Andrew Carnegie- He came into this country at the age of twelve. He worked his way up to become a private secretary to the local super intendant of the Pennsylvania railroad. By 1865 Carnegie was so busy managing the money he had earned in dividends that he happily left his job at the Pennsylvania railroad. He entered the steel business in 1873 and by 1899 the Carnegie1800’s steel company manufactured more steel 1850 than all the factories in Great Britain.Settlement house- 1848Community centers in slum Bessemer Process- Developed independently byneighborhoods that provided British manufacturer Henry Bessemer and American ironassistances to people in the area. maker William Kelly. Technique involved injecting air into molten iron to remove the carbon and other impurities.
Social Darwinism- Charles Darwin publishes book in this year. The social Darwinism came out of his theory of biological evaluation. Darwin describes his observations that some individuals of a species flourish and past there traits along to the next generations while others do not.1857 1860Frederick Law Olmested- 1859 Gilded ages- period of timeLandscape architect that spearheaded the following the civil war, time ofmovement for planned urban parks . Help enormous growth that attracteddraw up the plan for greensward which was millions from Europe railroads.selected to be central park in New York City.
Homestead Act- pass by congress offering a 160 acres of land free to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of the household. 18641862 Sand Creek Massacre- Most of the cheyenneExoduser- African Americans 1862 had peacefully returned to Colorados Sand Creek Reservewho moved from the post- for winter. General S.R. Curtis, US Army commander, sent areconstruction south to Kansas. telegram to Milita colonel John Chivington that read, “I want no peace until the Indians suffer more. Chivington and his troops descended on the Cheyenne and Araplaho camped at Sand Creek. The attack at dawn on November 29 killed over 150 inhabitants mostly woman and children.
Credit Mobilier- Construction Grandfather Clause-company formed by stock holders. The stated that even if a man failedstock holders gave this company a a literacy or could not afford thecontract to lay track at two to three poll tax, he was still entitled totimes actually cost and pocketed the vote if he, his father, or hisprofit. grandfather, had been eligible to vote before January 1, 1867. 1867 1866 1864 Buffalo Soldier- originally were Oliver Kelly- started members of the US 10th cavalry 1867 the patrons of husbandry regiment of the US Army. Formed on an organization for September 21 at Fort Leavenworth, farmers that became Kansas. The nickname was giving to the popularly known as The negro Calvary by the Native American Grange. tribes they fought.
George Pullman- Invented the Pullman sleeping car. 1867 1869 Tammany Hall- New York CitiesGrange- The organization started powerful Democratic machine. In 1868 bossby Oliver Kelly. The original purpose 1868 tweed became the head. Between 1869 andto provide a social outlet in an 1871 Boss Tweed lead the Tweed riong.educational forum for isolated farmfamilies.
Transcontinental Railroad- A railroad line linking the Atlantic and Pacific1869 coasts of the United States ; completed in this year. 1870Tweed Riong- Led by 1869Boss Tweed. This was agroup of corrupt politicians. John D. Rockefeller- Established the standard oil company. He joined with competing companies in trust agreements. Participants in the trust turned their stock over to a group of trustees. In return, the companies were entitled to dividends on profiles earned by the trust. Trusts were not legal merges however. Rockefeller used a trust to gain complete control of the oil industry in America. In this year, 1870, Rockefellers standard oil company of Ohio processed two or three percent of the countrys crude oil.
George Thomas Alva Armstrong Edison-He became a Custer- He reported pioneer on the new industrial that the black hills had frontier when he established gold. “from the grass the worlds first research roots down” and the gold laboratory in Menlo Park, New1870 rush was on. Jersey. There Edison perfected 1876 the incandescent light bulb. 1876 AlexanderJacob Riis- At the age of 21, he left his native land of 1874Denmark for the United States. Riis found work as a police Graham Bell-reporter , a job that took him into some of New Yorks Unveiled the telephone. Itworst slums, where he was shocked by the horrible opened the way for aconditions. He used his talents to expose the hardships of world wideNew Yorks poor. communications network.
Battle of Big Horn- Also known asCusters last stand. Lakota, NorthernCheyenne and Arapaho tribes against theseventh Calvary regiments of the US Army. Nez Perce- Forced offIt occurred June 25 and 26. the tribal lands in Wallowa County, Oregon. 18761876 1877 Telephone- The most dramatic invention unveiled by Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson. It opened the way for a world wide communication network.
Dumbbell Tenements- Alsocalled old law tenements; they were calledthe Dumbbell Tenements after the shapeof the building footprint; the air gave eachtenement the narrow waited shape of a Ragtime- A blend ofdumbbell. These are tenements built in African American spiritualsNew York City after the Tenement Act and 1870’s – and European musical formsbefore the New York State Tenement. that originated in saloons in 1880’s the south. Jim Crow Laws- 1880’s 1879 The segregation laws to separate black and whites in public and private places.
Assimilation- Supported by the sympathizers ; a plan under which Native AmericansIda B. Wells-Moved to would give up their beliefsMemphis to work as a teacher. She and way of life and becomelater became an editor of a local part of the white culture. Inpaper. Racial Justice was a persistent this year the Century oftheme in Wells reporting. 1880 Dishonor was published. 1880’s Graft- The illegal use of political 1881 influence for personal gain.
Booker T. Washington- Aprominent African American leader who Mugwumps- Republican partybelieved that racism would end once activists who bolted from the unitedblacks acquired useful labor skills and states republican party by supportingproved their value in society. He headed democratic candidate Gloverthe Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Cleveland in the US presidentialinstitute. 1883 election of 1884. 1884 1881 Joseph Pulitzer- Hungarian immigrant who had bought the New York Wond in this year. Pioneered popular innovations. Such as a large Sunday edition, comics, sports coverage, and women’s news.
Interstate Commerce Commition- Congress passed theHaymarket Affair- Labor leaders interstate commerce act in 1887. This actcontinued their to press for change. In May of established the right of the federalthis year 300 people gathered at Chicagos government to supervise railroad activityHaymarket Square to protest police brutality and established this five member– a striker had been wounded at the interstate commerce commition for thatMcCormick Harvester plant the day before. 1886 purpose.Then someone tossed a bomb into the chaosthat followed.1886 Samual Gompers- lead the 1887 cigar makers international union to join with other craft unions. The American federation of labor with gonpers as its president, focused on collective bargaining to reach written agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions.
George Eastman- Developed a series of more convenient alternative to heavy glass plates previously used. Now, instead of carrying there dark rooms around with them, photographers could use flexible film, coded with gelatin meulsions, and could send there film to a studio for processing. Eastman introduced the Kodak camera in this year. 1889 1887 1888 Jane Adams- one of theDawes Act- Passed by congress in most influential members of the1887 aiming to “Americanize” the native movement for Settlement houses.Americans. The act broke up the Her and Ellen Gates Starr foundedreservations and gave some of the Chicagos wull house in this year.reservation land to individual nativeAmericans. The government would sellthere remainder of the reservations tosettlers, and the resulting income wouldused by native Americans to buy farmimplements.
Wounded Knee- On December 28, 1890 the seventh Calvary rounded up 350 starving and freezing Sioux and took the to a camp at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. The next day a shot Kickback- was fired from which side it was not Illegal payments clear the soldiers open fire with a giving to political deadly canon within minutes the machines. seventh Calvary slaughtered as many as 300 people mostly1890 unarmed Native Americans. 1890Ghost Dance- A 1890 Sherman Anti Trust Act- Made it 1890profit promise that if the illegal to form a trust that interfered withSioux performed this ritual free trade between states or with otherthat the native Americans countries. Prosecuting companies over theland and way of life would Sherman Act was not easy. However, becausebe restored. the act didn’t clearly define items such as a trust the government stopped trying to enforce the Sherman Act.
Eugene vs. Debs-Most of the new union members Ellis Island- were unskilled and From 1892 to 1924 semi skilled labors. But this was the cheap skilled engineers and immigration station in 1894 firemen joined to. In1892 the United States. this year the new union won a strike for higher wages. Pullman Strike-The nation wide conflict 1892 between the newPopulist- Those who form the American rail ways union 1894Populist in 1892. On July 2, 1892 a accord in Pullman, Illinoispopulist party convention in and over 4000 workerOmaha, Nebraska demanded strict.reforms to lift the burden of debtfrom farmers and other workersand give the people a greater voicein the government.
W.E. B DuBois– TheFirst African American to “Gross of Goldreceive a doctorate from Speech”- “Having behind usHarvard. Founded the Niagara he producing masses of thismovement and said that nation and the world, supportedblacks should seek the liberal by the commercial interest, thearts education so that the William McKinley- laboring interest, and the tollersAfrican American community Republican parties candidate everywhere, we will answerwould have well educated for the 1896 campaign won there demand for gold standardleaders. the reelection with 7 million by saying to them we shall not 1896 votes. crucify upon a cross of gold.” 1896 1895 Plessey vs. 1896 William Jennings 1896 Ferguson- The Bryan- The editor of the supreme court ruled that Omaha wond,herald, delivered the the separation of races in “Cross of Gold” speech on July 8, public accommodations 1896. was legal and did not violate the 14 amendment.
Mail order Debt Peonage – A system that bond laborers catalogue- into slavery in order to Catalogues were novelties work off a debt to a when Sears Montgomery employer. Not until 1911 ward arrived on the scene did the Supreme court by the mid 1900’s more 13 declare involuntary billion filled the mail boxes Peonage a violation of the of Americans and they 13 amendment. 19171899 shopped from home. 1910Zaudeville- A 1899 1900 1911writing in the Scribners Angel Island- 50, 000 Literacy Test- Amagazine, actor Edwin Milton Chinese immigrants entered theRoyle heailed this theatre as “ test giving to voters that United States through Angel IslandAn American Invention that determines if thereoffered something that nearly in Francisco Bay. allowed to vote or not.attracted everyone.”