Homework was controversial:• In 1897 research demonstrated that memorising lists ofwords did not improve spelling.• Considered to infringe on parental rights and parentalauthority• Disrupted family life and interfered with home duties• Detrimental to good health of students• Prevented engagement in beneficial out of schoolactivities.
3 Key Questions• Is homework beneficial for student achievementoutcomes?• Does homework help to develop the skills of independent,self-directed learning in students?• Is parents’ involvement in their childrens’ homeworkactivities beneficial for achievement, motivation and thedevelopment of independent learning skills?
Homework and Student AchievementRead pages 8-10 of the Homework Policy: Research Scan1. What impact does time spent on homework have onacademic improvement (positive and negative effects)2. What impact does no homework have on studentachievement?3. How does quality of homework impact on achievement?4. How does homework impact on student achievement atdifferent year levels5. What are the implications for our school?
IS HOMEWORKBENEFICIAL?(Student achievement outcomes)
Experimental and Correlational Research“While there is support for the achievement benefits ofhomework at the senior high school level, and to aconsiderably lesser extent a the middle school level, thereis almost no support for benefits at the primary schoollevel.”M Horsely and R Walker (2013), Reforming Homework: practices learning and policy,Palgrave Macmillan p24
Experimental and Correlational Research“…while there is support for homework in the high schoolcontext, this support should be tempered by the relativelylarge number of negative or non-supportive findings andthe weak quality of some of the research.”M Horsely and R Walker (2013), Reforming Homework: practices learning and policy,Palgrave Macmillan p24
DOES HOMEWORK DEVELOPSELF-DIRECTED LEARNINGSKILLS?
Common beliefs about homework:• Leads to independent, self-directed and self-regulatedlearning• Helps students develop greater sense of ownresponsibility for achievement outcomesThere has been little research to support these beliefs
There is clear evidence that:• self-regulated learning skills can be taught• Approriate and explicit classroom teaching can developself-regulated learning skills in primary school children• Limited support for view that homework develops self-regulatory skills and sense or responsibility – Warton(1997)
Warton’s Study:• Australian children in years 2, 4 and 6• Children considered purpose of homework was to learn orrevise.• All children understood they should be responsible forcompleting homework.• Younger children more likely to be regulated by parents.• Some support for a developmental progression inresponsibility for homework and transition from regulationto self-regulation.• Weak support for homework being responsible fordeveloping self-regulating skills.
Conclusions from review of studies intoself-regulation and homework• Quality of homework is associated with quantity ofhomework completed• Older students more capable of self-regulation but mayengage less with homework ahs motivation decreases.• Older students may consider costs of doing homeworkoutweigh the benefits.