Experimental and Correlational Research“While there is support for the achievement benefits ofhomework at the senior high school level, and to aconsiderably lesser extent a the middle school level, thereis almost no support for benefits at the primary schoollevel.”M Horsely and R Walker (2013), Reforming Homework: practices learning and policy,Palgrave Macmillan p24
There is clear evidence that:• self-regulated learning skills can be taught• Approriate and explicit classroom teaching can developself-regulated learning skills in primary school children• Limited support for view that homework develops self-regulatory skills and sense or responsibility – Warton(1997)
Conclusions from review of studies intoself-regulation and homework• Quality of homework is associated with quantity ofhomework completed• Older students more capable of self-regulation but mayengage less with homework ahs motivation decreases.• Older students may consider costs of doing homeworkoutweigh the benefits.
Today we will look at:• How parents help or hinder the success of a homeworkprogram• Evidence for effective models of homework• Implications for our homework programs – developingquality homework tasks.
Parents, Homework and Achievement• While research findings suggest that parental involvementat school has beneficial effects on student achievement,Pomerantz et al. (2007) report that the results for parentalinvolvement at home are less consistent.
Parents, Homework and Achievement• It is not the extent of parental involvement that isimportant for achievement outcomes but how parents areinvolved.
Parental involvement is more beneficialwhen…• Parents’ interactions with their children promote autonomyrather than when parents’ actions are controlling.• Parents focus on understanding not achievementoutcomes• Parents focus on learning process not ability orintelligence.• Parents convey positive emotions in relation to academicactivities• Parents have positive beliefs about their children’spotential
Authoritative parents• Warm emotional relationships• Firm authroity and control• Allow children a considerable degree of autonomy
Authoritarian parents• Emotionally distant• Exercise a high degree of control• Children allowed little or no autonomy
Laissez-faire parents• Warm relationships• Little or no authority or control• Few limits on children’s autonomy
Parenting styles and effects on learning• Research into parenting styles supported the view thatauthoritative was beneficial for student learning andmotivation.• High use of controlling behaviours by parents andsurveillance were associated with extrinsic motivationalorientations• Children subjected to controlling behaviours more likely toreact positively to directive patterns and negatively toautonomy-supportive patterns.
Intrinsic Motivation• Students’ perception of their parents’ values concerningachievement had the strongest association withmotivation and competence.• Students showed less initiative, autonomy, motivation,persistence and satisfaction when exposed to controllingbehaviours.• Parental encouragement and praise associated withhigher intrinsic motivation• Parental rewards for homework completion/achievementled to higher levels of extrinsic motivation
Some key homework principles• Homework tasks should be considered from the learner’sperspective• Consolidation, practice and repetition tasks should be inthe learner’s zone of actual development• Challenging tasks in the zone of proximal developmentpromote conceptual growth• Homework tasks should be guided by the provision ofscaffolding in the learner’s zone of proximal development
Some key homework principles• Homework practices should promote self-regulatedlearning skills• Homework practices should use family and communityresources• Homework practices should promote equity
Key issues for Teachers• What should be the balance between drill and practice andcognitive growth tasks in the homework program.• What are the key issues in creating a homework program witha balance between drill and practice and cognitive growthtasks?• How can teachers assign homework tasks that are interesting,involve some degree of student choice and autonomy and takeindividual differences into account?• How can teachers assign homework tasks that are challengingand promote student responsibility and self-regulation?• How can teachers ensure that students are provided with thedifferent types of assistance they need to complete homeworktasks?