb and is never transitive. Some people call predicate nominatives “subject complements”
  • 15. Objective Case RULE: A noun is in the objective case when its function is any kind of an object. Joe played the drums. “ drums” is the object of the verb “played”. Since it is the object of the main verb, it is usually called a “direct object”. It is in the objective case. This makes the verb “played” transitive .
  • 16.
    • Pedaling the bike, Joe stumbled and fell off the bridge.
    • “ Bike” is the object of the participle “Pedaling” and is therefore in the objective case.
    • “ bridge” is the object of the preposition “off” and is therefore in the objective case.
    • “ Joe” is the subject of the verb “stumbled” and “fell” and is therefore in the _________ ? ________ case.
  • 17.
    • Running relay races is Jeb’s favorite pastime.
    • Nouns
    • “ races” is the object of the gerund “running”. It is objective case.
    • “ pastime” is the predicate nominative of the verb “is”. It is nominative case.
  • 18. Finishing the race, Jeb raised his hands in victory.
    • “ race” is the object of the participle “finishing” and is therefore in the objective case.
    • “ Jeb” is the subject of the verb “raised” and is therefore in the nominative case.
    • “ hands” is the object of the verb “raised” and is therefore in the objective case.
    • “ victory” is the object of the preposition “in” and is therefore in the objective case.
  • 19. To provoke a beast is an act of great vice.
    • When the preposition “to” is followed by a verb, it is called an infinitive . “To provoke” is an infinitive.
    • If you ask yourself, “to provoke what?” the answer is “beast”.
    • Hence, beast is the object of the infinitive “to provoke” and is, therefore, in the objective case.
  • 20. Objective Case Summary
    • Verbs can take objects
      • When they do, they are transitive .
      • We call these objects “direct objects”.
    • Prepositions can take objects. We call these Object of the Preposition.
    • Gerunds take objects.
    • Participles take objects.
    • Infinitives take objects.
    • When a noun is any kind of an object, it is in the objective case.
  • 21. Possessive Case
    • This is the easiest case since every possessive case noun will have an apostrophe.
    • Nouns in the possessive case function as adjectives.
    • Jeb’s bull.
    • The professors’ book.  plural
    • The professor’s book.  singular
    • When the word already ends in “s” then the apostrophe is placed after the “s”.
  • 22. Nouns in Apposition
    • A noun is in apposition to another noun when it renames the preceding noun.
    • Our Greek professor, Jeb, is a very compulsive fellow.
    • The noun “Jeb” here is in apposition to “Our Greek professor”.
    • Jeb, our Greek professor, is a very compulsive fellow.
    • Here the phrase “our Greek professor” is in apposition to the noun “Jeb”.
    If you can place an equal sign between the two words/phrases, then you have apposition.