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Pres nlc 2013 lit
 

Pres nlc 2013 lit

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    Pres nlc 2013 lit Pres nlc 2013 lit Presentation Transcript

    • E-assessment: a review 2008-2012 jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment • “a method of using information technology for any assessment-related activities” (Brink & Lautenbach, 2011, p. 503) • “e-assessment, which includes the entire assessment process, from designing assignments to storing the results with the help of ICT” (Stödberg, 2011, p. 1) jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • Questions 1) How does assessment enhanced by technology relate to theories of learning? 2) What are the major interests driving research into technology enhanced assessment? jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • Questions digitally mediated assessment, e-assessment, technology facilitated assessment, technology enhanced assessment, online assessment, assessment, assignment, blended learning, computer-assisted instruction, computer adapted assessment, computer-mediated communication, computer-aided assessment, computer-assisted assessment, computer-based assessment, educational technology, evaluation, examination, higher education, Internet, net-based assessment, online, online assessment, Web-based assessment, e-test, test, feedback, computer-based peer feedback, e-portfolio, web-portfolio, and online portfolio jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment 1. Computers & Education, Impact factor 2.62, Rank: unknown 2. British Journal of Educational Technology, Impact factor 1.539, Rank: 24/203 3. Instructional Science, Impact factor 1.828 Rank: unknown 4. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Impact factor 2.243, Rank 2/203 5. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Impact factor 1.464, Rank: 27/203 6. Research in Learning Technologies none, Impact factor and rank: Open Access (in 2011) and no longer listed by ISI 7. Review of Educational Research Impact factor: 3.169, Rank: 3/203 jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment Journal 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total Computers & Education 11 11 17 17 16 72 British Journal of Educational Technology 0 15 7 15 8 45 Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 4 1 4 2 3 14 Instructional Science 3 1 1 5 2 12 International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 0 1 1 2 1 5 Research in Learning Technologies 0 0 0 3 3 6 Review of Educational Research 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 18 29 30 44 33 154 0 5 10 15 20 2008 2009 2010 2011 Untitled 1 by year and journal Numberofstudies Computers & Education BJET Instructional Science Int. J. C-S CL Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Research in Learing Technologies Review of Educational Research jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment 0 12,5 25,0 37,5 50,0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of research articles on e-assessment Research articles jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment Online E-Assessment BlendedEnhanced E-assessment modes Total Blended 82 Online 38 Enhanced 15 Not stated 18 jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment types 0 15 30 45 60 2 2 1 2 3 3 7 11 8 14 35 51 Types of e-assessment Automated short answer assessment Peer assessment Web/net/e-Portfolios Automated writing assessment Computer mediated assessment Self assessment Automated graph assessment Examiner tools Behavioural assessment Teacher tools Wikis: collaborative online encylopaedia or resource centre Game-based assessment Forums: counting forum posts, assessing quality Mixed: a combination of various types from the above categories E-assessment types Total Automated short answer assessment: multiple choice, fill in the blank, drag and drop, short text 51 Peer assessment: leaner to learner assessment 35 Web/net/e-Portfolios: learner produced content assessed online through websites or blogs 14 Automated writing assessment: learner texts compared with predetermined models and automatically marked 8 Computer mediated assessment: human marking but assessments are accessed or modified online 11 Self assessment: preset feedback based on interactions with a variety of assessment types 7 Automated graph assessment: learner made graphs compared with predetermined models and automatically marked 3 Examiner tools: computer mediated human marking of learner’s work 3 Behavioural assessment: learner performance in an LMS partially assessed on dwell time, connection frequency, interaction frequency etc. 2 Teacher tools: software to improve teachers’ assessment literacy and reduce marking time 1 Wikis: collaborative online encylopaedia or resource centre 2 Game-based assessment: learner performance in a game environment when solving problems 2 Forums: counting forum posts, assessing quality 1 Mixed: a combination of various types from the above categories 11 (Butcher & Jordan, 2010) (Su & Wang, 2010; Terzis & Economides, 2011) (Wang, Chang, & Li, 2008) (Lai, 2010) jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment purpose ‘The bulk of current practice remains firmly rooted in traditional approaches and concentrates on assessment of, rather than for, learning’ (Ferrell, 2012 p. 8) jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment purpose Studiespublished 0 20 40 60 80 26 1 3 5 19 25 74 Formative assessment Summative assessment Formative and summative Diagnostic Dynamic Catalytic Not stated Assessment purpose Total Formative assessment 74 Summative assessment 25 Formative and summative 19 Diagnostic 5 Dynamic 3 Catalytic 1 Not stated 26 jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment Study origin Total Study origin Total Taiwan 40 South Africa 2 UK 32 Turkey 2 USA 14 Germany 2 Spain 8 New Zealand 2 Australia 8 France 1 Greece 6 Iran 1 Multi-sited 6 Italy 1 China 6 Lithuania 1 Canada 4 South Korea 1 Netherlands 3 Sweden 1 Belgium 2 Thailand 1 Hong Kong 2 Chile 1 Singapore 2 Netherlands 2% Canada 3% China 4% Multi-sited 4% Greece 4% Australia 5% Spain 5% USA 9% UK 21% Taiwan 27% jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment Theory Total Not stated or found: no reference to any theory could be found 92 Social constructivism: knowledge and meaning are collaboratively constructed 18 Cognitive constructivism: individual construction of knowledge and meaning 10 Mathematical theory: e.g., Item Response Theory 9 Cognitive load theory: relationship between long-term and working memory 4 Legitimate Peripheral Participation: initiation of new learners by experts into a community 3 No theory: an explicit rejection of theory 2 Grounded theory: theories are developed from the research 1 Action research: problems relevant to the participants are solved or better understood 1 Other: e.g., communicative rationality theory, self-efficacy theory 13 0 25 50 75 100 Studies published 92 18 13 109 43211 Theory and e-assessment Grounded theory Action research No theory Legitmate Peripheral Particiaption Cognitive load theory Mathematical Cognitive constructivist Other Social constructivism Not stated 0 25 50 75 100 Not stated, no theory Theory jeudi 12 septembre 13
    • E-assessment ...the narrow focus on impacts on student learning and form of questioning reveals that teaching as inquiry is epistemologically linked to positivism, endeavouring to separate facts from values, and disengaging the researcher from the researched, thus positing a value-free, neutral approach to social issues, education and politics. This approach is at best a recreation of the technical rationality identified by van Manen. The functionalism of teaching as inquiry places a singular focus on results gained from norm-referenced assessment as measures of whether teaching is effective or learning has occurred. Such an approach encourages the contemporary reductionist assumption that the problem of student underachievement can be ‘fixed’ by teachers closely adhering to lists of criteria of ‘effective pedagogy’ (Benade, 2012, p. 1). jeudi 12 septembre 13